Chess Archaeology HomeChess is a scientific game and its literature ought to be placed on the basis of the strictest truthfulness, which is the foundation of all scientific research.W. Steinitz

Standing (from left to right): Daniel S. Roberts, Charles H. Stanley, James Thompson. Sitting (from left to right): George Hammond, Thomas Loyd, Charles D. Mead, Hardman P. Montgomery, Frederick Perrin, Napoleon Marache, William J.A. Fuller.

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Early New York Chess Club Champions

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The picture above is not a group photograph as it appears to be. This engraving, titled the "Leading American Chess Players," was a compilation of Mathew Brady portraits, and was first published in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper of October 4, 1856.1 William J.A. Fuller, chess editor of the New York paper, accompanied the drawing with the following text:

In connection with this splendid illustration we feel bound to notice the happy combination of artistic skill displayed in the construction. Here we have the inimitable groupings of Brady's ambrotype, the delicate drawing of Wallen's pencil, and the equally masterly handling of Holcomb's graver. There is nothing of a similar character of equal merit in any of our European contemporaries. Our picture we consider faultless in grouping, in the preservation of likenesses, and in the delicate production on the wood, marking a new era in wood engraving in this country, and achieving for an American Illustrated paper a triumph for which we have long and industriously labored.

The drawing was clearly one of a New York point of view. Seven of the players pictured here were from New York or had a New York background (Charles D. Mead, William J.A. Fuller, Thomas Loyd, Napoleon Marache, Frederick Perrin, Charles A. Stanley, and James Thompson), one lived in Brooklyn (Daniel S. Roberts), one came from Boston (George Hammond), and Hardman P. Montgomery resided in Philadelphia.  

Three of the seven New York players were city champions. The titleholder in 1856 was Napoleon Marache, who had won the New York Chess Club Championship Tournament of that year. Eight competitors took part in this joust: C.E. Anderson, William J.A. Fuller, Albert R. Gallantin, Adelmour W. King, Thomas Loyd, Napoleon Marache, Frederick Perrin, and W.S. Wheelwright. 

The tourney was a knock-out affair, in which the contestants met on even terms. The entrance fee, making up the prize fund, was 3 dollars. The competitors were paired by lot. The victor of a match was the player who scored three games; an exception was made for the closing match, in which the victor had to win five games. Drawn games had to be replayed. The matches were contested in the club's rooms, and at least one game per week had to be contested in a match.  A player lost his game when he failed to show up at the time agreed upon for play, except in case of sickness.2

The tournament probably commenced in January 1856.3  The Albion (April 12, 1856) reported that the competition was drawing to a close, Marache and Perrin being the only survivors. It was not: it would take another three months before their match came to a conclusion. Marache and Perrin played their final game in August 1856, Marache coming off best. He won a silver cup for his performance.4

The course of the tournament was:5 

Gallantin

 

 

 

 

 

Loyd

+3 =3 -1

 

 Loyd

 

 

 

Fuller

 

 

 Perrin

+3 =2 -1

 

 

Perrin

+3 =0 -0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Marache

+5 =1 -4

Anderson

+3 =1 -2

 

 

 

 Perrin

King

 

 

 Anderson

 

 

 

Marache

+3 =0 -0

 

 Marache

+3 =2 -1

 

 

Wheelwright

 

 

 

 

 

Fourteen games played in  this competition have been found.

C.E. Anderson - Adelmour W. King

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round  1

  • New York, 1856

  • B20 Sicilian Defense

1. e4 c5 2. Bc4 e6 3. Nc3 a6 4. a4 Nc6 5. Nge2 Ne5

Always a strong propensity in the New York Dasher to bring on a premature attack; Nf6, followed by pawn to d5, was far better chess.

6. d3 Nf6 7. Bg5 h6 8. Bxf6

Mr. Anderson properly makes exchanges rather than lose time.

8. ... Qxf6 9. 0-0 Bd6 10. f4

White has now a fine game, whilst that of his adversary is cramped in the extreme.

10. ... Ng4 11. Qd2 Bc7

Black is certainly in a bad plight; we should say, with propriety, that he had not a single piece in play.

12. h3 h5

For the double purpose to free the knight and framing an attack on the king's side.

13. Rf3

Not the slightest danger could accrue from capturing knight; let us see: 13. hxg4 hxg4 14. e5 Qh4 15. Qe3 Qh2+ or Qh1+ 16. Kf2 Qh4+ (Best) 17. Q interposes with a winning game.

13. ... Nh6 14. e5 Qe7 15. Ba2 b6 16. d4 cxd4 17. Nxd4 Bb7 18. Rg3 Qc5 19. Kh1 g6 20. Rd1 0-0-0

We long to see that "sleeping sentinel" aroused and pushed on to d5, instead of castling.

21. Nce2 Nf5 22. Rc3 Qe7 23. Nxf5 gxf5 24. Nd4 Rhg8 25. Rg1 Kb8 26. Nf3 f6

Useless precaution; once more, why not push on that queen's pawn on square, New York Dasher?

27. Qd4 fxe5 28. Nxe5 Rg7

That pawn to d6 would have freed the Dasher from his unfortunate situation.

29. Bc4 h4 30. Be2 Rdg8 31. Bf3

Those three last moves of the bishop are well played by Mr. Anderson.

31. ... Bxe5 32. Qxe5+ d6 33. Qe3 Ka7 34. a5 Qd8 35. Bxb7 Kxb7 36. Rb3,

and White ultimately won the game. Without detracting from the merit of Mr. Anderson's play, which is always sound, Mr. King played this partie wretchedly, and certainly, not characterized by his usual force and brilliancy. The fact is that Mr. King is, like his prototype, the celebrated Kieseritzky, a bad match player.

Source: The New York Clipper, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 3, pages 67-68 (notes by Napoleon Marache).

There is in the original source an illegible note after Black's 20th move.

Anderson was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.  

C.E. Anderson - Napoleon Marache

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round  2

  • New York, 1856

  • B40 Sicilian Defense

1. e4 c5 2. c4

This move is objectionable, and justly condemned by all competent authorities on chess. 

2. ... Nc6 3. Nc3 e6 4. Nf3 Bd6

Pawn to g6, followed with Bg7, is much stronger.

5. d4 cxd4 6. Nxd4 Bc5 7. Nxc6

We should have played Be3, thus bringing another piece into play. This premature exchange makes an outlet for Black's queen's bishop.

7. ... bxc6 8. a3 Qb6 9. Qc2 Qc7 10. f4 Nh6 11. Be2 d5

Tempting White to win a pawn, which would prevent him from castling; we have since, however, doubted the propriety of Black's 11th move.

12. Rf1

Useless precaution. Bd2 with the intention of castling was preferable.

12. ... Qd8 13. g3 dxc4 14. Bxc4 Bb7 15. Be2 Ng8 16. b4 Bd4 17. Bb2 Nf6 18. 0-0-0

Calculating on pinning the bishop.

18. ... Be3+

This check saves the bishop from capture.

19. Kb1 Qe7 20. Rd3 Bb6 21. h3

Why not double his rooks, which would have still improved this game, and, we think, up to this point the better of the two.

21. ... 0-0 22. Rdf3 c5 23. Na2 cxb4 24. Bxf6 Qxf6 25. Nxb4 Rac8

Black has now a good game and room for his rooks to play.

26. Bc4

This move is suicidal, entailing the loss of the partie; yet, we opine that Black would soon have acquired the mastery, having the advantage of his king being placed in "safe anchorage."

26. ... Qd4 27. Rc3 Bxe4 28. Nd3 Bxd3 29. Qxd3 Qxd3+ 30. Rxd3 Rxc4

White resigned.

Source: The New York Clipper, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 3, pages 65-66 (notes by Napoleon Marache).

A part of the first note in the original source is illegible and therefore left out here.

Napoleon Marache - C.E. Anderson

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round  2

  • New York, 1856

  • C23 Bishop's Opening

1. e4 e5 2. Bc4 Bc5 3. c3 Nc6 4. d4 exd4 5. Bxf7+ Kf8

Better to have taken the bishop at once.

6. Bxg8 Kxg8 7. b4 Bb6 8. b5 dxc3

This sacrifice of the knight is bad chess, and certainly we do not see its necessity, unless it is to play in the enemy's hands.

9. bxc6 Qf6 10. Qc2 d6 11. Nxc3 Be6 12. Nf3 h6 13. 0-0 bxc6 14. Bb2 Kf8 15. Rfd1

To prevent the advance of the pawns. 15...Rb8 Losing precious time; Rd8, with the view of pushing on the center pawns, would have been much more effective. If the student will examine the position, he will find that three or four moves would have given Black two formidable "passed pawns."

16. Nd5 Qf7 17. Nxb6 Rxb6 18. Bd4

Inviting the advance of the double pawn.

18. ... c5 19. Bc3 g5 20. h3 Ke7 21. Qa4 a6 22. Ba5 

22. ... Bd7

Nibbling at the bait; Black must now lose.

23. Qxd7+

Well played.

23. ... Kxd7 24. Ne5+

Merciless.

24. ... Ke6 25. Nxf7 Kxf7 26. Bxb6 cxb6 27. Rxd6

Resigns.

Source: The New York Clipper, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 3, page 69 (notes by Napoleon Marache).

C.E. Anderson - Napoleon Marache

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round  2

  • New York, 1856

  • B40 Sicilian Defense

1. e4 c5 2. c4

This move is objectionable, and condemned by modern authorities.

2. ... Nc6 3. Nc3 e6 4. Nf3 g6 5. d4 cxd4 6. Nxd4 Bg7 7. Be3 Nge7 8. Rc1 d5 9. cxd5 exd5 10. Nxc6 bxc6 11. Bd4 0-0 12. Bxg7 Kxg7 13. Bd3 Be6 14. 0-0 h5 15. Bb1 dxe4 16. Qxd8 Raxd8 17. Bxe4 Rd4 18. Bb1 Rfd8 19. Rfd1 a5 20. Rxd4 Rxd4 21. Kf1 Bc4+ 22. Kg1 Be6 23. Ne2 Rd6 24. Nc3 Rd2 25. Rc2 Rd6 26. Kh1

A lost move; why keep the king ensconced behind these pawns instead of putting them forward?

26. ... Nf5 27. h3 Nd4 28. Rc1 f5 29. f3 Kf6 30. Rd1 g5 31. Ne2 Nb5 32. Rxd6 Nxd6 33. Nc3 c5 34. Kg1 Ke5 35. Kf2 Nc4 36. b3 Na3 37. Ke2 Kd4 38. Kd2 Nxb1+ 39. Nxb1 Bd7 40. g3 Bc6 41. f4 gxf4 42. gxf4 

42. ... h4

This may be called the winning move; White's king's bishop's pawn is now at the mercy of Black.

 43. Nc3 Bg2 44. Ne2+ Ke4 45. Ng1 Kxf4 46. Kd3 Bd5

The student will perceive the advantage of the pawns being on different colored squares from the bishop, thus effectually barring the advance of the White king.

47. Ke2 Kg3 48. Ke3 Bg2 49. Kd3 Bf1+ 50. Ke3 Bb5 51. a3 Ba6 52. Nf3 f4+ 53. Ke4 Bb7+ 54. Kd3 Bxf3

White resigns.

Source: Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, August 16, 1856 (notes by William J.A. Fuller).

  Napoleon Marache - Frederick Perrin

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3 (final), game 1

  • New York, April 18, 1856

  • B45 Sicilian Defense, Taimanov Variation

1. e4 c5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Nc3 e6 4. d4 cxd4 5. Nxd4 Bc5 6. Nb3 Bb6 7. Bd3

Nb5 was perhaps stronger, as it compelled Black to throw forward his pawn to d5, which White should have exchanged, thus separating a pawn from the line of its fellows.

7. ... Nge7 8. 0-0 0-0 9. Kh1 f5 10. exf5

Weak play; f4 was the most obvious move, and certainly more chess like.

10. ... Nxf5

Better than taking with pawn.

11. Ne4

Certainly very injudicious; his adversary's next move compels the knight to march bootlessly back to his old post, as his best move. White should have ventured the queen to g4, braving the attack of queen's knight, or playing pawn to f4.

11. ... d5 12. Nc3 Qh4

A good move.

13. Bxf5 Rxf5 14. f4 Rh5 15. h3

Compulsory.

15 ... Ne7 16. Qf3 Nf5 17. Kh2 Nh6 18. Nd1 Bd7 19. Be3 Ng4+ 20. Kh1 Bxe3 21. Nxe3 Nxe3 22. Qxe3 Re8 23. Qf2

These different exchanges being made, White had then a fine game by playing either knight to c5, queen's rook to d1, or queen to f3, and yet, with these advantages, he must have labored under some strange hallucination, when he made the move in the text, crippling himself at this precious moment.

23. ... Qxf2

Properly taking advantage of his adversary's blunder.

24. Rxf2 

24. ... g5

Correct and accurate; we should call that almost the winning move, forcing a "passed pawn."

25. Nc5 Bc6 26. fxg5 Rxg5 27. Rf6

Double rooks was much more to the point.

27. ... e5 28. Raf1 d4 29. R1f2 Rg6 30. Rxg6+ hxg6 31. Rf6 Kg7 32. Re6 Rxe6 33. Nxe6+ Kf6 34. Nc5 e4 35. Kg1 Ke5 36. Kf2 b6 37. Nb3

Nd3 might have given White a chance to draw. The ending of this game is well played by Mr. P., and wretchedly by Mr. M.

37. ... e3+ 38. Kg3 Be4 39. Na1 b5 40. a3 a5 41. b3 g5 42. a4 b4

White surrenders.

Sources: The New York Clipper, June 21, 1856 (notes by Napoleon Marache), and August, 16, 1856; Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, August 23, 1856; New York Saturday Courier, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65.

Frederick Perrin - Napoleon Marache

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3 (final), game 2

  • New York, April 1856

  • D07 Queen's Gambit Declined, Chigorin's Defense

1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. e3 Nf6 4. Nc3 Nc6 5. Nf3 Ne7

This move is not found in the "books," we believe; we remember it as being played by Mr. Stanley in his celebrated match with Mr. Rousseau in New Orleans. It is brought over to the king's side to neutralize the action of Black's king's bishop. The move certainly deserves consideration.

6. Bd3 Ng6 7. 0-0 c6 8. b3 Bd6 9. c5

Premature; queen or queen's bishop brought into play was much stronger.

9. ... Bc7 10. e4 

10. ... Ba5

A powerful counter move; White's knight is now defenseless, and he has but the option of losing a piece or the "exchange" for a piece and pawn. He chooses the latter.

11. e5 Bxc3 12. exf6 Bxa1 13. fxg7 Rg8 14. Qc2

With the intention of confining his adversary's bishop.

14. ... Nh4 15. Be3

Finely played; this move was made after mature deliberation. To understand the merit of this move, the student will be amply repaid by examining the following variations. Suppose White to play:  15. Nxh4 Qxh4, attacking queen's pawn with queen and bishop. 16. Be3 (16. Bxh7 Rxg7 17. Bd3 (Best) 17. ... Bxd4 18. Be3 Be5, with a splendid position and the superiority of a rook; 16. g3 Qxd4 17. Be3 Qxg7, and will win, with still a clear piece; 16. Bb2 Bxb2 17. Qxb2 Rxg7, and will win, having a fine position and the piece) 16. ... Bxd4 17. g3 (17. Bxh7 Rxg7 18. Bd3 Bd7, and with care, must win) 17. ... Qf6, and must win, having the advantage of a clear rook; or 15. Bxh7 Nxf3+ 16. gxf3 Rxg7+ 17. Kh1 Qf6 (Threatening mate) 18. Qd3 (Best) 18. ... Bxd4, and must win. If White plays for his 14th move Bh6, White replies with Bxd4: White then takes bishop with knight, and Black follows up the attack by playing queen to h4, having a fine position and the advantage of the "exchange."

15. ... Nxf3+ 16. gxf3 Rxg7+ 17. Kh1 Qf6

Threatening mate as well as releasing his own bishop.

18. Qe2 Bxd4 19. b4 Be5 20. f4 Bxf4 21. Qf3 e5 22. Re1 Be6

Probably as strong and conclusive as any on the board; at its termination, Mr. Montgomery, of Georgia, suggested Bg4 as perhaps the most speedy and preferable mode of play at this point. Let us see: 22. ... Bg4 23. Qg2 Be2 24. Qh3 Bxd3 25. Bxf4 Qxf4 26. Qxd3 Kd7, and must win; yet we still think that the move in the text proves the shortest road to victory.

23. b5 Qh4

Again a mating move.

24. Bxf4 Qxf4 25. Qe2 e4 26. bxc6

Sheer desperation.

26. ... bxc6 27. Ba6 Bg4,

and White cannot avoid the mate in three moves.

Sources: The New York Clipper, May 24, 1856 (notes by Napoleon Marache), and August, 23, 1856; New York Saturday Courier, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65.

Perrin was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.

Napoleon Marache - Frederick Perrin

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3 (final), game 3

  • New York, May 1856

  • B20 Sicilian Defense

1. e4 c5 2. Bc4 e6 3. d3 a6 4. a3 d5 5. exd5 exd5 6. Ba2 Nf6 7. Bf4 Nc6 8. Ne2 Bd6 9. Nbc3 Be6 10. 0-0 Bxf4 11. Nxf4 Qd6 12. Qd2 0-0 13. Rae1 Nd4 14. Nce2 Nf5 15. Ng3 Nh4 16. Nfh5 Nxh5 17. Nxh5 Bg4 18. Qg5 Bxh5 19. Qxh5 Qf6 20. Bxd5 Rab8 21. Be4 b6 22. Qxh7, mate

There is nothing in this game that particularly demands annotation, and we should not give it place in our columns were it not that we have decided to publish all the games of this match, that our readers may have a fair and full opportunity of judging the strength of our leading New York players.

Sources: The New York Clipper, August, 30, 1856; Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, September 6, 1856 (notes by William J.A. Fuller); New York Saturday Courier, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65.

Frederick Perrin - Napoleon Marache

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3 (final), game 4

  • New York, May 1856

  • C40 King's Knight Opening

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 f5

Black persisted in playing this move in two or three games of the match; it is condemned by all authorities as weak and unsound.

3. exf5 Qf6

3. ... d6 4. g4 h5 5. Bh3 hxg4 6. Bxg4 g6, and we think Black's game equal, if not superior to White's; or 3. ... e4 4. Qe2 d5 5. d3 (Pawn to g4 may be played here, but we think with disadvantage) 5. ... Bxf5 6. dxe4 (If White at this point plays Nc3, Black replies with Nf6 or Bb4, with no inferior game) 6. ... Bxe4 7. Qb5+ Nd7 8. Qxb7 Ngf6.

4. Qe2 d6 5. d4 Nc6 6. dxe5 dxe5

Very weak calculation: knight takes pawn was the play. Let us see: 6. ... Nxe5 7. g4 Be7 (If White attempts to pin the queen with bishop, he loses a piece: therefore he supports the knight's pawn) 8. h3 h5, and the game is about equal.

7. g4 h5

Bd7 would have been better chess.

8. Bg5 Qd6 9. Nc3 Nf6 10. Nb5 Qe7 11. Nh4

Well played; after this move, we cannot say much in favor of Black's game.

11. ... Nd4 12. Nxd4 exd4 13. Qxe7+ Bxe7 14. Ng6 Rh7 15. 0-0-0 

15. ... Bd6

If this be his only defense, then the game is indeed hopeless.

16. Bxf6 gxf6 17. f3 hxg4 18. fxg4 Bd7 19. Bg2 0-0-0 20. h4 Bc5 21. h5 Bb5 22. Rhe1 d3 23. cxd3 Bxd3 24. Nf4 Rhd7 25. Ne6 Bf8 26. Nxf8 Rxf8 27. Re3 Bc4

Uphill work enough without this additional oversight: Ba6 would have been the strongest.

28. Bxb7+

This is a blow from which Black could not recover against so skillful an antagonist.

28. ... Kd8 29. Rxd7+ Kxd7 30. Bg2 Rg8 31. Bf3 Bxa2

Still another blunder.

32. b3 Bxb3 33. Rxb3 Ke7 34. Rb7 Kd6 35. Rxa7 Rg7 36. Kd2 Rd7 37. Ke3 Ke7 38. Bc6 Rd1 39. Rxc7+,

and Black resigns

Sources: The New York Clipper, September 6, 1856; Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, September 13, 1856 (notes by William J.A. Fuller); New York Saturday Courier, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65.

The New York Clipper and the New York Saturday Courier offered the additional moves 39. ... Kf8 40. Kf4 Rf1+ 41. Bf3 Kg8 42. h6 Kh8 43. Rf7 Rc1 44. Rxf6 Rc4+ 45. Kg5 Rc8 46. Bd5, before Black surrendered.

Perrin was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.

Napoleon Marache - Frederick Perrin

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3 (final), game 5

  • New York, May 1856

  • B20 Sicilian Defense

1. e4 c5 2. Bc4 e6 3. Nc3 a6 4. a3 b5 5. Be2

Ba2 is the best move at this juncture.

5. ... Bb7 6. Bf3

Pawn to d4 would have freed his game more.

6. ... Nf6 7. d3 d5 8. exd5 exd5 9. Nge2 Bd6 10. Bg5 Be5 11. 0-0 0-0 12. d4 cxd4 13. Nxd4 Qd7

Queen to c7 looks tempting, but would result in Black's losing a pawn at least, as the following variations will show: 13. ... Qc7 14. Bxf6 Bxf6 (Best) 15. Bxd5 Rd8 (Or 15. ... Bxd4 16. Qxd4 Rd8 17. Qe4, with the advantage of a pawn) 16. Bxb7 Rxd4 (Or 16. ... Bxd4 17. Qf3 Ra7 18. Bd5, with a pawn ahead and the advantage in position) 17. Qe2, and Black cannot take bishop without mate.

14. Nde2 Ne4 15. Bxe4 dxe4 16. Qxd7 Nxd7 17. Rad1 Nc5 18. Be7 Rfc8 19. Rd2 Ne6 20. Rfd1 f5 21. Bd6 Bf6 22. Nf4 Nxf4 23. Bxf4 g5 24. Be3 Bxc3 25. bxc3 f4 26. Bb6 Re8 27. Rd7 Bc6 28. Rc7 Rad8 29. Bd4 Bd5 30. Rg7+ Kf8 

31. Rxg5

White had a striking advantage at this point, and, with care, must have won. We can best say, as we have previously stated, that he lacked in this partie "continuity of effort."

31. ... Be6 32. Re5 Bg4 33. Bc5+ Kf7 34. Rxd8 Rxd8 35. Bd4 Re8 36. Rxe8 Kxe8 37. Be5 f3 38. h3 Be6 39. gxf3 exf3 40. Kh2 Bd5 41. Kg3 Kf7 42. Kf4 Ke6 43. h4 Ba8 44. Bd4 Bd5 45. Ke3 Kf5 46. Bb6 Ke5 47. Bc7+ Ke6 48. Kd4 Bb7 49. c4 Kd7 50. Bb6 bxc4 51. Kxc4 Be4

and though the struggle was prolonged some twenty moves, it was ultimately drawn.

Sources: The New York Clipper, September 13, 1856; Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, September 27, 1856 (notes by William J.A. Fuller); New York Saturday Courier, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65.

Napoleon Marache - Frederick Perrin

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3 (final), game 6

  • New York, 1856

  • B21 Sicilian Defense

1. e4 c5 2. d4

Perhaps the strongest reply for White.

2. ... cxd4 3. Qxd4 Nc6 4. Qd1 e6 5. Bd3 Bc5 6. Nf3 Nge7 7. 0-0 d5 8. Bf4 Ng6 9. Bg3 dxe4 10. Bxe4 Qxd1 11. Rxd1 f5

We certainly pronounce this move as premature, for after the different exchanges are made, Black remains with an unsupported pawn on the line of queen's bishop.

12. Bxc6+ bxc6 13. Ne5

Bd6 would have given White the better position. The move in the text involves him in difficulties, as the sequel will show.

13. ... f4

The best move.

14. Nxg6 fxg3 

15. hxg3

A palpable error; why not capture the rook at once? Where was the danger? Too much timidity is often the forerunner of reverence at chess. White having the advantage of the "exchange," should have boldly brought his pieces into play.

15. ... hxg6 16. Nc3 0-0 17. Ne4 Be7 18. f3 Ba6 19. Kf2 Rad8 20. Rh1 Rd4 21. Rh3

After this additional blunder, White's game is hopeless. Mr. M. must have been laboring under some strange hallucination to commit himself thus far in so important a match.

21. ... Rxe4,

and White surrendered.

Sources: The New York Clipper, September 20, 1856; Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, September 27, 1856 (notes by William J.A. Fuller); New York Saturday Courier, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65.

Frederick Perrin - Napoleon Marache

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3 (final), game 7

  • New York, May 1856

  • C40 King's Knight Opening

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 f5

Obstinate for Black to persist in such a venturesome debut in so important a match.

3. Nxe5 Qf6 4. d4 d6 5. Nf3

This strikes us as a departure from the books.

5. ... fxe4 6. Qe2 Qe7

Black should have quietly pushed pawn to d5 at this juncture.

7. Ng5 Nf6

Why not again move pawn to d5? We certainly take it to be the strongest play.

8. f3 d5 9. fxe4 Nxe4 10. Nxe4 Qxe4 11. Qxe4+ dxe4 12. Bc4 Nc6 13. c3 Bd7

We can scarcely recognize Mr. M.'s style of play in this opening, from the timidity which seems to counter-balance his usual foresight and judgment; indeed, we must pronounce this the least instructive of the whole match. Bf5 is preferable to the move made.

14. Bg5

Mr. P. properly takes advantage of his opponent's weak play. Just mark the difference of the two games; Black is already cramped at home, whilst his antagonist is perfectly free and at liberty to attack either wing. Those two bishops are well posted.

14. ... Be7 15. Bxe7 Kxe7 16. Nd2 Rae8 17. 0-0

It must be evident to the student that White would have lost a piece, had he ventured to capture the king's pawn.

17. ... e3 18. Nb3 Kd8 19. Rae1 Re7 20. Rf3 Rhe8 21. Nc5 Bc8 22. Bb5

Better than the obvious move of Bf7.

22. ... a6 23. Bxc6 bxc6 24. Nd3 Be6 25. Ne5 Bd5 26. Rfxe3 Kc8 27. c4 Bg8 28. b3 Kb7 29. Kf2 g5 30. Kg3 h5 31. h3 Bh7 

32. Ng4

An excellent move; virtually deciding the game, since Black cannot avoid the exchange of rooks.

32. ... Rxe3+ 33. Rxe3 Rxe3+ 34. Nxe3 Bb1 35. a3 a5 36. b4 axb4 37. axb4 Bd3 38. h4 gxh4+ 39. Kxh4 Bg6 40. Kg5 Bf7 41. g3 Kc8 42. c5 Kd7 43. Kf6 Be6 44. Kg6 Bg4 45. Nxg4 hxg4 46. Kg5 Ke6 47. Kxg4 Kd5 48. Kf5 Kxd4 49. g4 Kc4 50. g5 Kxb4 51. g6 Kxc5 52. g7

and wins the game. This is, perhaps, the dullest game we have seen played between these two doughty knights.

Sources: The New York Clipper, September 27, 1856; Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, November 1, 1856 (notes by William J.A. Fuller); New York Saturday Courier, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65.

Perrin was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.

Napoleon Marache - Frederick Perrin

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3 (final), game 8

  • New York, May 1856

  • C20 King's Pawn Game

1. e4 e5 2. c3 d5 3. Nf3 dxe4 4. Nxe5 Bd6 5. Nc4

Preferable to advancing pawn to d4; in that case Black would unhesitatingly have exchanged bishop for knight, and then captured the queen to prevent White from castling, with an advantageous position.

5. ... Nf6 6. Be2 Be6 7. 0-0 Nc6 8. d4

The moment propice for the advance of this pawn.

8. ... Bxc4 9. Bxc4 Qd7 10. f3

An excellent move.

10. ... exf3

Was not our worthy secretary hasty in taking that pawn? Should he not have castled with king's rook instead? We certainly think that the move in the text gave him a cramped position after the succeeding moves, though without material disadvantage.

11. Re1+ Ne7 12. Qxf3 0-0-0

We would do injustice to Mr. P. were we to say that he was expressly prepared to lose a valuable pawn without gaining its equivalent; on the contrary, it was overlooked.

13. Bxf7 Kb8

The student need not be told that Black's queen was in danger had he not retreated king to b8.

14. Be6 Qe8 15. Bg5 Rf8 16. Qe2 Qg6 17. Bxf6 Rxf6 18. Nd2 Rdf8 19. Nf3 Qh6 

20. Bg4

Perhaps the only good move to save him from immediate loss; it was made after long deliberation, and had White played bishop to h3, he would have lost a piece.

20. ... a6

Preparatory to planting his knight to d5; this is a wise move, and a necessary one for the retreat of king, for, were he to play Nd5, then he would be mated in two moves. Counter-acting his adversary's last move. We are inclined to believe that Black has the best position at this point.

21. c4 c5 22. b4

Well played.

22. ... cxd4

Had we controlled Black at this juncture, we should have played Nc6, which would have proved an embarrassing move for White to answer.

23. c5 Bc7 24. Qxe7 Rxf3 25. Bxf3 Qxh2+ 26. Kf2 Qg3+ 27. Ke2 Rf5

Having in view the winning of the queen.

28. Kd3 Rxf3+

Sheer desperation.

29. gxf3 Qxf3+ 30. Kxd4 Qf4+ 31. Kc3 g5 32. Re4 Qf3+ 33. Re3 Qf5 34. Qe6 Qf4 35. Rae1

White at last succeeds in doubling his rooks, and he must now speedily win, having the advantage of a clear piece.

35. ... a5 36. a3

The best move; had he captured the offered pawn, Black would have struggled to effect a draw by perpetual check.

36. ... Qh4 37. Qg8+ Ka7 38. b5 Bg3 39. b6+ Ka6 40. Qa8+

Messrs. King and Fuller, who were looking on, at the termination of the game suggested the following, and, we may say, more scientific ending: 40. Qc4+ Qxc4+ 41. Kxc4 Bb8 (Best) 42. Re8, and mates in two moves.

40. ... Kb5 41. Rb1+ Kc6 42. Qc8+

Black resigns.

Sources: The New York Clipper, October 4, 1856; Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, November 8, 1856 (notes by William J.A. Fuller); New York Saturday Courier, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65.

Frederick Perrin - Napoleon Marache

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3 (final), game 9

  • New York, July 1856

  • B44 Sicilian Defense

1. e4 c5

The first instance of Black playing a "close opening" in this match. The move is certainly a safe one, and, perhaps, the strongest that can be adopted.

2. Nf3 Nc6 3. d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4 e6 5. Nf3 Bc5 6. Bd3 Nge7 7. Nc3 d5 8. exd5 Nxd5 9. Nxd5 Qxd5 10. 0-0 0-0 11. Ng5 f5 12. b3

Seemingly with the intention of playing Bb2, but its real motive was to induce Black to push pawn to e5.

12. ... Ne5

It is obvious that Black would have lost his queen had he played the coveted move pawn to e5; as in that case White would have retorted Bc4, wining at a canter.

13. Bb2

To free the queen's bishop and bring him into action.

13. ... b6 14. Bxe5 Qxe5 15. Bc4 Qf6 16. Qh5 h6 17. Nh3 Kh7 18. Kh1

To understand the care with which all this portion of this important game was played, refer to the time table. [Black's 17th move took twelve minutes, and White's 18th move ten minutes—JvW] Indeed, we look upon it as the only game of the whole match (unless it were the eighth, which we did not see) that was played with really commendable attention.

18. ... e5 19. Bd5 Rb8 20. f4 exf4 21. Nxf4 Be3

For the purpose of exchanging bishop for knight, and afterwards capturing queen's rook.

22. Rae1

Forced to move either this rook or the knight.

22. ... Bxf4 23. Rxf4 Bb7 24. c4 Rbe8

Well played. He here leaves two pieces en prise; but should White capture either of them he would be mated in three or four moves.

25. Rff1 g6 26. Qf3 Bc8 27. Qf4 Re7 28. Re3 Rfe8 29. Rxe7+ Rxe7 30. h3

Necessary, on account of the bearing of the queen. Besides this defensive reason, the move served a double purpose of its own - to free his king and give action to his rook.

30. ... Qe5 31. Qxe5 Rxe5 32. Rf2 Kg7

We look upon this move as the hair's weight that turned the scale. Of itself alone it is almost unnoticeable; but it is the preparatory element, however subtle, that enabled him at the decisive crisis to have his king one move nearer the gist of the battle and thus win the closest game of the match. Up to this point the game was perfectly even, and the protracted struggle to get control of the position was right chessfully maintained by both combatants, and is an excellent model of determined and scientific chess. 

 

33. a4

We do not approve of this; b4 would have been much more effective.

33. ... Re3 34. Rf3 Rxf3 35. gxf3 Bd7

A good move, and another subtle element of this victory; as White cannot now command the diagonal already occupied by Black, who also impedes the progress of the pawns. From this point the manoeuvring of the kings, on whom alone their own battle depends, is really pretty and skillful.

36. f4 g5 37. Kg2 Kf6

A ray of light now glimmers on Black's game. Several of the second-rate amateurs left at about this time, declaring that the game must be drawn. Not so, think the stubborn warriors.

38. Kg3 Ke7 39. Bf3 Kd6 40. Kf2 Kc5 41. Ke3 Kb4 42. Bd1 Kc3

This is the "feather that breaks the camel's back." He has now got the "opposition" and the control of the game, but it requires delicate handling. The student will improve his skill by tracing carefully the several (of themselves) little subtleties which bring about this victory.

43. Ke2 Bc6 44. Kf2 gxf4 45. h4 a5

He could not move his king to advantage at this juncture unless this pawn were first pushed. Perhaps attacking bishop with king had been equally speedy. In this case probably White would have played Bf3, offering an exchange; still the result would have been the same, as Black would first get to queen.

46. Ke2 Be4 47. Kf2 Kd2 48. Bh5 Kc3 49. Bf7 Kd4

Fearing to capture knight's pawn on account of the discovered check.

50. Be6 Ke5 51. Bf7 Bc2 52. c5

Still on the qui vive for any slip of his adversary.

52. ... bxc5 53. Ke2 Be4 54. Bc4 Bd5 55. Bxd5 Kxd5 56. Kf3 Ke5,

and though the scale did "turn but in the estimation of a hair," so even, and accurate and stubborn, was the contest, Black was now acknowledged victor. This gallant fight lasted four hours and fifty minutes.

Sources: The New York Clipper, October 11, 1856 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine*); Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, November 29, 1856; New York Saturday Courier, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65.

Perrin was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.

Napoleon Marache - Frederick Perrin

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3 (final), game 10

  • New York, August 1856

  • B13 Caro-Kann, Exchange Variation

1. c4 c5 2. e3 e6 3. d4 cxd4 4. exd4 d5 5. Nf3 Nc6 6. Be2

Bd3 appears to us to be better chess.

6. ... Nf6 7. 0-0 Bd6 8. Nc3 0-0 9. Be3 a6 10. Qd2 dxc4 11. Bxc4 b5 12. Bd3 Bb7 13. Ne4 Nxe4

We must believe that Black at this point has rather the best of the position.

14. Bxe4 f5 15. Bb1

White chooses the sacrificing of a piece for an attack, as the sequel shows. This move was made only upon the mature deliberation of 15 minutes, a very long time for Mr. M. Had he played bishop takes knight, the following train of play would probably have followed: 15. Bxc6 Bxc6 16. Ne5 Bxe5 17. dxe5 Qxd2 18. Bxd2 Bd5, and there is not much difference in the game.

15. ... f4

16. Qd3 fxe3

Had Black spent 15 (or 50, for that matter) instead of only five minutes in calculation here, we opine this miscalculation never would have been made. It was an apparent prize, fit only to obscure the judgment of a knight player. He overlooked or underrated the strong position of his adversary's knight and one move that we shall see. We think his game quite hopeless after this move.

17. Qxh7+ Kf7 18. Bg6+ Kf6

Mate in two moves would have been Black's reward for placing king on e7.

19. fxe3 Ne7 20. Nh4+

A singular oversight. White has now a forced mate in two moves. He, however, finishes off in fine style.

20. ... Nf5 21. Bxf5 exf5 22. Qxf5+ Ke7 23. Ng6+ Ke8 24. Qe6+ Qe7 25. Rxf8, mate,

winning game, match and the championship.

Sources: Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, August 9, 1856; The New York Clipper, October 11, 1856 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine*); New York Saturday Courier, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65.

Charles D. Mead, Frederick Perrin

The New York Chess Club that produced a champion in 1856, was established in November 1852.6 The club, meeting at 385 Broadway, had no official  status then. Frederick Perrin was honorary secretary; he managed the club, no other officers being elected. This state of affairs persevered until May 15, 1856, when the New York Chess Club was regularly organized. Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper (May 31, 1856):

There was not a full attendance of members, although very general notice had been given of the special object of the meeting. There was a perfect unanimity of feeling in regard to all the nominees except those for the Presidency. For this office the members were divided in opinion between Messrs. Anderson and Mead. The ballotings were as follows:

1st: Anderson, 11; Mead, 9; Scattering, 3.

2nd: Anderson, 11; Mead 10; Scattering, 2.

3rd: Anderson, 12; Mead, 11, Scattering, 1.

4th: Anderson, 14, Mead, 9.

After the announcement of the result, Mr. Anderson gracefully declined, in a very neat and modest speech, at the same time signifying his willingness to accept the post of Vice President. Whereupon Mr. Mead was unanimously declared President, and Mr. Anderson Vice President.

The other officers chosen were Perrin (secretary), King (treasurer), and F. Bernier, Gallantin and Marache, who were members of the executive committee.7 The New York Chess Club counted approximately fifty members in May 1856 .8 

The By-Laws of the club were adopted about three weeks later, at a meeting of the New York Chess Club on June 8, 1856.9 The rules:

1. That the Society meet every Tuesday, Thursday and Friday, at 7 o'clock, and that the rooms be closed at eleven o'clock.

2. That the annual subscription of each member be eight dollars, to be paid in advance to the proprietor of the rooms; the subscriptions to commence at the date of entrance.

3. That if the subscription be not paid within two months, a fine of half a dollar shall be imposed; and if not paid within three months, the Member shall be considered as having resigned, except in case of illness or absence from town.

4. That new Members may be admitted on application to the Secretary of the Club.

5. That any Member may introduce a friend occasionally, if resident in New York or its environs; if non-resident, for such period as he remain in New York, not exceeding two months.

6. That the Editors of the New York Press be admitted at the Club meetings as Honorary Members.

7. That the affairs of the Society shall be under the management of its Officers, consisting of a President, Vice-President, Secretary and Treasurer, who shall be elected annually by ballot, on the Third Thursday in May.

8. That the Officers (any three of whom shall constitute a quorum) have the power to elect non-resident Honorary Members, enjoying the same privileges as Subscribers.

9. That to make any alteration in the By-Laws, at least two weeks' notice must be given to the Officers, who shall select a convenient evening for the discussion - a majority of votes to be conclusive.

10. That no betting is allowed.

11. That no wines, spirits, or malt liquors, shall be introduced into the Club-rooms; nor shall smoking be allowed except in one of the rooms.

12. That if a member break any of the Chess-men, he must replace it with a new piece.

13. That any spectator who shall interfere with the game of a party, by speaking or offering an opinion on their play while the game is proceeding, shall be fined Twelve Cents.

14. That the Laws of the Game, as stated in Mr. H. Staunton's and Mr. George Walker's Treatises on Chess shall be adopted.

15. That no other game than Chess be allowed during the hours of meeting.

16. That the rooms close from the 15th of June to the 1st of October.

17. That each member sign the By-Laws.

The rules  above were altered and adapted from those of the English clubs.

At the time that the New York Chess Club was officially organized, the club met at the house of Perrin, 19 East Twelfth Street. It had moved to the new headquarters on May 8, 1856.10 Previous to that the society had accommodations at 385 Broadway (from November 1852 until May 1853)11, 87 Fourth Avenue (from May 1853 until May 1854)12, and 158 East Tenth Street (from May 1854 until May 1856). The rooms at Perrin's place seem to have been "spacious, airy and comfortable."13  

Miron J. Hazeltine, James Thompson

Another champion of the New York Chess Club was James Thompson. He did not participate in the 1856 tourney probably because he was on a visit to Europe. Thompson was victorious in 1855.

This competition commenced in March 1855. The first pairing was published in the New York Saturday Courier of March 10, 1855. Sixteen players attended the handicap. They were (in alphabetic order): C.E. Anderson, Aupoix, N.J. Hamilton, Miron J. Hazeltine, Thomas Loyd, Adelmour W. King, Martin Mantin, Napoleon Marache. William C. Miller, Adolphe Möhle, A. Perrin, Frederick Perrin, Eduard D. Pindar, T.W. Reeve, James Thompson, and Zust.

Like in 1856, the meeting was a knock-out tournament, in which the competitors were paired by lot. Miron J. Hazeltine, chess editor of the New York Saturday Courier, wrote about the pairing in the first round:

For the interest of the after matches this was a most fortunate drawing, no two of the strongest players being pitted together.

The winner of three games was declared victor of a match.14 Further particulars of the tournament (such as entrance fee, prizes, tournament rules, etc.), which was terminated in May 1855, are missing.

The progress of the 1855 championship of New York:15

Aupoix

+3 =0 -2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Loyd

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Loyd gave odds of queen)

 

 Aupoix

 

 

 

 

Mantin

 

 

 Miller

+3 =1 -2

 

 

 

 

Miller

+3 =0 -2

 

 (Miller gave odds of queen's

 

 

 

 

(Mantin gave odds of pawn

 

 rook)

 

 

 

 

and two moves)

 

 

 

 Miller

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Möhle

+3 =1 -1

 

 

Möhle

+3 =0 -2

 

 

 

 (Möhle gave odds of pawn

 

 

Reeve

 

 

 

 

 and two moves)

 

 

(Möhle gave odds of pawn

 

 Möhle

+3 =1 -2

 

 

 

 

and two moves)

 

 Pindar

 

 

 

 

 

A. Perrin

 

 

 (Pindar gave odds of pawn

 

 

 

 

Pindar

+3 =0 -1

 

 and move)

 

 

 

 Möhle

 

(Pindar gave odds of pawn

 

 

 

 

 

 Thompson

+3 =0 -0

and two moves)

 

 

 

 

 

 (Thompson gave odds of

 

 

 

 

 

 

 pawn and two moves, and

Marache

+3 =0 -1

 

 

 

 

 

 pawn and move alternately)

Zust

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Marache gave odds of

 

 Anderson

 

 

 

 

 

queen and received in

 

 Marache

+3 =2 -2

 

 

 

 

return pawn and move)

 

 (Marache gave odds of pawn

 

 

 

 

Anderson

+3 =0 -2

 

 and move)

 

 

 

 

King

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Marache

 

 

 

Hazeltine

 

 

 

 

 Thompson

+3 =2 -2

 

 

F. Perrin

+3 =0 -1

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Perrin gave odds of queen's

 

 

 

 

 

 

knight)

 

 Perrin

 

 

 

 

 

Hamilton

 

 

 Thompson

+3 =0 -0

 

 

 

 

Thompson

+3 =0 -1

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Thompson gave odds of

 

 

 

 

 

 

queen's rook)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Twenty-one games have been recovered.

James Thompson - N.J. Hamilton

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 1

  • New York, March 1855

  • Odds of Queen's Rook

1. e4 c5 2. f4 e6 3. Nf3 Nc6 4. c3 a6

Too slow; he should rather have brought out his pawns on the king's side.

5. d4 d5 6. exd5 exd5 7. Bd3 Bg4 8. 0-0 cxd4 9. Qe1+ Qe7 10. Ne5 Nxe5 11. fxe5 Qc5 12. Qf2 Be6 13. cxd4 Qc7 14. Nc3 Bb4 15. Ne2 Ne7 16. Nf4 Nc6 17. Be3 b5

Perfectly useless.

18. Nh5 Bf8 19. Qg3 0-0-0

This would have been much safer without his own 17th move.

20. a4

An excellent rejoinder.

20. ... Qb7 21. axb5 axb5 22. Nf4 g6 23. Nxe6 fxe6 24. Qh3 Re8 25. Bxg6 Re7 26. Bh5 Bg7 27. Bg5 Rf8 28. Rc1 Kb8 29. Qd3

Ingenious, but not strong enough, getting caught (as he afterwards humorously remarked) in his own trap. We suggest instead of Qd3, Bxe7, if White retakes with queen, he loses the knight. If 29. ... Nxe7, 30. Qxh7, having gained the exchange and two pawns, nearly recovering the original odds.

29. ... Rc7 30. Bd2 Nb4 31. Qb3 Rxc1+ 32. Bxc1 Nc6,

and we think White would have sold his prospects of victory for a very small trifle; but by one or two of those faux pas which young players are apt to make, and on which the adept reckons when he gives such odds, White lost the game, resigning at the 44th move.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably March 24, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

Thompson was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.  

Frederick Perrin - Miron J. Hazeltine

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 1, game 1

  • New York, March 1855

  • Odds of Queen's Knight

1. e4 c5 2. f4 e6 3. Nf3 Nc6 4. c3 d5 5. e5 d4 6. d3 Be7 7. Be2 Nh6 8. 0-0 0-0 9. Nd2 f6 10. Ne4 fxe5 11. fxe5 Rxf1+ 12. Qxf1 Nxe5 13. Bxh6 gxh6 14. Qf4 Nf7 15. Rf1 Qf8 16. Qg3+ Qg7 17. Qc7

All this, from the 14th move, is a very formidable attack.

17. ... Ng5 18.Bh5 

18. ... Bf8 

Instead of this we think he should have taken knight with knight.

19. Qd8 Qe7

White had hardly gauged the full answering force of this move.

20. Nf6+ Kh8 21. Ne8 Kg8

And the utmost White can make of his position is a drawn game. Both champions here amused themselves, for a while, by shaking the stumps of their broken lances at each other, until, having recovered breath, White made a fresh charge for victory.

22. Nf6+ Kh8 23. Ne8 Kg8 24. Qxe7 Bxe7 25. h4 Bd7 26. Nf6+ Bxf6 27. Rxf6 Be8 28. Bxe8 Rxe8 29. hxg5 hxg5,

and White has won back his piece, it is true, but has left his opponent with a superiority of two pawns, to the force of which he ultimately surrendered. The contest lasted three hours and a quarter.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably March 24, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

Perrin was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.  

Frederick Perrin - Miron J. Hazeltine

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 1, game 3

  • New York, March 1855

  • Odds of Queen's Knight

1. d4 d5 2. c4 e6 3. a3 c5 4. e3 f5 5. h4 h5 6. Be2 Nf6 7. Nf3 Ne4 8. Ne5 Qa5+ 9. b4 cxb4 10. Bxh5+ Rxh5 11. Qxh5+ Kd8 12. 0-0 Nf6 13. Qf7 Nbd7 14. e4 Nxe5 15. Qxf8+ Ne8 16. Bg5+ Kc7 17. axb4 Ng6 18. Qf7+,

and Black surrendered.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably June 16, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

Perrin was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly. 

Adolphe Möhle - T.W. Reeve

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 1, game 2

  • New York, March 1855

  • Odds of Pawn and Two Moves

1. e4 - 2. d4 Nc6 3. c3 e5 4. dxe5 Nxe5 5. Nf3 Nf7 6. Bc4 Nd6 7. Bxg8 Rxg8 8. 0-0 Nf7 9. Nbd2 d6 10. Qb3 b6 11. Qd5 Bd7 12. Qh5 Rh8 13. Nb3 g6 14. Qd5 c6 15. Qd4 Rg8 16. e5 Bg7 17. Re1 dxe5 18. Qc4 Rf8 19. Nbd4 Qf6 20. Bg5 Qd6 21. Rad1 Nxg5 22. Nxg5 Rf4 23. Qb3 Qe7 24. Nde6 Bxe6 25. Nxe6 Rh4 26. Nxg7+ Qxg7 27. Qe6+ Kf8 28. Rd7 Re8 29. Qxe8+ Kxe8 30. Rxg7 Kf8 31. Rxa7 Rh5 32. Rd1 Ke8 33. Rdd7,

and Black resigned.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably March 31, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65.

Möhle was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.

Adolphe Möhle - T.W. Reeve

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 1, game 5

  • New York, April 1855

  • Odds of Pawn and Two Moves

1. e4 - 2. d4 e6 3. Nf3 c5 4. c3 Nc6 5. Be3 b6 6. Be2 Nf6 7. Nbd2

Bg5, pinning his opponent's king's knight, would have been better, perhaps.

7. ... cxd4 8. cxd4 Bb4 9. 0-0 Bxd2 10. Nxd2 0-0 11. Bc4 Bb7 12. d5 Na5 13. b3 exd5 14. exd5 Nxd5 15. Qh5 Nxc4 16. bxc4 Nf6 17. Qb5 Qe7 18. Bd4 Qd8 19. Bxf6 Rxf6 20. Qh5 Rf4 21. Rae1 Rh4 22. Qe5 Qf8 

23. Qc7

A very weak move. It places the queen altogether out of play, the attack on the bishop being worse than useless. Instead of this Ne4 is a strong move. If Black answers with Re8, then Nf6+, whereupon Black loses the exchange.

23. ... Bc6 24. Nb3

Fatal. Black's attack now becomes irresistible.

24. ... Rg4 25. g3

If Black plays f3, the termination would be f3 Bxf3 Rxf3 Qxf3 anything, his fate is “signed, sealed and delivered.”

25. ... Qf3 ,

and White resigned the game and the match.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably April 14, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

Möhle was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.

William C. Miller - Martin Mantin

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 1, game 5

  • New York, March 1855

  • Odds of Pawn and Two Moves

1. e4 - 2. d4 d6 3. d5 Nd7 4. Be3 Ngf6 5. Nd2 c5 6. Be2 Qa5 7. f3 b6 8. c4 Ne5 9. h3 Nh5 10. Kf2 Ng6 11. h4 e5 12. dxe6 Bxe6 13. g3 Be7 14. f4 Ngxf4 15. Bxf4 Nxf4 16. gxf4 0-0 17. Nh3 Bxh3 18. Rxh3 Rxf4+ 19. Nf3 Rb8 20. Qd5+ Kh8 21. Rg1 Qb4 22. b3 Rbf8 23. Ke3 Qa3 24. Rhg3 Bxh4 25. Nxh4 Rxh4 26. Qg5 g6 27. Qxh4 Qb2 28. e5 Qc3+ 29. Bd3 Qb2 30. Rxg6 Qf2+ 31. Qxf2 Rxf2 32. Kxf2,

and wins

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably April 7, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65. 

Miller was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White.

Frederick Perrin - James Thompson

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 2, game 3

  • New York, April 1855

  • D31 Queen's Gambit Declined

1. d4 d5 2. c4 c6 3. e3 Nf6 4. Nc3 e6 5. a3 c5 6. Nf3 Nc6 7. Be2 Bd6 8. 0-0 cxd4 9. exd4 dxc4 10. Bxc4 0-0 11. b3 a6 12. Bb2 Bc7 13. Bd3 Ne7 14. Qc2 Ng6 15. Ne2 Nd5 16. Rac1 Bd7 17. Ne5 Rc8 18. Qd2 Be8 19. f4

At this point we think White's forces more completely mobilized and better in hand than those of his adversary. One or two of Black's moves have certainly smacked of lost time.

19. ... f6 20. Nxg6 hxg6 21. Rf3 f5 22. Bc4 Bc6 23. Rg3 Qf6 24. Bxd5 Bxd5 25. Nc3 Bb6 26. Ne2

We cannot resist the impression that here, too, is a specimen of lost time and its direful consequences; so delicately balanced are the chances of the field, between such equal and fine players. We think the relative situation are about reversed since the 19th move.

26. ... Rxc1+ 27. Qxc1 Rd8 28. Qd2 Rc8 29. h3 e5 30. fxe5 Qxe5

Very pretty chess, this.

31. Kh1 Qe4 32. Nc3 Qh4 33. Nxd5 Qxg3

 

34. Ne7+

Nxb6 looks a winning move here, but Black, though minus a piece numerically, has such resources from his position, that with the best play, analysis shows he may still draw; but the play must be the best.

34. ... Kh7 35. Nxc8 Bc7 36. Kg1 Bf4 37. Qc3

This is the fatal move: Qe2 would have subjected him to two or three checks, but the attack, though annoying, is not fatal, and after it is over, we think White might, at least, have drawn the game. Our chess readers will find much amusement in working out the variations arising from the above suggested moves.

37. ... Be3+ 38. Kh1 Qf2 39. Qxe3 Qxe3 40. d5 Qxb3 41. d6 Qxb2,

and White struck his colors, surrendering the game and the match.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably April 21, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine*).

Perrin was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.

C.E. Anderson - Napoleon Marache

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 2, game 2

  • New York, April 1855

  • Odds of Pawn and Move

1. e4 e6 2. f4 Nh6 3. Nf3 Be7 4. Nc3 c5 5. Ne2

Pawn to d4 seems stronger at this stage of the game.

5. ... Nc6 6. c3 d5 7. Ng3 a6 8. Be2 b5 9. 0-0 0-0

White has now no advantage beyond his pawn.

10. d3 Bf6

Tempting White to push on his king's pawn.

11. e5 Be7 12. Qe1 Qe8 13. Ng5

This move involves the loss of a valuable pawn.

13. ... Bxg5 14. fxg5 Nf7 15. Bh5

Lost time.

15. ... g6 16. Bf3 Nfxe5 17. d4 cxd4 18. cxd4 Nxf3+ 19. gxf3 Nxd4 20. Qc3 Nf5 21. b3

With the intention of planting his bishop at b2.

21. ... d4 22. Qc5 Bb7 23. Bb2 Qc6 24. Bxd4 Nxd4 25. Qxc6

By the combination of which this is a part, he loses a clear piece , through apprehensions, not altogether groundless, of a strong attack being poured in concentrated fury upon his sable majesty.

25. ... Bxc6 26. Ne4 Bxe4 27. fxe4 

27. ... Nf3+

White's game is now virtually lost. Black has little to do but to make a graceful display of the weapons that remain to him after so stubborn a fight, walk to the goal, and announce his victory.

28. Kg2 Nxg5 29. Rxf8+ Rxf8 30. Re1 Rf4 31. Kg3 Rxe4 32. Rxe4 Nxe4+ 33. Kf4 Nc5 34. Ke5 Kf7 35. Kd4 Nd7 36. a4 bxa4 37. bxa4 Ke7 38. Kc4 Kd6 39. Kb4 e5 40. Ka5 e4 41. Kxa6 e3 42. Kb7 e2 43. a5 e1Q 44. a6 Qb4+ 45. Kc8 Qb8, mate

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably April 28, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

Anderson was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.

C.E. Anderson - Napoleon Marache

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 2, game 3

  • New York, April 1855

  • Odds of Pawn and Move

1. e4 Nc6 2. c3

This is unusual at this stage of this opening: d4 is, at least, more regular.

2. ... e5 3. d4 exd4 4. cxd4 Bb4+ 5. Nc3 d6 6. Bc4 Nge7 7. Nf3 Bg4 8. 0-0 a6

Qd7, for the purpose of castling, would have been much stronger.

9. a3 Ba5 10. Bg5 Rf8 11. Be2 Bb6

Again we think Qd7 preferable. This move was evidently made for the purpose of winning a pawn, but is was bad chess, since it leaves White the opportunity of capturing two valuable pawns on the king's side, which he promptly improves. Running about after pawns seldom plays in a match game.

12. d5 Bxf3 13. dxc6 Bxe2 14. Qxe2 bxc6 15. Qh5+

The result of a fine combination; fiercely charging into Black's encampment and bringing off a battalion of guards from under the very mouth of his batteries.

15. ... Kd7 16. Qh3+ Ke8 17. Qxh7 Qd7 18. Qxg7 Qe6 19. Qxe7+

White has now such an advantage that he can venture the exchange of pieces and have a clear won game.

19. ... Qxe7 20. Bxe7 Kxe7 

21. g3

Too tame; a more energetic and decisive mode of play is, we think, as in the following variation:  21. Ne2 Rf7 22. Ng3 Raf8 23.Nf5+, and 24. h4, etc., and White is coming, will soon add his queen's rook to the weight of his charging columns, and win the game.

21. ... Rf3 22. Kg2 Raf8 23. Nd1 Bd4 24. Rc1 Kd7 25. Rc2 a5 26. Nc3 R8f7 27. Nd1 c5 28. Rd2 c6 29. Re1 Ke6

Observe now the contrast between White's actual position, and what he might have obtained by the above suggested variation, or some similar mode of play which should energetically advance his "passed" king's pawns.

30. Ne3 Bxe3 31. Rxe3 Rxe3 32. fxe3 Ke5 33. Rf2 Rb7 34. Kf3 Rf7+ 35. Ke2 Rb7 36. Kf3 Rf7+ 37. Kg2 Rb7 38. h4 Kxe4 39. h5 d5 40. g4 d4 41. exd4 cxd4 42. Kf1 d3 43. Ke1 Rg7 44. Rg2 Kf3 45. Rg1 Rb7 46. Kd2 Rxb2+ 47. Kxd3 Rh2

The consummation of a long struggle. Black may now hope to turn his lost into a drawn game.

48. Kd4 Kf2 49. Rc1 Kf3 50. Kc5 Kxg4 51. Kxc6 Rxh5 52. Rc4+ Kf3 53. Rc5 Rxc5+ 54. Kxc5 Ke4

The only move at this point by which he could draw the game.

55. a4 Ke5 56. Kb5 Kd5 57. Kxa5 Kc5,

and the game is now drawn from its nature.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably May 5, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

Anderson was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.

C.E. Anderson - Napoleon Marache

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 2, game 5

  • New York, April 1855

  • Odds of Pawn and Move

1. e4 e5 2. f4 Nc6 3. Nf3 d6 4. Bc4 Qe7 5. Nc3 Nf6 6. d3 Bd7 7. Be3

Ng5 would have been much stronger at this point, as the following variation will show. Let us suppose: 7. Ng5 Nd8 (Best) 8. fxe5 dxe5 9. Nd5 Nxd5 10. Bxd5 c6 (10. ... h6 would ensure the loss of a piece, and the game by the crushing check of Qh5) 11. Bb3 g6 (Either bishop or knight to e6 would cause the loss of the king's pawn. We leave this for the student to examine) 12. 0-0, having a very strong position.

7. ... Na5

We do not see the object of this move;  unless it is to teach the White bishop due respect.

8. Bb3 h6 9. f5 Ng4 10. Qd2 c6 11. h3 Nxe3 12. Qxe3 Qd8 13. Rd1 Be7 14. 0-0 Nxb3 15. axb3 0-0 16. Ne2 Qc7 17. d4 exd4 18. Nexd4

Qxe4, followed by Nf4, was perhaps a stronger move.

18. ... Bf6 19. c3 Rae8 20. Rde1

Bad chess, involving the loss of a valuable pawn. Qd3 was preferable.

20. ... c5 21. Ne2 Bxf5 22. Ng3 Bh7 23. Qd3 Bg6 24. Re2 Re7 25. Nd2 Kh8 26. Nf5 Bxf5 27. Rxf5 Rfe8 28. Ref2 Be5 29. Rf8+ Rxf8 30. Rxf8+ Kh7 31. Qd5

This looks ominous.

31. ... Qd7

A very quiet, modest appearing move, but which proved, upon subsequent examination, the only one to save the game. That it was sufficient, the sequel shows.

32. Qg8+ Kg6 33. Nf3 Bf6 34. Qd5 Qe6

Had Black played his queen to any other square, as the student can see, he would have involved himself in some difficulties; perhaps in an immediate checkmate.

35. Qxe6 Rxe6

Now commences a perfect slaughter among the pawns.

36. Rb8 Rxe4 37. Rxb7 Re2 38. Rd7 Rxb2 39. Rxd6 Rxb3 40. Ra6 Rxc3 41. Rxa7 Kf5 42. Ra2 Ke4 43. Kf2 Kd3 44. Ne1+ Kc4 45. Ke2 Kb3 46. Rd2 c4 47. Nf3

Injudicious, since it enables Black to exchange rooks.

47. ... Rc2 48. Rxc2 Kxc2 49. Ne1+ Kb2 50. Kd1 Bg5

Black now plays to the termination of the game very skillfully.

51. Nc2 Bh4 52. Ne3 Kc3 53. Nc2 Kd3 54. Na3 Bg3 55. Nc2 h5 56. Na3 c3 57. Nc2 g5 58. Nb4+ Ke3 59. Nc2+ Kf2 60. Ne1 c2+ 61. Nxc2 Kxg2,

and White resigns.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably May 19, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

Anderson was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.

C.E. Anderson - Napoleon Marache

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 2, game 6

  • New York, April 1855

  • Odds of Pawn and Move

1. e4 e6 2. Nf3 Nh6 3. d4 Ng4 4. Nc3 d5 5. Bd3 c5 6. 0-0 Be7 7. Bb5+ Nc6 8. dxc5 Bxc5 9. exd5 exd5 10. Nxd5 0-0 11. c3 Be6 12. Nf4 Bd7 13. Bc4+ Kh8 14. b4 Bb6 15. Qb3 Nge5 16. Nxe5 Nxe5 17. Ne6 Bxe6 18. Bxe6 Qf6 19. Be3 Qg6 20. Bd5 Bc7 21. f3 Qd6 22. Bc5 Nxf3+ 23. Rxf3 Qxh2+ 24. Kf1 Qh1+ 25. Kf2 Rxf3+ 26. Bxf3 Qxa1 27. Bd4 Bh2 28. Bd1 Qc1

A weak move. Black should have checked with the rook.

29. Qf7 Qg5 30. Bf3 Bg3+ 31. Ke2 Qh6 32. Bxb7 Rd8 33. Bf3 Qa6+ 34. Kd2 Be5 35. Ke3 Qh6+ 36. Kd3 Qa6+ 37. Qc4 Qg6+ 38. Ke3 Qg5+ 39. Ke2 Bg3 40. Qf7 Bf4 41. a4 Bc1 42. Kf1 Bf4 43. Qxa7

Aware of the usual fatality attending running after pawns, White did not make this move or the 32d till after long consideration. It appears to us that equally satisfactory results might have attained with fewer moves.

43. ... Qg6 44. Qe7 Bg5 45. Qe4 Qa6+ 

46. Kg1

White should have interposed his queen's knight's pawn, and he would have achieved his victory without the exhausted struggle of 81 moves.

46. ... Qxa4 47. Qg4 Qa1+ 48. Kh2 Qc1 49. Qh3 Bf4+ 50. g3 Bh6 51. Qe6 Qg5 52. Bc6 Qg6 53. Qxg6 hxg6 54. b5 Rxd4 55. cxd4 Be3 56. d5 Bb6

The correct move would have been Bc5 at once. The student will be struck with the nicety of the position, when so apparently slight a variation leads to such difference. As it is, Black loses: the gaining of the time suggested would have given him at least an equal battle.

57. g4 Bc5 58. Kg3 g5 59. Kf3 Kg8 60. Ke4 Kf7 61. Kf5 Be3 62. d6 g6+ 63. Ke5 Bb6 64. Bd5+ Ke8 65. Ke6 Bd4 66. Be4 Kd8 67. Bb7 Be3 68. Be4 Bf4 69. Bxg6 Be3 70. Be4 Bd4 71. Bc6 Be3 72. Kf6 Bf4 73. d7 Be3 74. b6 Bxb6 75. Kxg5 Ke7 76. Kg6 Kf8 77. g5 Bd8 78. Kh6 Be7 79. g6 Bf6 80. d8Q+ Bxd8 81. g7+,

and after having thus made the sturdiest chess battle of the tournament, thus far, Black struck his colors.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably May 26, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

Anderson was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.

C.E. Anderson - Napoleon Marache

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 2, game 7

  • New York, April 1855

  • Odds of Pawn and Move

1. e4 Nc6 2. c3

This is certainly an inferior move in a game at odds. White had already been so successful in playing either d4 or f4 on the second move in the former games, that we are surprised at this debut.

2. ... e5 3. Bc4 Nf6 4. d3 Bc5 5.B g5 d6

Black avails himself of his adversary's second move: he has already a clear field.

6. Nf3 Bb6 7.b4 Qe7 8. 0-0 h6 9. Be3 g5 10. Re1 Be6 11. Nbd2 Qf7 12. Bxe6 Qxe6 13. Nc4 Ne7 14. Qa4+ Kf7

Tempting White to capture the king's knight's pawn.

15. Bxg5

Overlooking Black's powerful retort.

15. ... Rag8

This is the move White overlooked. Black now commands an open file for his rooks, which in this position more than compensates for the apparently lost pawn. This move has a commanding influence upon the game.

16. Nxb6 axb6 17. Bxf6 Qg4 18. Kf1 Kxf6

The best move. Capturing the knight's pawn looks inviting; but the following variation shows that had Black taken the proffered pawn he would have given up a strong position, and probably have lost the partie. Let us suppose: 18. ... Qxg2+ 19. Ke2 Kxf6 20. Rg1 Qh3 21. Rg3 Rxg3 (Best) 22. fxg3 Rf8 (22. ... Qg2+ would be worse than useless, as White moves  23. Ke3, and there ends the attack) 23. Rf1 Kg7, and White having the advantage of two pawns, with careful play, must win.

19. Ke2 Ng6 20. g3 Rf8 21. Qd1 Kg7 22. Ke3 Rf7 23. h3

Offering a pawn to have an open file for his rook.

23. ... Qh5 24. Rh1

A device not deep enough to catch the queen of such a player as his present antagonist.

24. ... Ne7 25. g4 Qg6 26. Nh2 Rhf8 27. f3 Qg5+ 28. Kf2 Qh4+ 29. Kg2 Ng6 30. Rf1 Nf4+ 31. Kh1 Qxh3 32. Rf2

Qd2 is, we think, the strongest move here.

32. ... Qh4 33. Qd2 Nxd3 34. Qxd3 Qxf2 35. Rf1 Qxa2 36. Qe3 Rf4 37. Rf2 Qf7 38. Kg2 

38. ... b5

A move of commanding influence on the game, unostentatious as it looks.

39. Nf1 h5 40. Nh2 Qg6 41. Kg3 c6 42. Rg2 h4+ 43. Kxh4 Rh8+ 44. Kg3 Qh6 45. Kf2 Qh4+ 46. Ke2 Qh3 47. Qf2 Ra8

Black keeps up the attack with a great deal of pertinacity.

48. Kd3 Qh7 49. Nf1 d5 50. Nd2

Throwing away his last chance to effect a draw.

50. ... Ra2 51. Qe2 dxe4+ 52. fxe4 Qh3+ 53. Qe3 Qxg2 54. Qxf4 exf4,

and White resigned the game and the match, for after his own 50th move, it was past all redemption.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably June 2, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

Anderson was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.

Adolphe Möhle - Eduard D. Pindar

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 2, game 6

  • New York, April 1855

  • Odds of Pawn and Move

1. e4 Nc6 2. d4 d5 3. e5 Be6 4. Nf3 Bg4 5. Bb5 e6 6. Qd3 Bb4+ 7. c3 Ba5 8. Nbd2 Nge7 9. Ng5 h6 10. Qg3 Bf5 11. Ngf3 Rg8 12. Nb3 Bb6 13. Nh4 Qd7 14. Be2 0-0-0 15. f4 Bh7 16. 0-0 g6 17. Qh3 Kb8 18. Nf3 h5 19. Ng5 Nf5 20. Nd2 Rg7 21. Rb1 Qe7 22. b4 Rh8 23. Nb3 Nd8 24. a4 a6 25. Ba3 Nf7 26. Bc1 Nxg5

The student cannot fail to observe the extreme care displayed in the opening of the game; that 26 moves should preface the very first capture, is almost unprecedented.

27. fxg5 Rf7 28. Nc5 Rhf8 29. a5 Ba7 30. Qd3 Nh4 

31. Rf6

Capital chess; promising, which it accomplishes, to give him a formidable "passed" pawn.

31. ... Rxf6 32. gxf6 Qe8 33. Qh3

Another clenching move, from which his adversary could not escape without loss.

33. ... g5 34. Rb2 Rg8 35. Qxe6 Qd8 36. Nd7+ Kc8

A palpable oversight; and fatal as palpable.

37. Nf8+

Assured of victory, White plays this termination with an energy and directness of purpose which no resource of this opponent can parry or resist.

37. ... Kb8 38. Nxh7 Ng6 39. f7 Rg7 40. Qe8 Qc8 41. Nxg5 Nf4 42. Qxc8+,

and Black resigned the game and the match.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably June 9, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

Napoleon Marache - James Thompson

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3, game 1

  • New York, May 1855

  • C44 King's Pawn Game

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. c3

Mr. Thompson says of this move: "I do not like it (though I believe it is approved of by some high authorities) believing that the first player at least loses time. " We hardly go so far. It must be remembered that Mr. T's style is essentially, we may say intensely, attacking, to whom all merely preparatory or developing moves, except the most direct, must appear irksome.

3. ... Nf6 4. d4 Nxe4 5. Nxe5 Nxe5 6. dxe5 Bc5 7. Bc4 Bxf2+

If it be sound chess to take the pawn thus (of which there may be some doubt) then has White certainly a bad, we may almost say a lost game.

8. Kf1 Qh4 9. Qf3 Bc5 

10. Bxf7+

He attempts to retort Black's seventh move upon his own head, but it is too late, and he only makes a bad game worse by this coup. A consultation of chess M.D.'s couldn't save him now.

10. ... Kd8 11. g3 Qe7 12. Qxe4 Qxf7+ 13. Ke2 d5 14. Bg5+ Ke8 15. Qf4 Qh5+ 16. Kd3 Rf8 17. Qh4 Qf3+ 18. Kc2 Qxh1 19. Bf4 Bf5+ 20. Kb3 Qd1,

and White resigned. This is the only game, in this and in a previous match between the same players, in which Mr. M. so fails in his opening, which he generally plays with much care and skill.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably June 23, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

James Thompson - Napoleon Marache

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3, game 2

  • New York, May 1855

  • C00 French Defense

1. e4 e6 2. f4 d5 3. exd5 exd5 4. d4 Nf6 5. Nf3

Bd3 is stronger here; the move in the text compels Black to develop his game in the very manner advantageous to himself. Compare the inglorious retreat of this bishop with our remarks on a similar move last week.

5. ... c5 6. Bb5+ Nc6 7. 0-0 Be7 8. h3 0-0 9. c3 Qb6 10. Ba4 Ne4 11. Bc2 f5 12. Kh2

Bad chess. The objection to it at this stage of this opening is the strong bearing of the adverse bishops.

12. ... Be6 13. dxc5 Qxc5 14. Nbd2 Qd6 15. Nb3 Bf6 16. Be3 b6 17. Nfd2 Rad8

Black has now a beautifully opened game: every piece is on the alert, doing active duty.

18. g4 g5

A capital rejoinder, exhibiting in a strong light the error of White's 12th move.

19. Kg2 gxf4 20. Bxf4 Be5 

21. Qf3

Perfectly ruinous: it is quite unusual for such a clear headed veteran as Mr. T. put himself in such a fix.

21. ... fxg4 22. Qe2 Bxf4 23. Nxe4 dxe4 24. Rad1 gxh3+ 25. Kh1 Qe5 26. Bxe4 Rxd1 27. Rxd1 Kh8 28. Nd4 Bd5 29. Bxd5 Qxd5+ 30. Nf3

From this point White maintains the struggle with great ability, and his unflinching determination to effect a draw, is worthy of great praise.

30. ... Qf5 31. b4 Bg3 32. Rf1 Qg4 33. Ng1

Well played: making the most of his means.

33. ... Qg7

Black has now to play with the greatest nicety weighing well every move against so wily and powerful an antagonist. The student will be interested to trace for himself the consequences of the apparently obvious move queen takes queen.

34. Nf3 Ne5 35. Qe4 Nxf3 36. Rxf3 Rxf3 37. Qxf3 Bd6 38. a4

Why not take the pawn? Not to do so, is to enable Black to exchange queens in a manner that is "fun for him, but death to White."

38. ... Qg2+ 39. Qxg2 hxg2+ 40. Kxg2 Kg7 41. Kf3 Kf6 42. Ke4 Ke6 43. Kd4 a6 44. a5 bxa5 45. bxa5 h5 46. c4 Bb4 47. c5 Bxc5+,

and White surrendered "on compulsion."

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably June 30, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

Napoleon Marache - James Thompson

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3, game 3

  • New York, May 1855

  • C44 King's Pawn Game

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. c3 Nf6 4. d4 Nxe4 5. dxe5

Pawn to d5 would have been better.

5. ... Qe7 6. Bd3 Nc5 7. 0-0 Ne6 8. b3

Lost time. Qbd2 would have been more to the purpose.

8. ... Qd8 9. Bb5 Ne7 10. Nd4 c5 11. Nxe6

Freeing Black from his embarrassment. Instead of this Ne2, followed by f4 , would have afforded White a decided superiority.

11. ... fxe6 12.Qh5+

Another weak move; again Nd2 should have been played.

12. ... g6 13. Qe2 Qc7 14. Na3 a6 15. Bd3 b5 16. Bb2 Bb7 17. c4 b4 18. Nc2 Qc6 19. f4 Nf5 20. Bxf5 gxf5 21. Qh5+ Kd8 22. Qe2 Rg8 23. Ne1

White has frittered away all the advantages he had required from the opening, and must now look at home, being already in considerable difficulty.

23. ... h5 24. Rd1 h4 25. Rd3 Kc7 26. Rh3 Be7 27. Rf2 Rg4 28. Bc1 Rag8 29. a4 Kb8 

30. Rd3

This move ought to have cost White the game. By removing the queen's rook from the post of danger, he allows the enemy to penetrate into his territory. The move was Bb2.

30. ... h3 31. Rxh3 Bh4 32. Rxh4 Rxh4 33. Nf3 Rhg4 34. Ng5 Rh8 35. h3 Rg3

Badly played. Black should have posted the rook at h4, and he would then have remained with a winning superiority. The fact is, it is very right that this was a drawn battle, for neither player deserved to win it.

36. Be3 Rgxh3 37. Nxh3 Rxh3 38. Rf3 Rxf3 39. gxf3 Qxf3 40. Qxf3 Bxf3 41. Bxc5 Bd1 42. Bxb4 Bxb3 43. a5 Bxc4 44. Kf2 Kb7 45. Ke3 Kc6 46. Kd4 Kb5 47. Bc3

and Black, though a pawn superior, as at the 40th move, can only draw the game.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably July 7, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

Marache was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.

James Thompson - Napoleon Marache

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3, game 4

  • New York, May 1855

  • C01 French Defense, Exchange Variation

1. d4 e6 2. e4 d5 3. exd5 exd5 4. Nf3 Nf6 5. Bd3 Bd6 6. 0-0 0-0 7. h3 c5 8. c3 Nc6 9. Bc2 Qb6 10. dxc5 Bxc5 11. b4 Bd6 12. Bg5

A favorite manoeuvre, which, when it succeeds in "pinning" a dangerous knight, or, as here, is uncovering a castled king by removing the knight's pawn from his file, is certainly useful; but which, unless some direct, certain, good is to result, had better be omitted of the facility with which pawns may be pushed on the intruding bishop, and he lose time in awkwardly backing out; or, to avoid this, make a mere wanton exchange of pieces which is not chess playing but chess murder, to be deprecated by all true lovers of the science. 

12. ... Ne7 13. Bxf6 gxf6 14. Nd4 Ng6 15. Qh5 Bxb4 16. Qxd5 Bxc3 17. Nxc3 Rd8 18. Qf3 Rxd4 19. Nd5 Qc5 20. Nxf6+ Kg7 21. Rac1 

21. ... Qd6 22. Ne8+,

and after such an inconceivable blunder, Black of course abandoned the partie in disgust.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably June 23, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

Napoleon Marache - James Thompson

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3, game 5

  • New York, May 1855

  • C44 King's Pawn Game

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. d4 exd4 4. Bc4 Bc5 5. c3 d3 6. Qxd3 d6 7. b4 Bb6 8. b5 Na5 9. 0-0 Nxc4 10. Qxc4 Nf6 11. Bg5 h6 12. Bxf6 Qxf6 13. Nbd2 a6

Too tame a move for such a sturdy veteran as Mr. T.: Be6, or castling, would have put an end to the attack.

14. e5

A good move.

14. ... Qg6 15. exd6 Be6 16. d7+ Kd8

Now we see the consequences of Black's 13th move; the poor king has no other but this abject defense to resort to.

17. Qh4+ f6

The student will remark that after Kxd7, he would lose his queen by a divergent chess from the knight.

18. Rfe1 Bxd7

Certainly bad chess, and not played with Mr. T.'s usual caution; he must now lose "the exchange."

19. Ne5 Qh7 20. Nf7+ Kc8 21. Nxh8 Qxh8 22. Nc4 Bc5 23. b6

White here plays skillfully with a determination to force an opening on the queen's side.

23. ... Qf8 24. bxc7 g5 25. Qg3 h5 26. Rad1 b5 27. Nd6+ Bxd6 28. Rxd6 Ra7 29. Red1 Rxc7 30. Rxa6 Qc5 31. Rxf6 h4 32. Qf3 Bc6 33. Qf5+ Qxf5 34. Rxf5 g4 35. Rh5

Too inefficient for this critical moment.

35. ... h3 36. gxh3 Bf3 37. Rd3 b4 38. Re5 bxc3 39. Re1 c2 40. Rc1 Be4 41. Re3 Bf5 42. hxg4 Bxg4 43. f3 Bh3 44. Kf2 Bf5 45. Re5

Worse than useless! Why not at once march on with the pawns on the king's side? Attacking the bishop in this style is worthy of a player to whom Mr. M. would give a rook, when in the right mind.  

45. ... Bg6 46. h4 Kd7 47. h5 Bf7 48. Re2 Bxh5 49. Rexc2 Ra7 50. Rd2+

Another move thrown away, as it permits Black to place himself in direct contact with the bishop's pawn.

50. ... Ke7 51. Re1+ Kf7 52. Re3 Kg7 53. a3 Bf7 54. Rd4 Kf8 55. Rf4 Kg7

 

56. Rxf7+

Truly lamentable, that a victory so completely in his grasp would be thus thrown away! He seems to win advantage to see how they can be squandered; for at this point it was the easiest game to win which he had in the match. Oh, you spend thrift! 

56. ... Kxf7 57. Kg3 Kf6 58. Kg4 Ra4+ 59. f4 Ra8 60. Rb3 Ra6 61. Rh3 Ra4 62. Rb3 Ra6 63. a4

Even up to this point the game might probably have been won, though the path to victory is intricate and difficult to discover, and a single faux pas would be a certain draw. White plays the whole termination much below his strength. We cannot help attributing it to trepidation and nervousness.

63. ... Rxa4 64. Rb6+ Kf7 65. Kg5 Ra7 66. Rh6 Kg7 67. f5 Ra5 68. Rg6+ Kh7,

and though the struggle was continued to about 90 moves, it has now become a complete circulating decimal, which a careful consideration will convince the student can be won by neither party, though White has a pawn superiority.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably July 21, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine*).

Marache was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.

James Thompson - Napoleon Marache

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3, game 6

  • New York, May 1855

  • D40 Queen's Gambit Declined, Semi-Tarrasch

1. d4 e6 2. Nf3 d5 3. c4 c5 4. e3 Nf6 5. Nc3 a6 6. Bd3 dxc4 7. Bxc4 b5 8. Bd3 Bb7 9. dxc5

This is not a good move as it enables Black in bring out his king's bishop advantageously.

9. ... Bxc5 10. 0-0 Nbd7 11. a3 Nb6 12. Qe2 Qc7 13. h3 Rd8

This is a very strong move.

14. b4 Bd6 15. Bb2 0-0 16. Rac1 Qe7 17. Bb1 e5 18. e4 Nc4

Bringing on a formidable attack.

19. Nd5

This move was founded on a miscalculation after his usual wily manner he intended the pawn as a bait with which to catch a piece, but his wary antagonist takes the bait and leaves the hook to be taken back worse than empty.

19. ... Nxd5 20. exd5 Bxd5 21. Qd3 

21. ... e4

Completely overturning White's scheme of winning a piece; for if he now takes bishop with queen, he loses her, and the pawn just sacrificed, for his adversary's two bishops.

22. Qd4 Nxb2 23. Qxb2 exf3

Mutatis mutandis.

24. Rfe1 Qg5 25. g4

Pawn to g3 would have prolonged the game, but nothing would avert his defeat, which is near at hand at the farthest.

25. ... Qf4,

and White struck his colors.

Sources: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably July 14, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine); Frère's Chess Hand-Book, page 265 (1858).

Napoleon Marache - James Thompson

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 3, game 7

  • New York, May 1855

  • C20 King's Pawn Game

1. e4 e5 2. c3 Nf6 3. d4 Nxe4 4. dxe5 Be7

Black cannot play Bc5, though a tempting move. The point was examined with great care by Black for he was extremely anxious to get an attack.

5. Bc4 0-0

A very dubious move.

6. Be3 Nc6 7. Qd5

Though this move opened White's game at the present, it proved ultimately weak.

7. ... Ng5 8. f4

At this period the game became very interesting, and it was the general opinion among the bystanders that White might have forced a piece, but this, with the best play opposed, appears to be an error of judgment on their part.

8. ... Ne6 9. Nf3 d6 10. f5

Premature.

10. ... Ng5 11. Bxg5 Bxg5 12. e6 fxe6 13. fxe6 Bh4+ 14. g3 Ne7

The weakness of White's seventh move is now developed; he has indeed a choice of moves, but Black has certainly the better position.

15. Qe4

This was a fatal move.

15. ... d5

White must now lose a pawn; or take bishop with queen, in which case Black takes knight with rook, having certainly the best game.

16. Bxd5 Qxd5 17. Qxd5 Bxg3+

After the exchange of queens, White played with care and skill making a most gallant battle, but the loss of the pawn in the end proved fatal.

18. hxg3 Nxd5 19. Nbd2 Bxe6 20. 0-0-0 Bg4 21. Rdf1 Rae8 22. Ng5 Rxf1+ 23. Rxf1 Nf6 24. Rf4 Bh5 25. Nde4 Nxe4 26. Rxe4 Rxe4 27. Nxe4 Kf7 28. Kd2 b6 29. Ke3 h6 30. Kf4 g5+ 31. Ke5 Bg6 32. Nf2 Bb1 33. a3 Bc2 34. g4 Kg6 35. c4 h5 36. b4 hxg4 37. Nxg4 Kh5 38. Ne3 Bd3 39. c5 bxc5 40. bxc5 c6 41. Kd4 Bg6 42. Ke5 Kh4 43. Kd6 Be4 44. Ke5 Bf3 45. Kf5 Be2 46. Ng2+ Kh3 47. Ne3 g4 48. Kf4 g3 49. Ke5 g2 50. Nxg2 Kxg2,

and White resigns the game and the match.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably July 28, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

Marache was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.

Adolphe Möhle - James Thompson

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 4, game 1

  • New York, May 1855

  • Odds of Pawn and Two Moves

1. e4 - 2. d4 d6 3. Bd3 Nc6 4. c3 e6 5. Nf3 Bd7 6. Ng5 g6 7. e5 dxe5

This opening has been very indifferently played, to say the best of it, by White; a common fault in his games.

8. Nxh7 Rxh7 9. Bxg6+ Rf7 10. Bxf7+ Kxf7 

11. Qh5+

The position is now critical and interesting. This giving bishop and knight for rook and pawn was good play on the part of Black. After these exchanges both parties played with care and skill. White, finding his opponent stronger than he had anticipated, played his best. It is a fine example of a stubbornly contested chess battle.

11. ... Kg7 12. dxe5 Qe8 13. Qg5+ Qg6 14. Qxg6+ Kxg6 15. f4 Bc5 16. Nd2 Nh6 17. Ne4 Bb6 18. Bd2 Ne7 19. 0-0-0 Bc6 20. Rde1 Ng4 21. h3 Bxe4 22. hxg4 Bxg2 23. Rh2 Bd5 24. b3 Rg8 25. c4 Bf3 26. g5 Nf5 27. Rf1 Be4 28. Bb4 Be3+ 29. Bd2 Bc5 30. Kb2 Rd8 31. Bc3 Rd3 32. Re1 Ne3 33. Rd2 Kf5 34. Rxd3 Bxd3 35. Bd2 Bd4+ 36. Bc3 Bxc3+ 37. Kxc3 Ng2 38. Rd1 Be4 39. Kd4 Bf3 40. Rf1 Bh5 41. Rf2 Nh4 42. Ke3 Be8 43. Rh2 Kg4 44. Rd2 Nf5+ 45. Ke4 Ng3+ 46. Kd4 Kxf4 47. Rf2+ Kxg5 48. Rf8 Nf5+ 49. Kc3 Bc6 50. Rf6 Ng7 51. b4 Be4 52. Rf7 Nf5 53. Rxc7 Kf4 54. Rc5 Ne7 55. a4 Nc6 56. a5 Nxe5 57. Rc7 a6 58. b5 axb5 59. cxb5 Ng4 60. Rc4 Nf6 61. a6 bxa6 62. bxa6 Nd5+ 63. Kb3 Nb6,

and White resigns the partie.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably August 4, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

Adolphe Möhle - James Thompson

  • New York Chess Club Championship Tournament, round 4, game 3

  • New York, May 1855

  • Odds of Pawn and Two Moves

1. e4 - 2. d4 d6 3. Bd3 g6 4. Nf3 Nh6 5. Ng5 Bg4 6. Qd2 Bg7 7. e5 0-0 8. 0-0 dxe5 9. dxe5 Nc6 10. f4 Qd4+ 11. Qe3 Rad8 12. Nc3 Bf5 13. Qxd4 Nxd4 14. Nce4 Bxe4 15. Bxe4 Bxe5 16. c3 Ne2+ 17. Kh1 Nxc1 18. Raxc1 Bxf4 19. Bd5+ Rxd5,

and White now resigning the game and the match, the tournament was closed.

Source: New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably August 11, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65 (notes by Miron J. Hazeltine).

Möhle was the first player moving the Black pieces; the first player in the game above has White. The notes have been adjusted accordingly.

Thomas Loyd, Napoleon Marache

The New York Chess Club had also champion tournaments in 1853 and 1854. Thomas Loyd won the championship of 1854, a knock-out fray in which eight players participated. They were - besides Loyd - C.E. Anderson, Albert R. Gallantin, Denis Julien, Napoleon Marache, Frederick Perrin, John O'Sullivan, and James Thompson.16  Loyd, the youngest member of the club at that time, bested O'Sullivan, Perrin and Gallantin.17

The 1853 competition drew eight competitors: Frazer, Albert R. Gallantin, Thomas Loyd, Martin Mantin, Napoleon Marache, Frederick Perrin, Charles A. Stanley and James Thompson.18 The winner of this meeting is unknown: he was either Marache or Thompson.19  

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* The diagram was given in the original source.

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Notes:   1 The same drawing was also published a year later, in Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper of October 31, 1857, this time with the title "American Chess Players," leaving out the word "Leading."   2 New York Saturday Courier, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65.   3 Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper of January 5, 1856, announced the tournament.   4 The New York Clipper, August 9, 1856; Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, August 9, 1856.   5 New York Saturday Courier, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65.   6 The Albion, November 13, 1852.   7 The Albion, May 24, 1856; Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, May 31, 1856; The New York Clipper, May 31, 1856; New York Saturday Courier, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65. The Chess Monthly (January 1857, pages 29-30) wrote: "The New York Chess Club. A social club for the practice of chess has formed a part of metropolitan life during the greater part of the last thirty-five years. But its existence has been by no means continuous. Interregnums have occurred every few years between the dissolution of one organization and the establishment of its successor. The present institution was founds some four years ago, mainly by the efforts of that pleasant gentleman and sterling chess-player, Mr. Frederic [sic] Perrin. It was not definitely organized, however, until last May, when it assumed an official existence, by the election of Charles D. Mead, Esq., as President, and Frederic [sic] Perrin, Esq., as Secretary."   8 The New York Clipper, May 31, 1856; The Albion, June 7, 1856.   9 Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, June 14, 1856; New York Saturday Courier, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65.   10 The Albion, May 3, 1856; Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, May 17, 1856; The New York Clipper, May 31, 1856;  New York Saturday Courier, date unknown - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65.   11 The Albion, May 28, 1853.   12 The Albion, May 27, 1854.   13 The New York Clipper, May 31, 1856.   14 New York Saturday Courier, March 10, 1855.   15 New York Saturday Courier, dates unknown (probably March 10 - June 2, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65; New York Saturday Courier, date unknown (probably August 11, 1855) - taken from Hazeltine's Scrap-book, volume 65.   16 The Albion, December 3, 1853.   17 The Albion, March 18, 1854.   18 The Albion, February 9, 1853.   19 The Albion, April 2, 1853.

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Pictures: Leading American Chess Players 1856 (Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, October 4, 1856); Charles D. Mead (Brentano's Chess Monthly, December 1881); Frederick Perrin (Brentano's Chess Monthly, November 1881); Miron J. Hazeltine (Brentano's Chess Monthly, August 1881), James Thompson (Brentano's Chess Monthly, December 1881), Thomas Loyd (Brentano's Chess Monthly, December 1881), Napoleon Marache (Brentano's Chess Monthly, August 1881).

 © December 2015 Joost van Winsen. All Rights Reserved


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