Chess Archaeology HomeChess is a scientific game and its literature ought to be placed on the basis of the strictest truthfulness, which is the foundation of all scientific research.W. Steinitz

The New York State Chess Association’s
Mid-Summer Meeting at
Saratoga Springs 1899
by John S. Hilbert

    The New York State Chess Association (NYSCA) had, even before time took its sharp turn into the Twentieth Century, an established history of holding what it referred to as “mid-summer” association meetings.  The term “mid-summer” is set off by quotation marks to emphasize that, by 1899 at least, the meetings were held at the end of August and beginning of September, and hence could hardly, even under the most charitable calendar reading, be considered near the middle of summer.  Such events were frequently, if not invariably, held outside of New York City, and often were held at summer resorts such as the meetings at Thousand Islands 1897 and Lake Keuka 1898.  In 1901, for another example, the association’s mid-summer meeting was held in Buffalo, New York, then the scene of the 1901 Pan-American Exposition.  Seven years earlier, play had also been held in the Queen City, and in later years other upstate locations, including Rochester, would be the summer playgrounds of the NYSCA.
    The events held in the late 1890s, however, are unusual for another reason.  Rather than remaining purely the province of New York players, players from other state associations, notably Pennsylvania, but also Massachusetts, were actively lobbied to attend the NYSCA’s mid-summer sessions.  Indeed, a lively interstate rivalry developed between the players of New York and those of Pennsylvania.
    The genesis of interstate rivalry involving New York and Pennsylvania is explained in large measure by the fact that, at one time, the group was originally the New York and Pennsylvania State Chess Association.  Only later did this group merge in the NYSCA.  And according to Gustavus Reichhelm, then chess editor for the Philadelphia Times and author of Chess in Philadelphia (1898), “the original members,” including all the Pennsylvania players, “retained their right of membership.”  Thus players such as Kemeny, Shipley, Bampton, Voigt and others, though residents of Pennsylvania, were permitted entry into NYSCA events.
    And the Philadelphian’s often participated successfully.  In September 1886, for example, a small, double round tournament sponsored by the combined state association in Cooperstown was won by Shipley.  At Skaneateles in August 1892, Shipley and Voigt tied for top honors, with Voigt entering the handicap event to determine the overall winner of the Association when Shipley had to return to his home in Germantown.  At Buffalo 1894, Shipley again won the Association title, though the meeting is much better remembered for the Masters’ event, where Showalter managed to out point Pillsbury, Albin, and Buffalo’s own representative, George C. Farnsworth.  S. W. Bampton emerged the winner as Skaneateles 1895, and repeated his achievement the next year at Ontario Beach, with Shipley trailing him by a mere half point.
    An innovation occurring in 1897 would have significant consequences for the NYSCA during the remaining years of the century.  Walter Penn Shipley wrote the Board of Managers of the NYSCA that spring, suggesting that instead of a purely individual event, the 1897 meeting, held at the Murray Hill Hotel in Thousand Islands from August 2-7, 1897, be a modified team event.  The seven players selected from each state organization would, in the course of seven rounds, meet all seven of the other team’s players.  Individual prizes would be given for the best scores made, while the aggregate score of each state would serve to determine who won the interstate match.
    Shipley’s idea was taken up and Thousand Islands saw what was undoubtedly the strongest of the interstate meetings, notably because of the presence of United States Champion and internationalist Harry Nelson Pillsbury as well as former champion* Albert B. Hodges in the ranks of the New York players.  While Pillsbury and Hodges between them amassed a notable 12½-1½ score, with Pillsbury giving up only a draw to Shipley and Hodges tasting defeat but once, against Charles John Newman, the New York team managed to win the team event by the much smaller margin of 25½-23½.
A. B. Hodges
    Certainly Shipley deserved his draw against Pillsbury, then one of the finest players in the world.  According to the Philadelphia Public Ledger for August 28, 1897, where the game appeared in Emil Kemeny’s column, it was noted that “Mr. Shipley was the only one on the Pennsylvania team who succeeded in holding his own against Pillsbury.  The game was a splendidly contested one.  Pillsbury, to some extent, gained the upper hand, and for a number of moves it looked as though he would win.  Mr. Shipley, however, defended skillfully, and when forty-six moves were made a draw was offered and accepted.  The game abounded in interesting complications, and the play was a very creditable one to both parties.”  Additional notes from Reichhelm’s Chess in Philadelphia are separately identified in the game below.
Shipley,WP (Pennsylvania) — Pillsbury (New York)
Round 1
C45/05
Scotch: Schmidt
1897.08.03
USA Thousand Islands, NY (Interstate Team Match)
Annotations by Emil Kemeny & Gustavus Reichhelm
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 exd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nxc6 bxc6 6.Bd3 d5 
Kemeny: Better than 6...d6, which gives Black a rather slow development.
7.Qe2 Be7 8.exd5 cxd5 9.Bb5+ 
Reichhelm: Playing conservatively against so powerful an adversary.
9...Bd7 10.Bxd7+ Qxd7 11.0-0 0-0 12.Nd2 Rfe8 13.Nf3 Bd6 14.Qd3 Rab8 15.b3 c5 16.Bg5 Ne4
17.Rfe1 
Kemeny: White could not play 17.Qxd5 on account of 17...Bxh2+ and 18...Qxd5. The text move is a pretty strong one, yet 17.Rad1 attacking the d-pawn was a more aggressive one.  Black had hardly any better reply than ...d4, and White might have obtained the superior position by continuing 18.Rfe1 and eventually c3.  White having selected the more conservative 17.Rfe1 play his opponent has time to answer ...Qc6 and ...c4 with a good game.
17...Qc6 18.c3 c4 
Reichhelm: Characteristically making a push for a win, but Mr. Shipley meets it with great accuracy.
19.bxc4 dxc4 20.Qc2 Nc5 21.Rxe8+ Rxe8 22.Re1 Rxe1+ 23.Nxe1 Qe4 
Kemeny: Well played.  White cannot exchange queens, for he would be unable to guard the c-pawn.
24.Be3 f5 25.Qd2 Qe6 26.Bxc5 Bxc5 27.Nf3 h6 28.Kf1 Qe4 29.Ne1 Be7 30.Qe2 Bf6 31.Qxe4 
Reichhelm: Foreseeing that he can regain the pawn lost by this.
31...fxe4 32.Nc2 Bxc3 33.Na3 Kf7 
Kemeny: As a rule, a knight is of more value in the endgame than a bishop.  In the present position White should have the advantage mainly on account of Black’s weak e-pawn.  Yet Black, having his king in commanding position, can pursue aggressive tactics, and it requires skill and accuracy on White’s part to avoid defeat. 
34.Nxc4 Ke6 35.Ne3 Kd6 36.Ke2 Kc5 37.Kd1 Kb4 38.Kc2 Bd4 39.Nd1 g5 40.Ne3 h5 41.h3 a5 42.Nd1 g4 43.hxg4 hxg4
44.g3 
Kemeny: An important move, which enables White to maintain the Ne3 play.  Had he move 44.Ne3 at once Black’s answer would have been ...g3, with a winning game.
44...a4 45.Ne3 Bxe3 46.fxe3 
Reichhelm: If Black now moves 46...Kc4, White responds 47.Kd2, and keeps the black king out.
½-½. 
Philadelphia Public Ledger, 1897.08.28
Chess in Philadelphia, Philadelphia 1898, p115
    In addition to the interstate match up, Thousand Islands 1897 featured competition for the Staats Zeitung Chess Cup, an event then in its seventh year.  The cup itself had been donated by the New Yorker Staats Zeitung, a German language newspaper based in New York City.  Only three players competed for the cup at Thousand Islands, each representing their home chess club, but the three were certainly among the strongest players in the United States: ex-world champion William Steinitz represented the Staten Island Chess Club, while S. Lipschütz, from the Manhattan Chess Club, and the sixteen year old phenomenon, William Ewart Napier, from the Brooklyn Chess Club, made up the field.  A wonderful photograph of the three of them, with Steinitz and Lipschütz playing a game and Napier sitting by the board, with among others the Philadelphians Shipley and D. Stuart Robinson looking on, graces the pages of the August 1897 issue of the American Chess Magazine.
    The interstate aspect of the 1897 mid-summer meeting was so popular that the following year, at Lake Keuka, New York, the NYSCA repeated its experiment.  The Association’s mid-summer meeting at Lake Keuka was held August 8-13, 1898, and though neither Pillsbury nor Hodges, nor even Shipley, attended that gathering, strong and entertaining play took place nevertheless.  A young Frank J. Marshall participated, but found himself largely outclassed, losing to five of the seven Pennsylvania players, and indeed the New York squad as a whole was severely manhandled, losing the team event by a lopsided 30-19.
    While Pillsbury didn’t play, he did annotate the following game for the pages of the September 1898 American Chess Magazine.
Kemeny,E (Pennsylvania) — Delmar,E (New York)
Round 6
C41/10
Philidor: Jaenisch (Hanham)
1898.08
USA Lake Keuka, NY (Interstate Team Match)
Annotations by Harry N. Pillsbury
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 Nf6 4.Nc3 
The attack by 4.dxe5 Nxe4 5.Qd5 would be premature, for after 5...Nc5 Black threatens to gain important time for development by either 6...c6 or 6...Be6, followed by 7...d5.  Any attempt by White to force matters by 6.Ng5 would fail: 6...Qe7 7.Bc4 f6!! 8.Qf7+ Qxf7 9.Nxf7 b5, Black eventually remaining with two pieces for rook.
4...Nbd7 5.Be3 Be7 6.Bd3 
6.Bc4 followed by Qd3 and a4 seems a more aggressive development.  Black could hardly continue 6.Bc4 Nxe4 7.Bxf7+ Kxf7 8.Nxe4 etc., as White obtains the first attack in the center.
6...c6 7.Ne2 Qc7 8.c3 d5 9.Qc2 dxe4 10.Bxe4 Nxe4 
Black’s eighth move fully equalized matters, but here he goes wrong.  Simply 10...0-0 reserving the capture of the bishop, gave a good game.
11.Qxe4 0-0 
It was far preferable to continue 11...exd4 12.Bxd4 (12.Bf4 Qd8 13.Bd6 Nf6 etc.) 12...f6 13.Nf4 Nb6 retaining equal forces, although White still has the better game.
12.dxe5 b6 13.Ned4 Bb7 14.Nf5 Rae8 15.0-0-0 Bf6 16.Rxd7 Qxd7 17.Qg4 Qe6 18.exf6 g6 19.Nh6+ Kh8 
20.Qxe6 
White could also win by 20.Ng5 Qxf6 21.Qd7 etc., or by 20...Qxg4 21.Ngxf7+ Rxf7 22.Nxf7+ Kg8 23.Nh6+ etc.  But it was simply a question of methods, as either way wins easily. 
20...Rxe6 21.Ng5 c5 22.Nxe6 fxe6 23.Rd1 1-0. 
American Chess Magazine, 1898.09
    Of course, such a drubbing at Lake Keuka demanded revenge, and so in late August 1899 the New York team was looking to take the measure of their colleagues from further south.  One additional feature for the 1899 event, however, was the attempt to include a team from Massachusetts, thereby making the competition a three-way quest for victory.
    Indeed, as late as July 1899 the proposed three way match involving New York, Pennsylvania, and now Massachusetts was being touted in the pages of the American Chess Magazine.  Gustavus Reichhelm introduced a chart in the same issue of the magazine allowing for what he called “adequate and evenly balanced” competition among three, seven man teams through the play of seven full and two “supplementary” rounds.
    But Saratoga Springs 1899 was much more than merely an interstate chess team match.  In addition to the ninth annual Staats-Zeitung Chess Cup competition, there were to be a series of class tournaments as well.  And chess was hardly the only feature used to attract additional members of the NYSCA to take a summer holiday at Saratoga Springs.  A circular issued by the Board of Managers of the NYSCA noted that “the twelfth midsummer meeting and the thirty-first tournament will be held during the week commencing August 28 at the United States Hotel, Saratoga Springs, New York.  The beauty of Saratoga Springs, the many attractions for the members who may not enter the tournaments, and the United States Hotel, one of the greatest hotels in this country, all promise well for the meeting of 1899.”
    Attractions were emphasized not only for tournament players, but for spouses and others just interested in getting away.  Mention was made of “the hundreds of mineral springs, the beautiful cottages, the park and the drive to the lake—are all in themselves sufficient to repay all who attend the meeting.”  Hotel rates were three dollars a day, reduced from the usual five, and easy transportation could be arranged by way of the Delaware and Hudson Railroad, which serviced Saratoga Springs by way of the state capital, Albany.  Special rates were also offered for those arriving by train.
    A special call was sent out to chess clubs for representatives for the Staats- Zeitung Chess Cup.  The rules under which the cup was donated specified that the first club to win it five times would retain possession of it permanently.  The Manhattan Chess Club had successfully won it on four occasions, in 1891, 1894, 1896 and 1898, and thus would take the cup for good unless someone stepped forward to prevent that happening.  No other club had won the cup more than once.  Competition in the class tournaments would see, among other things, the determination of the winner of the Farnsworth Cup in the First Class event.  The Farnsworth Cup had been given two years earlier by the widow of George Farnsworth, the latter having competed at Buffalo 1894 and who had died prematurely of a heart condition in 1896.  Farnsworth, the American Chess Magazine reported in its August number that year, “was one of the most active and earnest supporters” the NYSCA ever had.
    The Board of Mangers hoped at least seven or more club representatives would play in the ninth Staats-Zeitung Chess Cup contest.  The year before, at Lake Keuka, only two players, the young Marshall and the veteran Lipschütz, had appeared, and a crushing, 3-0 victory by the latter had given the Manhattan Club its fourth leg of the five needed to retain the ornate, English made silver cup, shaped like a chess rook.
    The August issue of the American Chess Magazine also remarked that Aristidez Martinez, then President of the Manhattan Chess Club, “has offered a sterling silver smoking set for the best game played in the interstate team match, New York – Pennsylvania - Massachusetts.  It is composed of a tray, cigar-holder, ash receiver and match safe in the finest patterns and valued at eighty dollars.”  To whom the smoking set should be awarded would become the subject of some conflict and a great deal of paper and ink in the weeks ahead.
    On Monday, August 28, 1899, at ten in the morning, competition for the Staats-Zeitung Cup commenced.  The Board of Managers, however, were no doubt seriously disappointed by the turn out.  They had hoped for representatives from at least the Manhattan, Brooklyn, Albany, Rochester, Staten Island, New York City and Buffalo chess clubs, in order to reduce the chances of the Cup being permanently taken out of competition.  What they in fact witnessed was an exact repetition of the year before at Lake Keuka.  Only two players entered the lists, Lipschütz once more representing the Manhattan Chess Club, and Frank Marshall once again representing the Brooklyn Chess Club.
    It was decided that the player to win a five game match would take the cup home to his club, but like the year before, only three games were required to decide who would possess the Staats-Zeitung Cup.  There had, though, been some hope Marshall would in this, his second chance, make a better showing against the much more experienced Lipschütz.  Emil Kemeny, for example, writing on August 29, 1899, in his column in the Philadelphia Public Ledger, had said that while it was true the older man had beaten Marshall decisively the year before, “Marshall since has established quite a reputation for himself by winning first prize in the London Minor Tourney, and the Brooklyn Chess Club hoped that he would square accounts with Lipschütz.”  The Brooklynites, however, were to be seriously disappointed.
    The American Chess Magazine for September 1899 provided all three games with significant annotations, though from the color sequence and other sources, notably the New York Sun for September 10, 1899, which also ran the scores of the three games, the American Chess Magazine had mistakenly switched games one and two.  But regardless of the precise ordering of the first two games, Lipschütz jumped out to an early lead over his opponent.
Lipschütz,S (Manhattan) — Marshall,FJ (Brooklyn)
Game 1
C29/03
Vienna Gambit
1899.08.28
USA Saratoga Springs, NY (Staats-Zeitung Cup Tournament)
Annotations from the American Chess Magazine
1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nf6 3.f4 d5 4.fxe5 Nxe4 5.Nf3 Bg4 6.Be2 
So far a generally accepted version.
6...Bc5 
To draw on the d-pawn and get it within reach of the c-pawn.  White might otherwise play d3 and effectively dislodge the knight from e4.
7.d4 Bb4 8.Bd2 c5 9.0-0 Nc6 10.a3 Ba5 
10...Bxc3, followed by ...c4, would not improve his position to any extent, although apparently causing a block.  As will be seen, Black later on regains the pawn he now relinquishes.
11.dxc5 0-0 12.Nxe4 dxe4 13.Bxa5 Qxa5 14.b4 Qc7 15.Ng5 Bxe2 16.Qxe2 Qxe5 17.Qe3 
17.Nxe4 would cost him a piece, as Black then plays ...Rae8, ...Qd4+, and ...f5 in due order.
17...Rae8 18.Rae1 Nd4 
Guarding against the check at b3 in reply to the contemplated ...f5.
19.Rf2 h6
20.Nh3 
Fearing the complications attending the capture of the e-pawn, White retreats circumspectly. In this he was wise, as the following interesting variations show: 20.Nxe4 f5 21.Rd2 (21.Rd1 Ne6 also leaves White’s knight open to capture.) 21...Nc6 22.Qb3+ Kh8 and the knight cannot be saved.
20...Nf5 21.Qf4 e3 
He is forced to advance the pawn or else lose it at once.  Advanced thus far its chances for longevity are very slim, however.
22.Rfe2 
He could also play 22.Qxe5 exf2+ 23.Kxf2 Rxe5 24.Rxe5 the rook getting to the seventh a move or two later.  But, instead of 22...exf2+, Black could retake the queen at once and gain time for the defense of the e-pawn.  Moreover, the text move of White enables him more quickly to compass the downfall of the disputed pawn.
22...Qxf4 23.Nxf4 Re4 24.Nd5 Rfe8 25.Nc3 R4e6 26.Nb5 R8e7 27.c3 Nh4 28.Nd4 Re4 29.g3 
Forcing his hand and Black must either move the knight or resort to the move in the text.  It is doubtful whether the latter is the wiser course, inasmuch as White’s pawns are undoubled and strengthened in the process.  Black retains his e-pawn, but he, nevertheless, finds himself a good way behind in the race.
29...Rxd4 30.cxd4 Nf3+ 31.Kf1 Nxe1 32.Rxe1 Re4 33.d5 Kf8 34.Ke2 Re5 35.Rd1 
Better than advancing the pawn, the Black king being held longer in check. 
35...Ke8 36.c6 bxc6 37.dxc6 Re7 38.b5 f5 39.a4 g5 40.a5 Rc7
41.Rd6 
Evidently he does not propose to take any chances and is making assurance doubly sure.  He could also play 41.Kxe3 and if 41...a6 42.b6 Rxc6 43.b7 f4+ 44.gxf4 gxf4+ 45.Ke4 and White’s b-pawn cannot be stopped.
41...f4 42.Rxh6 Rf7 43.gxf4 gxf4 44.Kf3 
Again, he could advance the pawn to b6, but there is no reason why, with the game in hand, he should not adopt the more conservative course.  The rest now becomes plain sailing, the victory being in every respect well earned. 
44...Kd8 45.b6 axb6 46.axb6 Rf8 47.Rh7 Kc8 48.Ra7 Kd8 49.Ra8+ Ke7 50.Rxf8 1-0. 
American Chess Magazine, 1899.09
New York Sun, 1899.09.10
    After being outplayed in a rook and pawn endgame, Marshall turned to the Scotch Gambit to try and reverse his fortunes.  The result, however, was hardly the one he was hoping for.
Marshall,FJ (Brooklyn) — Lipschütz,S (Manhattan)
Game 2
C44/05
Scotch: Gambit (Haxo)
1899.08
USA Saratoga Springs, NY (Staats-Zeitung Cup Tournament)
Annotations from the American Chess Magazine
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.d4 exd4 5.0-0 d6 
5...Nf6 would lead to the Max Lange Attack proper, White continuing with 6.e5.  Its adoption by Black, however, entails exposure to a somewhat harassing attack.  In view of the fact that there are still new variations cropping up from time to time it is safer to avoid it in important games.
6.c3 dxc3 7.Qb3 Qd7 
Best, for if he plays 7...Qe7 White continues with 8.Nxc3 Nf6 9.Bg5 and if then 9...0-0 10.Nd5 Qd8 11.Nxf6+ gxf6 12.Bh6 and he cannot save the exchange.
8.Qxc3 f6 
8...Nf6, instead of the text move, was not bad at this stage, but Black disliked the prospect of Bg5 on the part of White in reply.  In that case, however, he could have continued with ...Qe7, since there was no knight handy to enter at d5.
9.a3 
Marshall is of the opinion that this and the next move lost him much valuable time.  9.h3 followed by Nh4 would have given him quite a strong game.
9...Nge7 10.b4 Bb6 11.Be3 Ng6 12.Nbd2 Nd8 13.Bxb6 
13.Nd4 at once was to be preferred.
13...axb6 14.Nd4 Ne5 15.Bb3 Nef7 16.f4 0-0 
It has required considerable maneuvering to enable Black finally to castle, but now to all appearances, the king is safely housed.
17.Rf3 
The deployment of the rook meets with no success and merely causes White to lose ground.  The piece would have been better posted at c1.  17.Nf5 would likewise be much to the point.
17...Qe7 18.Rg3 
Even now Nf5 is excellent because if Black counters with ...Bxf5, White will get the open e-file and sooner or later, entrench a piece at e6 with telling effect. 
18...Kh8 19.Bc2 
19.f5 is necessary here to hold the position, though the move has theoretically an uninviting look.
19...Nh6 20.Qd3
20…c5 
Very appreciably opening up his position, which so far had been not a little cramped.  From now on he gains at every step.
21.Nb5 cxb4 22.Nxd6 Be6 23.e5 Bg8 
The king is now cornered, but quite inaccessible and his retreat is pretty thoroughly covered.
24.N2c4 fxe5 25.Re3 
25.fxe5 at once was better, though Black in any event retains his hold on the game. 
25...Nc6 26.fxe5 bxa3 27.Rxa3 Rxa3 28.Qxa3 b5 29.Nd2 Nxe5 30.Nxb5 Qf6 31.Nf3 
Fatal, of course, but he had no alternative, Black threatening the destructive check at f2.
31...Nc4 
The surest method of winning quickly.  If 31...Nxf3+ 32.Rxf3 Qb6+ 33.Qe3 Qxe3+ 34.Rxe3 Bc4 35.Bd3 and he still has a fighting chance for his life. 
32.Qe7 Nxe3 33.Qxe3 Ng4 34.Qd4 Qxd4+ 35.Nfxd4 Bc4 36.Bf5 
There is no good move now left to him.  36.g3 is met by 36...Rf1+ 37.Kg2 Rf2+ 38.Kh3 h5 threatening both the mate and the win of the piece by ...Bxb5 and ...Rxc2. 
36...Bxb5 37.Nxb5 Rxf5 38.Nc3 b5 39.h3 Ne3 0-1. 
American Chess Magazine, 1899.09
    With a commanding 2-0 lead, Lipschütz could have easily coasted into victory for the Staats-Zeitung Cup by drawing the third game, but the Manhattan Club player’s juggernaut was not about to be stopped by Marshall’s play, which many considered radically below the form he had shown earlier in the year when he won the Minor tournament at London 1899 with a score of 8½-2½ over a field that included the likes of Mieses and Marco.  But whatever his form, Marshall stood no real chance against Lipschütz, who at Saratoga would give up only one draw among his many games.
Lipschütz,S (Manhattan) — Marshall,FJ (Brooklyn)
Game 3
D00/04
Queen’s Pawn: Stonewall (Showalter)
1899.08
USA Saratoga Springs, NY (Staats-Zeitung Cup Tournament)
Annotations from the American Chess Magazine
1.d4 d5 2.e3 e6 3.Bd3 Bd6 4.f4 f5 5.Qh5+ 
This “following the leader” game might be kept up indefinitely in this opening without serious injury to either party, but White concludes to try another tack.  His purpose in checking is to post his queen on the kingside, handy in case opportunity for an onslaught offers itself. 
5...g6 6.Qh3 c5 7.c3 Nc6 8.Nf3 cxd4 9.exd4 Qc7 
Threatening both ...Bxf4 and ...Nb4.
10.Ne5 
At once defensive and offensive.  White in turn threatens Nxg6.
10...Bxe5 11.dxe5 
Forced; otherwise Black wins the d-pawn with knight.
11...Qb6 12.Na3 Bd7 13.Qe3 
13.Nb5 would be met by ...Nxe5, etc.  White, when this game was played, had the advantage of being able to play for a draw, hence he is not backward about offering an exchange of queens.  In fact, he practically forces it here. 
13...Qxe3+ 
He cannot afford to retreat, because White would in that case force an entrance with his knight at d6.
14.Bxe3 a6 15.0-0 Rc8 16.Rad1 Nge7 17.Be2 
Preventing Black castling for the time being, at least.  Should Black castle next move, White continues with Nc4, and either reaches d6 or wins a pawn.
17...Na5 18.Rd2 b5 
White might have hindered this advance by posting his bishop at b6.  The subsequent play works out, however, to his advantage. 
19.Rfd1 Nc4 20.Nxc4 bxc4 21.Rc1 
Having a theoretical advantage in the possession of two bishops, he proceeds to create avenues to develop fully their usefulness.
21...a5 22.b3 Bb5 
Evidently to induce the advance of the a-pawn, but he later errs in capturing this same pawn at an inopportune moment.
23.a4 Bd7 
Had he retired the bishop to a6 the following variation might have occurred: 23...Ba6 24.b4 axb4 25.cxb4 c3 26.Bxa6 cxd2 27.Rxc8+ Nxc8 28.Bxd2 and an interesting struggle to obtain the upper hand on the queenside would ensue, in which White at least could do no worse than draw.
24.bxc4 Bxa4 
Decidedly not as good as 24...dxc4, which would have left him with a fairly playable game.  In that case White’s best course would be to occupy d6 with rook.
25.Bb6 dxc4
26.Bxc4 
Pretty play.  Black, of course, cannot retake bishop on account of Rd8+ winning the king’s rook. 
26...Kf7 27.Ba2 Bb5 
White threatened Rd6, hence Black must let the a-pawn go.
28.Bxa5 Bc4 29.Bxc4 Rxc4 30.Rd7 Rhc8 
Poor; 30...Rb8 was the proper move and would have somewhat retarded White, though not seriously, as the doubling of the rooks, followed by Bb4, would leave the position still in White’s hands.
31.Rb1 
The beginning of the end, Black being utterly unable to ward off the impending blow.
31...Ke8 32.Rbb7 Ng8 33.Rg7 Kf8 34.Bb4+ Rxb4 35.cxb4 Nh6 36.h3 Ng8 37.Rbf7+ 1-0. 
American Chess Magazine, 1899.09
    And so after three games, and a 3-0 shellacking of the Brooklyn representative, the Manhattan Chess Club took permanent possession of the Staats-Zeitung Chess Cup, winning it for the fifth time in the nine years the cup was in competition.  Both Lipschütz and Marshall played in the interstate match as well, though there is no suggestion their dual play in both the Cup and interstate matches compromised either’s form.
    The interstate match, so grandly announced beforehand to be a three way competition, also found itself somewhat less than hoped for, in that the Massachusetts players did not materialize.  According to the American Chess Magazine, “the withdrawal of the Massachusetts contingent was a source of sincere regret and undoubtedly militated in some degree against the success of the meet, but not seriously so, thanks be to the gods.”  For indeed the competition between New York and Pennsylvania in truth more than made up for the absence of the third state contingent.
First Round, Tuesday, August 29
New York Penn.
Karpinski
0-1
Kemeny
Weeks
0-1
Robinson
Hanham
0-1
Young
Roething
1-0
Voigt
Marshall
0-1
Bampton
Halpern
½-½
Shipley
Lipschütz
1-0
McCutcheon
Total NY 2½ PA 4½
W. P. Shipley
    Play during the interstate meet was “arranged so that the players are scheduled for games during the morning and evening hours, the afternoons being given to recreation.”  This schedule was considered neither taxing nor irksome.  But after the conclusion of the first round, no doubt the New York contingent felt they might be in for another drubbing like they had received the year before at Lake Keuka.  Three games have been recovered from the first round.  The first, the draw between Halpern and Shipley, appeared in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle for August 31, 1899.
Halpern,JC (New York) — Shipley,WP (Pennsylvania)
Round 1
C42/28
Petrov: Classical
1899.08.29
USA Saratoga Springs, NY (Interstate Team Match)
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nf6 3.Nxe5 d6 4.Nf3 Nxe4 5.d4 d5 6.Bd3 Be7 7.0-0 Nc6 8.c3 Bg4 9.Bf4 0-0 10.Nbd2 f5 11.Qc2 Bd6 12.Bxd6 Qxd6 13.Ne1 Qf4 14.Nb3 Bh5 15.f3 Nd6 16.Qf2 Rae8 17.Nc2 Bf7 18.Nc5 Be6 19.Ne3 Qh6 20.Nxe6 Qxe6 21.Rfe1 f4 22.Ng4 Qf7 23.Qh4 h6 24.Qh3 Rxe1+ 25.Rxe1 Re8 26.Ne5 Nxe5 27.dxe5 Qe6 28.Qh5 Re7 29.Re2 Nf7 30.g3 fxg3
31.f4 gxh2+ 32.Kxh2 Nh8 33.f5 Qf7 34.Qg4 Kf8 35.Kg1 c5 36.f6 gxf6 37.Qc8+ Qe8 38.Qxc5 Qc6 39.Qf2 Qb6 40.Qxb6 axb6 41.exf6 Rxe2 42.Bxe2 Kf7 43.Bf3 Ke6 44.Kf2 Nf7 45.Ke3 Ne5 46.Bg2 Ng4+ 47.Kd4 Nxf6 48.c4 ½-½. 
Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 1899.08.31
    The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, not surprisingly, also published Lipschütz’s win over McCutcheon in the same, August 31, 1899, column.
Lipschütz,S (New York) — McCutcheon,JL (Pennsylvania)
Round 1
C12/01
French: McCutcheon
1899.08.29
USA Saratoga Springs, NY (Interstate Team Match)
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5 Bb4 5.exd5 Qxd5 6.Nf3 Ne4 7.Bd2 Bxc3 8.bxc3 Nxd2 9.Qxd2 c5 10.Be2 cxd4 11.cxd4 Nc6 12.0-0 0-0 13.c3 Bd7 14.Rab1 Na5 15.Ne5 Bc6 16.Bf3 Qd6 17.Nxc6 bxc6 18.Qe2 Rab8 19.Qa6 Rxb1 20.Rxb1 Rb8 21.Ra1 Qc7 22.g3 Rb5 23.a4 Rg5 
24.h4 Rxg3+ 25.fxg3 Qxg3+ 26.Bg2 Qe3+ 27.Kh1 g6 28.Rb1 Qxc3 29.Qxa7 Nc4 30.Rf1 f5 31.Rb1 Nb2 32.Qb8+ Kg7 33.Qxb2 1-0. 
Brooklyn Daily Eagle, 1899.08.31
    A third game from this round was published in the Philadelphia Public Ledger for September 20, 1899.  Like all the games from the Ledger, this one was annotated by Emil Kemeny, who not only could appreciate the quality of play he saw, but was himself deeply involved in the interstate match.  The introduction in the Ledger stated that “the game between Bampton and Marshall in the Interstate contest, held at Saratoga, was won by the former.  Marshall adopted the Max Lange Attack.  On his sixteenth turn he failed to select the strongest move, and Bampton quickly took advantage.  The continuation was very lively, and the Philadelphian soon obtained the attack, which he pursued vigorously, bringing about a win in the shortest possible order.”
Marshall.FJ (New York) — Bampton,SW (Pennsylvania)
Round 1
C55/05
Two Knights: Lange (Marshall)
1899.08.29
USA Saratoga Springs, NY (Interstate Team Match)
Annotations by Emil Kemeny
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.d4 exd4 
Safer is 4...Bxd4.  White then continues 5.Nxd4, 6.0-0, and 7.f4, with some attack.  The play selected leads to a lively variation, in which White used to win a piece for three pawns—a result quite satisfactory to Black.  Of late, however, a stronger continuation has been found for White, which seems to win.
5.0-0 Nf6 6.e5 d5 7.exf6 dxc4 8.Re1+ Be6 9.Ng5 Qd5 
The only move he has.  9...Qxf6 would have lost a piece, since Nxe6, followed by Qh5+ and Qxc5 was threatening.
10.Nc3 Qf5 11.Nce4 Bb6 12.fxg7 Rg8 13.g4 Qg6 14.Nxe6 fxe6 15.Bg5 
A powerful move, which prevents Black from castling.  The play was successfully adopted by Chigorin against Teichmann in the first round of the London tourney.
15...Rxg7 16.Nf6+ 
Premature play, which gives Black a winning game.  The correct play was Qf3, White then threatens Nf6+ and eventually Rxe6.
16...Kf7 17.Bh4 
It is quite noteworthy that Qf3 could not be played now.  Black answers ...Qxg5, and if White continues Ne4+ or Nh7+, then Black moves ...Qf5.  Black thus would win a piece.
17...Qh6 18.Qe2 e5 19.Qxc4+ Kf8 20.Qe6 
White loses a piece, but there was no way of saving it.  The bishop could not be guarded, and, if White retreats the bishop, his knight will be unguarded.  The play selected is the best, for White gets the exchange.
20...Qxh4 21.Nd7+ Rxd7 22.Qxd7
22…d3 
Well played.  This aggressive move opens the diagonals for the bishop, enables Black to bring his knight into action and forces White to the defense.
23.Kh1 Rd8 24.Qf5+ Kg7 25.Rad1 Rf8 26.Qxd3 Rxf2 27.h3 Nd4 28.Rf1 e4 
Much better than ...Nf3, which would have been answered by Qd7+, giving White a winning game.
29.Qe3 Rxf1+ 30.Rxf1
30…Ne2 
The decisive move, which completely demolishes the White position.  The queen is attacked and White must guard against Qxh3 mate.  If White moves Qb3 or Qa3, then ...Ng3+ wins the rook.
 0-1. 
Philadelphia Public Ledger, 1899.09.20
Second Round, Tuesday, August 29
Penn. New York
Kemeny
0-1
Lipschütz 
Robinson
½-½
Karpinski
Young
0-1
Weeks
Voigt
½-½
Hanham
Bampton
1-0
Roething
Shipley
½-½
Marshall 
McCutcheon
0-1
Halpern
Total PA 2½ NY 4½
    The evening session proved as much a disaster for the Pennsylvania players as the morning one had for the New Yorkers.  Lipschütz defeated Kemeny, perhaps his strongest competitor, to increase his interstate score to 2-0.  By defeating Roething, Bampton, on the Pennsylvania side, matched Lipschütz by maintaining a perfect record, but his victory was the only one his team could boast of that night.  And Marshall finally scored a half point, drawing with Pennsylvania team captain Walter Penn Shipley.  The tired combatants went to bed with the overall score deadlocked at 7-7.
    One game has survived from this round, and not surprisingly, it involved perhaps the two strongest players at the event.  Kemeny himself annotated his loss for his readership in his September 15, 1899, Philadelphia Public Ledger column.  The Ledger introduced that contest, noting that “the game between Lipschütz and Kemeny in the recent interstate contest held at Saratoga was a Ruy Lopez, resulting in victory for the former.  The game was strongly contested, and resulted in a pretty even ending.  From the fortieth move to the fifty-second Kemeny had many opportunities to draw the game, but he partly avoided and partly missed them.  Lipschütz thus won a pawn and the game.  Lipschütz played the ending flawlessly.”
S. Lipschütz
Lipschütz,S (New York) — Kemeny,E (Pennsylvania)
Round 2
C67/07
Spanish: Open Berlin
1899.08.29
USA Saratoga Springs, NY (Interstate Team Match)
Annotations by Emil Kemeny
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Nf6 4.0-0 Nxe4 5.d4 Be7 6.Qe2 Nd6 7.Bxc6 bxc6 8.dxe5 Nb7 9.Nc3 0-0 10.Bf4 
10.Re1 is considered stronger.  The text move is answered by ...Nc5, Black threatening ...Ba6.  The White bishop will subsequently be attacked by ...Ne6.
10...Nc5 11.Rfe1 Ne6 12.Qd2 Rb8 13.Rab1 f6 14.exf6 Bxf6 15.Be3 a6 16.Nd4 Nxd4 17.Bxd4 d5
18.Ba7 
18.Na4 might have been played, followed eventually by b4, weakening the Black c-pawns.  Black, however, had the open b-file, and by playing ...a5, followed eventually by ...Ba6 or ...Rb5, he might have relived his position.  The play adopted is hardly inferior to Na4.
18...Ra8 19.Bc5 Re8 20.Rxe8+ Qxe8 21.Re1 Qf7 22.Ne2 Bd7 
22...Bxb2 could not be played on account of 23.c3 winning a piece.
23.Nd4 Re8 24.Rxe8+ Qxe8 25.Qe3 Qxe3 26.fxe3 Kf7 27.c3 g5 28.Nc2 h5 29.g3 
Better perhaps was 29.h3.  The move selected gives Black an opportunity to establish some attack on the kingside.
29...Be5 30.Bd4 Bd6 31.Kf2 h4 32.b4 Kg6 33.Ne1 h3 34.Nf3 Kf5 35.Nd2 
35.g4+ followed by Ne5 would have drawn the game, since bishops of opposite colors would remain on the board.
35...Be8 36.a3 Bh5 37.c4 dxc4 38.e4+ Ke6 39.Nxc4 g4 40.Nd2 
40.Nxd6 followed by Ke3 would have drawn the game.  White, of course, could not play Ke3, for ...Bxg3 would follow.
40...Bg6 41.Be3 
An inferior move which gives Black an advantage, e5 should have been played, giving up the pawn.  White then with a knight against bishop could easily draw the game, especially since the Black pawns are doubled.
41...Be5 42.Nc4 Bc3 43.e5 
43.Bd2 would have still drawn the game.  If Black answers ...Bd4+, then Be3 is played by White.  If, however, ...Be5, then Nxe5 and Ke3 follow.  The text move compromises the White game and will cause the loss of the e-pawn.
43...Bd3 44.Na5 Bb5 45.Nb3 Bxe5 46.Bf4 Bb2 47.a4 Bc4 48.Nc5+ Kd5 49.Nd7 Bc3 50.Bxc7 Bd4+ 51.Ke1 Ke4 
He could not well play 51...Bg1 and ...Bxh2, for White will move Kf2, and the bishop is closed in.  Nor could he well play 51...Bc3+ and ...Bxb4, for in that case White has the Nf6+ continuation on hand, winning the g-pawn.  The text move is the strongest play he had.
52.Bb6 
A disastrous mistake which loses the b-pawn and the game.  Instead of Bb6 he should have played Bd6, and Black could make no headway.  If he moves ...Kf3 or ...Kd3, then Ne5+ follows.  If, however, Ke3, then Bb6 brings about an exchange.
52...Bc3+ 53.Kf2 Bxb4 54.a5 Bc3 55.Bc7 Bd4+ 56.Ke1 c5 57.Bb6 Kd5 58.Bd8 Kc6 59.Nf6 Be6 60.Nh5 Bc3+ 61.Ke2 Kb5 62.Kd3 
The game at this stage is hopeless.  White cannot guard the a-pawn, and with two pawns to the good, Black forces a win quite easily.
62...Bxa5 63.Bxa5 Kxa5 64.Kc3 Kb5 65.Nf4 Bf7 66.Nd3 a5 67.Ne5 Be6 68.Nd3 a4 69.Nf4 Bf7 70.Nd3 a3 71.Nc1 a2 72.Kb2 Bc4 73.Ka1 Kc6 74.Nxa2 Bxa2 75.Kxa2 Kd5 76.Kb3 Kd4 77.Kc2 Kc4 0-1. 
Philadelphia Public Ledger, 1899.09.15
Third Round, Wednesday, August 30
New York Penn.
Halpern
½-½
Kemeny
Lipschütz
1-0
Robinson
Karpinski
0-1
Young
Weeks
½-½
Voigt
Hanham
0-1
Bampton
Roething
½-½
Shipley
Marshall
1-0
McCutcheon
Total NY 3½ PA 3½
    The third round, played Wednesday morning, saw no change in the team standings, as the round was evenly split, 3½-3½, resulting in another tie for the teams in total score as well, at 10½-10½.  Lipschütz furthered his perfect record to 3-0, as did Bampton.  Shipley increased his string of draws to three, and he wasn’t done yet.
    The finest game of the round, and a game that was destined to cause some discord among the players who were submitting their games for consideration for the best played game prize, the Martinez silver smoking set, was Lipschütz’s effort.  It is the only game from round three that could be found.  According to the Ledger, “the game between Lipschütz and D. Stuart in the recent Interstate Tourney, held at Saratoga, was a lively contested one, resulting in a victory for the former.  Stuart was not in his best form and his opponent soon obtained the preferable game.  Lipschütz, with his thirty-third move, started an attack, which was quite promising, yet by correct play, Stuart could have held his own.  The critical point came about on the thirty-eighth turn; by playing ...Qa7+ a draw could have been secured, while the move selected by Stuart gave his opponent a win.”
    The game was annotated by multiple sources, including Emil Kemeny in the Philadelphia Public Ledger for September 22, 1899, and the New York Evening Post, as republished in the American Chess Magazine for Oct.-Nov. 1899, p.146.  Lipschütz’s opponent was David Stuart Robinson, though in many chess events he identified himself only as “D. Stuart.”  Precisely why Robinson resorted to this stratagem is unknown.  As will be seen, both Kemeny and the annotator for the Post were less than enthusiastic about the merits of the game.
Lipschütz,S (New York) — Robinson,DS (Pennsylvania)
Round 3
B73/01
Sicilian: Classical Dragon
1899.08.30
USA Saratoga Springs, NY (Interstate Team Match)
Annotations by Emil Kemeny and quoted from 
the New York Evening Post by the American Chess Magazine
1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 g6 6.Be3 Bg7 7.Be2 d6 8.0-0 0-0 9.h3 Bd7 
Kemeny: Better, perhaps, was 9...d5, which would have relieved the Black position.
Post: The opening has been conducted on both sides on conventional lines.  Black intends the advance of his pawns on the extreme queenside, to which end the knight must be supported.  This purpose, however, would be better served by 9...a6, followed by ...Qc7, and eventually ...Bb7.  Another plan would be to proceed here with 9...d5, which would equalize the position forthwith.
10.Qd2 a6 11.Rad1 b5 12.Nxc6 Bxc6 13.f3 Rc8 
Kemeny: 13...Nh5, followed by ...Ng3 or ...Bxc3, was a more promising continuation.
Post: 13...Qc7 was still in order, leaving him the option of playing ...Rfc8.  The queen rook might have been reserved for b8, or left at a8 in support of the advancing a-pawn.
14.Nd5 Bxd5 15.exd5 Nd7 
Kemeny: 15...Nh5 was still in order.  Black then threatens ...Bxb2 as well as ...Ng3, followed by ...Nxe2+.
16.c3 Nb6 17.Bd4 Bxd4+ 18.Qxd4 Na4 19.Qd2 
Post: Avoiding the exchange of queens which otherwise would have been offered by 19...Qb6.
19...Qc7 20.Rf2 
20…Rfd8 
Post: Tantamount to losing a valuable move, since White by preventing the obviously intended ...e5, furthers his development, whereas Black’s rook play is simply shelved at d8.  Black’s subsequent play is aimless and shifting in the extreme, giving the enemy an abundance of time to build up an irresistible attack.  Here, as well as later on, he ought to have prepared for the advance of the a-pawn.
21.f4 Nc5 22.Bf3 Qd7 23.Qe3 Rc7 24.g4 f6 25.Bg2 Kg7 26.Re2 Re8 27.Qd4 Kf7 28.Rde1 Na4 
Kemeny: Loss of time. Better was ...a5, followed eventually by ...a4 and ...a3. It must be admitted, however, that Black’s game was somewhat compromised.
29.Qf2 Nc5 30.Qh4 Kg7 31.g5 f5 32.Qh6+ Kg8 33.h4 
Kemeny: Not good, as Black’s ...Nd3 reply demonstrates.  White had an overwhelming advantage in position, and he could have easily delayed the advance of the h-pawn.  He should have played Re3.  If Black answers ...Na4, then R1e2 may be played.  This play may be followed up by h4 and h5.  Black then will have no other defense than giving up the e-pawn, which should decide in White’s favor.
33...Nd3
34.Rf1 
Kemeny: Very feeble. Having once let in the hostile knight, which easily could have been excluded by 33.Re3, without impairing his attack, since Black’s forces are helplessly dislocated, White should not shy at a petty matter like the loss of a pawn, but boldly go on with his rush.  Not only would he then have won in better style, but made sure of victory besides, whereas his own continuation left the issue in doubt.  In substantiation we give the main variations: 34.h5 Nxf4 if (34...Nxe1 35.Re6 with an overwhelming attack) 35.Re6 Nxh5 (if 35...Nxe6 36.Rxe6 wins) 36.Bf3 Ng7 37.R1e2 followed by Rh2 and wins.
Post: Black’s best defense seems 34...e5 with the following likely continuation: 35.dxe6 Qg7 36.Rf1 or 36...Rc4 (36...Rce7 37.Rd2 Nc5 38.Rxd6 Nxe6 39.Bd5 Qxh6 40.gxh6 gxh5 41.Re1 Kf7 42.Rxa6 and wins) 37.e7 Nxf4 38.Rxf4 Rxf4 39.Bd5+ Kh8 40.Qxg7+ Kxg7 41.h6+ Kh8 42.Bf7 and wins.
34...Rc4 35.h5 
Post: Now 35.Re6 Nxf4 36.Rxf4 Rxf4 would but lead to a draw, for White no longer can advance h5, because of the crushing rejoinder ...Qa7+.  But even if the h-pawn does not advance Black would still play ...Qa7+, followed by ...Qf2, whereupon White must avail himself of the perpetual check by Rxg6+.  One sees how the first player has jeopardized his game.
35...Nxf4 36.Rxf4 Rxf4 37.hxg6 e5 38.dxe6 
38…Qg7 
Kemeny: A disastrous error, which loses the game.  He should have played ...Qa7+, followed by ...Qg7, which would have easily drawn the game.
Post: Messrs. Kemeny, Stuart, and other Philadelphia players rightly pointed out that prior to this move Black should have checked at a7; White then would have been deprived of his most formidable continuation.
39.gxh7+ Qxh7 40.e7 
Kemeny: The winning move, but it could not be made if Black had played ...Qa7+, first forcing the king to the h-file.  White now would have to guard against the threatening ...Rh4+ winning the queen.
Post: For with White’s king standing on the h-file this move would have been impossible, because of the reply ...Rh4+.  The contention of the Philadelphians that the game then would have been a draw was admitted by the judges, with the qualification that the draw is “a difficult one and not easy to see.”  Herein we concur; the draw is quite difficult—for White.
40...Rg4 41.Kf1 Rxg2 42.Kxg2 Rxe7 43.Qxh7+ Rxh7 44.Kg3 Kf7 
Kemeny: 44...Rh1 should have been played.  If White answers Rf2, then ...Kg7, and if Rxf5, then ...Rg1+, followed by ...Rg2 or ...Rb1.  In fact, Black had still drawing chances.
Post: Again going amiss.  His right play was ...Rh1, whereupon an absolute win for White cannot be demonstrated.
45.Kf4 b4 
Kemeny: 45...Rh1 was still in order, though the game could hardly be saved.  The play selected gives White an easy win.
Post: Black’s play from beginning to end is amateurish in the extreme.  With ...Rh1 instead, he at least would have died harder.
46.Kxf5 Rh4 47.g6+ Kf8 48.Re4 1-0. 
Philadelphia Public Ledger, 1899.09.22
American Chess Magazine, 1899.10-11, p146
Fourth Round, Wednesday, August 30
Penn. New York
Kemeny
½-½
Marshall
Robinson
½-½
Halpern
Young
0-1
Lipschütz
Voigt
1-0
Karpinski
Bampton
½-½
Weeks
Shipley
½-½
Hanham
McCutcheon
1-0
Roething
Total PA 4 NY 3
    The Pennsylvania team finally broke the deadlock on the evening of Wednesday, August 30, 1899, when they managed to win the round by a score of 4-3, bringing the total team points to 14½-13½.  Although four games were drawn, Pennsylvania won two of the remaining three, one involving McCutcheon (of the McCutcheon Variation of the French Defense) defeating Roething, while Voigt defeated the hapless Karpinski.  New York’s sole winner, of course, was once more Lipschütz, who now had extended his score to 4-0 and clearly was the favorite to win the overall first prize for individual scoring.  Unfortunately, no games from this round have been recovered.
Fifth Round, Thursday, August 31
New York Penn.
Roething
0-1
Kemeny
Marshall
1-0
Robinson
Halpern
1-0
Young
Lipschütz
1-0
Voigt
Karpinski
1-0
Bampton
Weeks
0-1
Shipley
Hanham
½-½
McCutcheon
Total NY 4½ PA 2½
    Pennsylvania’s small lead from the day before was quickly extinguished as the New York delegation won four, lost two, and drew one and thus themselves took a one point team score lead after five rounds, 18-17.  Lipschütz continued to run roughshod over his opponents, winning his fifth game in a row (eight, if the three Staats-Zeitung games against Marshall were included).  Shipley finally won a game, after four consecutive draws.  Kemeny too won, bringing his score to 3-2.  Marshall’s win over D. Stuart Robinson left him with the same score as Kemeny, and for the first time on the positive side of the ledger.
    Marshall’s win was annotated in the pages of the October – November issue of the American Chess Magazine, by I. Gunsberg.  The notes were in all likelihood reprinted from another source, but none was given.
Marshall,FJ (New York) — Robinson,DS (Pennsylvania)
Round 5
B34/02
Sicilian: Accelerated Dragon (Simagin)
1899.08.31
USA Saratoga Springs, NY (Interstate Team Match)
Annotations by Isidor Gunsberg
1.e4 c5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6 5.Nc3 g6 6.Bc4 Bg7 7.Nxc6 bxc6 8.e5 Ng8 9.Qe2 Qa5 10.Bf4 d5 
The game follows on the lines of some Sicilian defenses played by Janowski.  Black’s move is ingenious.  He can safely pass the pawn, for if 11.exd6, Bxc3+ would be a winning reply.
11.Bb3 Ba6 12.Qd2 e6 13.0-0-0 Ne7 14.Kb1 Qc7 
If 14...0-0 15.Nxd5 Qxd2 16.Nxe7+ and wins.
15.Rhe1 Rb8 
15...0-0 at once is preferable with a view to advancing the c-pawn afterward.  If White worries by 16.Bh6 then 16...Nf5 is the reply.
16.Bg5 Bxe5 17.Rxe5 Rxb3 
Better than ...Qxe5, whereupon 18.Bf4 would win back the rook with advantage.
18.Bf6 Rxc3 19.Qxc3 Rg8 20.Bxe7 Kxe7 
21.Rdxd5 
Breaks the game to pieces.  After neglecting to castle, Black never got a chance, owing to White’s forcible tactics.
21...Rb8 22.Ra5 Bf1 
White threatened Qa3+, therefore ...Qb7 was not a good defense for Black.
23.Qc5+ Kf6 24.Qd4 Qb6 25.Rf5+ Ke7 26.Rxa7+ 
Black resigns, as mate in a few moves is inevitable.
 1-0. 
American Chess Magazine, 1899.10-11
    In addition to Marshall’s win, Kemeny’s victory over Roething has also been recovered.  Kemeny annotated his win for the pages of the September 12, 1899, Philadelphia Public Ledger.  The Ledger wrote that “the game between Kemeny and Roething in the recent interstate contest held at Saratoga was splendidly contested and resulted in a victory for the former.  Roething adopted a variation of the Ruy Lopez involving the temporary sacrifice of a piece and a fairly even game came about.  On his fourteenth turn, however, he did not select the strongest move, and by playing Be3 instead of Bf4, he gave Kemeny an opportunity to gain the upper hand.  The struggle from this point was a very interesting one.  The critical stage came about on the twenty-third turn.  The Philadelphian then could win a pawn, which, however, would hardly have secured a win.  Instead of winning a pawn Kemeny selected a more forcible continuation, leading to the exchange of both pawns, which gave him a winning endgame.  After thirty-three moves, Roething was obliged to acknowledge defeat.  The game was entered in the competition for the special brilliancy prize.”
Roething (New York) — Kemeny,E (Pennsylvania)
Round 5
C67/09
Spanish: Open Berlin (l’Hermet)
1899.08.31
USA Saratoga Springs, NY (Interstate Team Match)
Annotations by Emil Kemeny
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Nf6 4.0-0 Nxe4 5.d4 Nd6 6.dxe5 
The unusual continuation is 6.Bxc6 followed by dxe5.  The text move involves the temporary sacrifice of a piece, and leads to interesting complications.  By correct defense, however, Black seems to obtain the preferable game.
6...Nxb5 7.a4 d6 
7...Nd6 would win a pawn, but would badly compromise the Black game.  The text move, followed by ...Nxe5, is the best play for Black.
8.axb5 Nxe5 9.Re1 Be7 
If Black tries to maintain his pawn by playing 9...f6, White may continue Nh4, and he secures a powerful, if not winning, attack.  The text move is superior.  Black gives up the pawn, but holds two bishops, which gives him a slight advantage in the end game.
10.Nxe5 dxe5 11.Qxd8+ Bxd8 
11...Kxd8 is considered stronger, for it gives Black better chances to guard the c-pawn.
12.Rxe5+ Be6 13.Nc3 0-0 14.Be3 
Decidedly better was 14.Bf4.  White tries to attack the a-pawn, whereas he should have brought his forces to bear on the c-pawn.  The text move has also the disadvantage of preventing the retreat of the rook.
14...Bf6 15.Rc5 Rfc8 16.Bf4 c6 17.bxc6 b6 18.Rb5 Rxc6 19.Bd2 
Necessary, since ...Bxc3 followed by ...Rxc3 was threatened.
19...Rd8 20.Bg5 
20.Ne4 could hardly be played.  Black might have answered ...Rxc2 or ...Be7, followed eventually by ...f5.
20...Bxg5 21.Rxg5 Rd2 22.Rc1 
He could not play Rxa7 on account of ...Rxc3, Black winning a piece.
22...f6 23.Rg3 
23…b5 
Black might have played ...Bf5, winning a pawn, which, however, would not have been as effective as the play adopted. White, by answering Re3, and eventually Rce1, would have had excellent chances of holding his own.  The text move virtually forces a win.  White cannot capture the b-pawn, for ...Rcxc2 and eventually ...Bc4 follows.  Nor can he play b4, for ...a5 and ...axb4 or ...b4 would lead to a win.  There seems to be no other reply than Re4, which leads to an exchange of both rooks, and Black comes out with a winning endgame, White being unable to stop the pawn on the queenside without sacrificing the knight.
24.Rd3 Rxd3 25.cxd3 b4 26.Ne2 Rxc1+ 27.Nxc1 a5 28.Kf1 
28.b3 would be answered by ...a4, followed by ...b3, ...b2, and ...Ba2, Black winning the knight.
28...a4 29.Ke2 b3 
An important move.  Had Black played ...a3, White could answer b3, and he easily stops the pawns.  The text move threatens ...a3, and White has no valid defense.
30.Kd2
30…a3 
The winning move.  If White plays bxa3, which evidently was his strongest play, then ...b2 follows, and Black wins the knight, coming out with a bishop against the two scattered pawns.  If, however, White plays Nxb3, then ...axb2 and ...Bxb3 follows, Black having a piece against a pawn.  In either variation the win is an easy one.  White, of course, could not play Kc3, for ...a2 would win.
31.Nxb3 axb2 32.Kc2 Bxb3+ 33.Kxb2 Bd5 
After this move White surrendered.  A further struggle would be quite useless, for ...Kf7, ...Ke6, and eventually ...Kf5 would win easily.
0-1. 
Philadelphia Public Ledger, 1899.09.12
Sixth Round, Thursday, August 31
Penn. New York
Kemeny
1-0
Hanham
Robinson
½-½
Roething
Young
0-1
Marshall
Voigt
1-0
Halpern
Bampton
0-1
Lipschütz
Shipley
½-½
Karpinski
McCutcheon
0-1
Weeks
Total PA 3 NY 4
    New York added to its one point lead in the evening session on Thursday, thus taking into Friday’s final round a two point team lead, 22-20.  Though Pennsylvania was not mathematically eliminated from winning the interstate contest, to do so they would need a 5-2 final round victory over their rivals, or at least a 4½-2½ win to tie the match.  How this would be accomplished appeared difficult to conceive.  Lipschütz won again in round six, extending his point total to an invincible 6-0.  At the end of play Thursday, after his victory over Bampton, he was guaranteed first prize for his individual achievement.  Pennsylvania’s only hope was that Shipley, who had not been beaten in the team match, though he sported only a 3½-2½ score, might help slow the New Yorker down.  Marshall, too, had improved his record to 4-2, matching Kemeny, the best scorer for the Pennsylvania team, and thus along with Lipschütz accounted for ten of New York’s twenty-two points at the end of round six.
H. G. Voigt
    Hermann Voigt, the very strong Pennsylvania player, whose form had been terrible during the tournament, won his sixth round game against Halpern.  Gustavus Reichhelm’s annotations to the game, no doubt from his column in the Philadelphia Times, appeared in the October - November issue of the American Chess Magazine.
Voigt,HG (Pennsylvania) — Halpern,JC (New York)
Round 6
C01/03
French: Exchange (Svenonius)
1899.08.31
USA Saratoga Springs, NY (Interstate Team Match)
Annotations by Gustavus Reichhelm
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.exd5 exd5 5.Nf3 Bd6 6.Bd3 0-0 7.0-0 c6 8.Ne2 Ne4 9.c4 f5 
Here 9...Be6 is safer.  Against the move in the text White’s best course is Qb3.
10.cxd5 cxd5 11.Qb3 Kh8 
Protecting the pawn, for its capture would entail loss of the queen, through ...Bxh2+.
12.Bf4 Qc7 13.Rac1 Nc6 14.g3 Be6 15.Bxd6 Qxd6 16.Qxb7 Bd7 17.Ne5 Nxe5 18.dxe5 Qe6 19.Nf4 Qe8 20.Qxd5 
The slight advantage obtained by White in the opening is improved step by step and culminates in a brilliant win.
20...Rd8 21.e6 Bc8 22.Qc6 Ng5 23.Qxe8 Rdxe8 24.Bb5 Re7
25.Rxc8 
The beginning of a fine and sound coup.
25...Rxc8 26.Bd7 Rd8 27.h4 Nf3+ 28.Kg2 Nd4 29.Nd5 Rdxd7 30.exd7 Rxd7 31.Rc1 Kg8 32.Ne3 g6 33.Rd1 Rd6 34.a4 Kf7 35.f4 Ke7 36.Nc4 Rd7 
He should have retried ...Rd8, but even then Black could not have saved the game, as White would equally reply with Ne5.
37.Ne5 
The position is as pretty as a problem.  On the Black rook moving, White rejoins with Rxd4, followed by Nc6+ on the rook retaking.
1-0. 
American Chess Magazine, 1899.10-11
    Kemeny annotated his win against Hanham for the pages of the September 5, 1899, issue of the Philadelphia Public Ledger.  His annotations were reprinted in the American Chess Magazine for October - November 1899.  If there had been talk about Kemeny’s fifth round win against Roething being submitted for the best game prize, his win in the next round against Hanham was thought by many to be sure to win the award.  The Ledger introduced the game by writing that “up to the twenty-fourth move the play was extremely conservative on both sides, the Philadelphian, however, securing the preferable development.  The play became complicated when Kemeny on the twenty-fifth turn advanced the a-pawn, which induced his opponent to sacrifice a pawn.  Hanham calculated to win the exchange, for apparently the rook had no retreat.  Kemeny, however, had quite a brilliant continuation on hand when on his thirty-first turn he offered the sacrifice of a knight.  This completely demolished Hanham’s defense.  He soon lost the g-pawn and h-pawn, and on the forty-third turn he surrendered.  The game is quite likely to be awarded the special prize offered by President Martinez for the winner of the best contested game.”
J. M. Hanham
    While the Ledger’s assumption the game would win the silver smoking set was premature, the game Kemeny had played was quite attractive in its own right.
Kemeny,E (Pennsylvania) — Hanham,JM (New York)
Round 6
C41/02
Philidor: Hanham
1899.08.31
USA Saratoga Springs, NY (Interstate Team Match)
Annotations by Emil Kemeny
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.d4 Nd7 4.Bd3 Be7 5.Be3 Ngf6 6.c3 c6 7.Nbd2 Qc7 8.Qc2 0-0 9.0-0 Re8 10.Nc4 Bd8 11.a4 Nf8 12.a5 Ng6 13.b4 Be6 14.dxe5 dxe5 15.Rfd1 Nd7 16.Be2 Be7 17.Rd2 Ndf8 18.Rad1 h6 19.Nd6 Red8 20.Nf5 Rxd2 21.Nxe7+ Qxe7 22.Qxd2 Nd7 23.Qd6 Qxd6 24.Rxd6
24…Kf8 
Black evidently should have played ...a6, in order to stop the threatening a6.  It is quite likely, however, that Black intended to give up the c-pawn expecting to close in the White rook.  It must be admitted, however, that White at this stage had the preferable game; the two bishops are powerful and the rook occupies the open file, and if Black moves ...a6 his b-pawn becomes rather weak.
25.a6 b6 26.Rxc6 Ke7 27.h4 Nb8 28.Rc7+ Kd6 
He could not play 24...Kd8, for White answers 25.Rxa7.  If then 25...Rxa7, White continues 26.Bxb6+ and 27.Bxa7, or if Black interposes the rook, then 27.a7 and queening of the pawn follows. 
29.Rb7 Nc6 30.h5
30…Nge7 
Black now threatens ...Nd8 or ...Bc8 winning the exchange.  White, however, has the Nd4 continuation on hand, which wins. If Black plays 31...exd4, then 32.Bf4+ and cxd4 follow; if, however, 31...Nxd4, then 32.cxd4 leads to a similar continuation. Black cannot avoid this play.  If he moves 31...Bc8, then 32.Nb5+ Ke6 33.Nc7+ wins the rook.
31.Nd4 Nxd4 32.cxd4 f6 33.dxe5+ fxe5 34.f4 Nc6 35.b5 Na5 36.Rxg7 Nc4 37.fxe5+ Kxe5 38.Bxh6 Nd6 39.Rg5+ Kd4 40.Bg7+ Ke3 41.Bf3 Rc8 42.Rg6 Re8 43.h6 
Causes Black to surrender; he cannot stop the h-pawn without sacrificing a piece. 
1-0. 
Philadelphia Public Ledger, 1899.09.05
American Chess Magazine, 1899.10-11
Seventh Round, Friday, September 1
New York Penn.
Weeks
½-½
Kemeny
Hanham
1-0
Robinson
Roething
1-0
Young
Marshall
½-½
Voigt
Penn. New York
Bampton 
½-½
Halpern
Shipley
½-½
Lipschütz
McCutcheon
½-½
Karpinski
Total NY 4½ PA 2½
    So as not to favor either team by awarding their whole squad the White pieces for the fourth time in seven rounds, the seventh and final round of the interstate match was divided as to who had White, with four New York players and three Pennsylvania players retaining that small opening advantage.  But the allocation of colors did not really change the situation.  The Pennsylvania team could not reach at least 4½-2½ in order to tie the match, let alone the 5-2 score needed to win it.  Instead they found themselves losing the round by a two point margin.  For the first and only time, one team, Pennsylvania, did not score a win in a round.  On the other hand, Lipschütz was prevented from traveling home with a perfect record.  Pennsylvania’s team captain, Shipley, held him to a draw.  As Lipschütz acted as New York’s team captain, perhaps the draw was not fully unexpected between the two.  New York thus won the match by a score of 26½-22½.  No games from the seventh and final round have survived.
    In terms of individual scoring, Lipschütz received the forty dollar first prize for his exceptional score of 6½-½.  Marshall and Kemeny divided second and third prizes (twenty-five and twenty dollars, accordingly), for their scores of 4½-2½ each.  Shipley, Halpern, and Bampton, at 4-3, were left to divide the fourth and fifth prizes of ten and five dollars.  As is well known, however, Shipley never accepted a cash prize for his chess play in any event during his long career, and so in all likelihood Halpern and Bampton were left to divide the last two prizes.  The one hundred dollars in prize money had been raised through each state chess association placing fifty dollars in the prize fund.
    Besides the fight for the Staats-Zeitung Chess Cup as well as for the third annual New York versus Pennsylvania team match title, a General Tournament was held by the NYSCA during the midsummer meeting at Saratoga Springs.  The General Tournament was itself divided into three separate classes, and the winner of the First Class tournament was W. J. Ferris of Newcastle, Delaware, a member of the Franklin Chess Club.  Only five players entered the First Class event, and the deciding game was between Ferris and Waller, one of the players who tied for second and third prize in the event.  The final round game that follows gave Ferris the Farnsworth Cup for the year.
    The Philadelphia Public Ledger for September 8, 1899, reported that “the game between Ferris and Waller in the final round of the New York State tourney recently held at Saratoga was a French Defense, won by the former.  Waller failed to select the strongest moves and he lost a valuable pawn on the twenty-first turn.  Ferris pursued his advantage vigorously; he won an exchange and subsequently a piece.  Waller surrendered on the forty-third turn, when his position was a hopeless one.  By winning this game Ferris secured first prize.”  The annotations are by Emil Kemeny.
Ferris,WJ — Waller,DW
 
C16/01
French: Advance Winawer
1899.09
USA Saratoga Springs, NY (General Tournament, First Class)
Annotations by Emil Kemeny
1.e4 e6 2.d4 d5 3.Nc3 Bb4 
The usual play is 3...Nf6, which in all probability is superior to the text move.
4.e5 a6 5.Qg4 Bf8 6.Nf3 h6 7.Bd3 Nc6 8.a3 Nge7 9.Ne2 Nf5 10.Ng3 g6 11.c3 Bd7 12.h4 Nxg3 13.Qxg3 Ne7 14.Qf4 Bg7 15.g4 c6 16.Qg3 Qc7 17.h5 g5 18.Nh2 0-0-0 19.0-0 Rdf8 
Better was 19...f6.  If White plays exf6, then ...Bxf6 and eventually ...e5 follows.  If, however, White answers f4, then ...fxe5 and ...Rdf8 leads to an even game.
20.f4 f5 
20...f6 was still in order.  The play adopted by Black causes the loss of a valuable pawn.
21.fxg5 hxg5 22.Bxg5 Ng8 23.Rf3 Bh6 24.Bxh6 Rxh6 25.Be2 Nf6 
To guard against the threatening g5.  The move, however, is inferior, for White plays Qf4, which forces away the knight.  Better, perhaps, was ...Be8.  If then White plays g5, Black may play ...Rxh5 and then sacrifice the exchange.
26.Qf4 Ng8 27.g5 Rh7 28.Rg3 Be8 29.g6 Rg7 30.Rf1 Ne7 31.Rf2 Rfg8 32.Rfg2 Kb8 33.Nf3 c5 34.Nh4 cxd4 35.cxd4 Ka7 36.Nf3 Qd7 37.Ng5 
37…Bxg6 
Black had a rather difficult game to defend.  White threatened Nh7 and Nf6, after which the advanced pawns could hardly be stopped.  The sacrifice, while not sound, gives some chances of escape.  If White answers hxg6, then ...Nxg6 and eventually ...f4 may follow.  White, however, selects a more forcible continuation.  By moving h6 he wins the exchange with an overwhelming attack.
38.h6 Rh7 39.Nxh7 Bxh7 40.Rg7 Ng6 
He could not save the piece.  If ...Rxg7, then White answers Rxg7 and eventually h7.  The text move may be answered by Rxd7, followed by Rxg8, and eventually by h7, or by R2xg6.  Either play wins easily.
41.R2xg6 Rxg7 42.Rxg7 Qe8 43.Qg5 
Had White played 43. Rxh7, then ...Qg6+ and ...Qxh7 might have prolonged the battle.  The text move virtually ends the game.  Black is a rook behind and cannot save the bishop.
1-0. 
Philadelphia Public Ledger, 1899.09.08
    Thus ended the NYSCA midsummer meeting at Saratoga Springs in late August and early September 1899.  But the end of the meeting did not mean the end of controversy.  There was still the matter of the prize for the best played game.
    William de Visser and Philip Richardson, both of Brooklyn, were named as a committee of two to determine who should receive Manhattan Chess Club President Ariztides Martinez’s special prize for the best played game at Saratoga.  After examining the various game scores submitted for the silver smoking set, de Visser and Richardson originally decided that Emil Kemeny of Philadelphia deserved the prize for his sixth round victory over Hanham.
    The problem, it developed, was that not every score originally set aside for consideration had actually been seen by de Visser and Richardson.  Fourteen of the forty-nine games played were in fact intended for submission for the prize, but only thirteen made their way to the committee.  The score of Lipschütz’s victory over D. Stuart Robinson had in fact been mislaid, and not turned over to the two men.  To complicate matters further, before learning the Lipschütz game had not been submitted, de Visser had spoken with someone associated with the press stating that it appeared the Kemeny game would win the prize, though he asked the reporter not to divulge this information until after the official announcement had been made.  Either “through bad faith, or, at least, a misunderstanding,” several newspapers announced that Kemeny would win the smoking set.
    But once the Lipschütz – Stuart Robinson game score was found (in fact, Robinson had to be written concerning the matter, and he graciously sent along from Philadelphia a copy of his own scoresheet), de Visser and Richardson considered that game to be superior in merit to the Kemeny game, and thereafter officially announced that Lipschütz, and not Kemeny, would receive the special prize for the best played game.
    The matter of the mislaid game score aside, the reports of the midsummer meeting at Saratoga Springs were uniformly favorable, but for one by Marshall, who grumbled at one point that because his room “fronted toward a railway terminus which caused the puffing and blowing of the locomotives to scare the wits out of Morpheus,” he had no sleep during the event.
    Marshall’s complaint, or excuse, depending upon how one wishes to read it, was not directly remarked on by the editor of the American Chess Magazine.  The editor did, however, note that it had come under question whether “the famous resort is exactly the proper place for this meeting,” and that he had heard “players attribute indifferent success on the board to the gayety of the surroundings, the general restlessness in the atmosphere and to too much style.”  The general editorial conclusion, though, was that considering “that a fair proportion of the contestants accomplished excellent results, this argument cannot very well be entertained and it must be taken for granted that there was something, either in the temperament or ability of the players themselves, to account for the non-success of which they complained.”  Or to put the matter another way, essentially every chess player faced the same challenge a stay at a popular summer resort offered.
    Saratoga Springs 1899 produced no opening novelties.  It was not of international master standards, nor did it intend to be.  What it did illustrate, however, was how much fun could be had, if only for a short time, in an interstate meeting of chessplayers united in their love of the game and in their mutual respect for the abilities of their compatriots and their fellow competitors, alike.  That good chess in a number of games took place was, to some extent, secondary to the communal sense of a united effort.  And perhaps, just perhaps, at the club level, that is how much of chess should be played, and enjoyed.

* Whether Albert Beauregard Hodges ever legitimately held the title of United States Champion should be a subject of some controversy among American chess history scholars.  I am indebted to Nick Pope for first bringing the issue to my attention.  The generally held view is that Hodges did hold the title, but this conclusion is based upon the assumption that Lipschütz, the previous title holder, had in fact given up his crown when he moved out West for reasons of health. Lipschütz would later deny that he had abdicated, thus casting into doubt the legitimacy of Showalter having again assumed the title prior to the moment Hodges defeated him in a match.  Hodges did, however, resign his title, or at least his claim to it, shortly thereafter, due to the pressure of his business commitments, and Showalter took up the title once more.  Any question as to Showalter’s later supremacy over Lipschütz was answered in a subsequent match between the two, played once Lipschütz had returned East.  This article, however, is not the place to attempt a detailed evaluation concerning such matters.  They involve complex questions of pedigree, ones requiring long and careful study of the historical record as it pertains to the high throne of American chess.

© John S. Hilbert 2000.  All rights Reserved.

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