Chess Archaeology HomeChess is a scientific game and its literature ought to be placed on the basis of the strictest truthfulness, which is the foundation of all scientific research.W. Steinitz

1886 Steinitz-Zukertort
World Championship Match
Researched by Nick Pope

11 January 1886—29 March 1886
 Drawn       1 1   11 1   5
Format: The winner of the first ten games to be declared the victor, draws not counting.
Time Control: 30 moves in 2 hours and then 15 moves every 1 hour.
Purse: $4000 ($2000 a side).

Contract Signing: Tuesday, December 29, 1885.

All Ready For The Chess Match.
News That Zukertort's Money Has Left London—Rules Of The Contest.

The chess match for the championship of the world between Steinitz and Zukertort has at last become a certainty and the two contestants met last night at the rooms of the Manhattan Chess Club and formally signed the articles of agreement and the rules and regulations which are to govern the match. Owing to the delay of James I. Minchin, of London, Dr. Zukertort's second, in forwarding the latter's share of the stake money to Charles F. Buck, of New-Orleans, the official stakeholder, the committee in charge of the arrangements here did not make any great effort to secure a hall in which the games will be played, or to draw up a set of rules for the match. But although no official information has as yet been received from Mr. Buck, that Dr. Zukertort's stake money has been deposited, a letter from Mr. Minchin, which arrived on the Arizona on Tuesday, says the money was sent on December 15. The committee considered this sufficient evidence that the stake money, if not already in the stakeholder's hands, is on the way there, and immediately called a meeting of the principals last night.

Unless a change is made in the present plan, the game will open on Wednesday next at No. 44 West Fourteenth-st. The games are to be played on alternate days, and will extend over eight hours each day—four hours in the afternoon and four hours at night. In case a game is not decided on the day of its beginning, it will be finished on the day following. The player who has ten games won first will be declared the winner. The play is to continue in New-York until either man has four games in his favor, when they will go to St. Louis and continue there until three or four games more have been won. From there the players will go to New-Orleans for the finish. In case there is a tie of nine games the match is to be withdrawn. At the opening game thirty moves must be made in the first two hours, then each player must make at least fifteen moves an hour, and all that are made above, and the time saved will credited to him and allowed on the next hour. That spectators may watch the moves as they are being made, a chess-board four feet square will be placed in a position where it may be easily seen, and chessmen will be transferred from diamond to diamond, forming an exact representation of the game.

Mr. Steinitz, according to the preliminary rules, could have claimed either the minimum forfeit of $50 or the maximum forfeit of $250 for his opponent's failure to deposit his money by the time agreed upon. He first decided to take the former, but generously withdrew the claim when the certainty of the stake being deposited was assured. The champions are to sit to-day for photographs at Sarony's.

Contract Between The Players.

Agreement made this twenty-ninth day of December, 1885, by and between William Steinitz, of New York, and J. H. Zukertort, of London, to play a match at Chess for the Championship of the World and a stake of Two Thousand Dollars a-side.

Number Of Games.—Witnesseth: That the said match is to be determined by either player winning ten (10) games. (Drawn games not counting.)

Places Of Play.—That said match, up to a point where either player shall have scored four (4) games, shall be played under the auspices of the Manhattan Chess Club, of New York; that the second part of the match, up to a point where either player shall have added three (3) won games to the score made previously in New York, shall be played under the auspices of the St. Louis Chess, Checker, and Whist Club, and shall begin within one week after the conclusion of the play at New York; that the third and last part of the match shall be played under the auspices of the New Orleans Chess, Checker, and Whist Club, and shall begin within two (2) weeks after the conclusion of the play at St. Louis.

The Score At Nine Games.—Should the score stand at nine (9) games won to each of the players, then the match shall be declared drawn.

Time Limit.—The time limit for each game shall be thirty (30) moves during the first two hours, and fifteen (15) moves an hour thereafter.

Days Of Play.—Three games are to be played each week on alternate days. Adjourned games are to be finished on the days following their commencement, which would otherwise be days of rest.

Duration Of Play.—The duration of play shall be a minimum of eight (8) hours on days of play (unless the game be finished in a shorter time), with an intermission of two (2) hours after four (4) hours' play.

Illness.—In case of real illness, proved by medical certificate, either player may claim a rest for three play days during the match, either in succession or on separate occasions.

Property Right In Games.—Property right in the record of all games played in the match shall insure to each player, who shall have the separate right of publishing any or all the games during the match, and a collection of the games after the match, and that either player may obtain copyright for the games and his own notes, both in America and in England or elsewhere, but that neither player shall have any commercial claim on his opponent's published games, or collection thereof.

Referee And Stakeholder.—The Honourable Charles F. Buck, of the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, is hereby mutually agreed on, and appointed both as Referee and Stakeholder.

Witness our hands, in duplicate, at the city of New York, the day and year first above written.

 (Signed)William Steinitz.
Witness, Thos. Frère.J. H. Zukertort.

Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n5, January 1886, p136

Minor Rules And Regulations Of The Match Between Messrs. Steinitz And Zukertort.

1. Each player shall nominate an Umpire for each of the divisions of the match, three days prior to the commencement of such division. The gentleman thus nominated shall be a member of the Club under whose auspices the respective match-portion is to be played, and his election shall be approved of by his opponent. Should either party, however, reject two gentlemen thus names, the Committee of the Club may be appealed to by the opponent for the purpose of electing another Umpire, whose appointment shall then be final.

2. Each Umpire may nominate one substitute to take his place in case of unavoidable absence, and the appointment of such substitute shall be confirmed in the same manner as that of the original Umpire.

3. The Umpires, or their substitutes, shall be present in the room, where the match is being played, during the progress of each game, and they shall settle all disputes that may arise between the two players. In case of the two Umpires disagreeing, or if either player claims that their decision is contrary to the conditions of the match, the decision of the Referee on appeal shall be final.

4. The games shall be played within an inclosure which shall only be accessible to the players, their Umpires or substitutes, and the officers of the respective Clubs under whose auspices the match is played.

5. The tickets of admission to public exhibitions of the play shall be issued subject to the conditions of the match, and may be cancelled, at any time, at the request of the Umpire of either party.

6. The spectators shall be required to keep strict silence and to refrain from any applause of signs of disapproval.

7. The moves of each game may be repeated on a large suspended chess-board. The spectators may also use pocket Chess-boards for the purpose of following the game, but they shall not analyse or discuss the game under progress.

8. Neither player shall absent himself from the room during the hours appointed for play except for a reasonable time. The player who has made his move may walk inside the inclosure in a manner which shall in no way distract the attention of his opponent. Either player who shall exceed the time limit in any way, shall forfeit the game, which shall be scored by his opponent. The clock of a player who does not appear at the time appointed for commencing a game, or for resuming an adjourned game, or who absents himself during a game, shall be started as soon as it is his turn to play in the same way as if he were present in the room, and the time of his absence shall be considered as having been consumed over the board.

9. The two players shall, if arrangements to that end can be made, remain together during any adjournment in the evening for taking meals; but if such arrangements be inconvenient, each player shall be accompanied by his opponent's Umpire during such adjournment. Should, however, any adjournment overnight become necessary, this rule shall not be applied.

10. The player whose turn it is to move at the time of adjournment, shall inclose his move in a sealed envelope, which shall be handed to his opponent's Umpire. The move thus made shall be marked in words, for instance, "Queen to King's third," in a conspicuous part of the score-sheet, and shall afterwards be transcribed in the ordinary way at the resumption of the game, when the envelope containing the last move shall be opened in the presence of both players and their Umpires.

11. Either player who shall analyse a pending game by himself over the board or with others, without the board, shall forfeit such game, and shall also be liable to a fine to be adjudged by the Referee, according to Rule Fourteen.

12. At least two sets of double stop-clocks for regulating the time limit, which are to be carefully tested beforehand by the two Umpires, shall be provided at the commencement of each division of the match, and should one of the clocks be found defective during a game the other may be substituted, after marking the time already consumed by each player.

13. The games of the match shall be governed by the code of laws published in the last edition of the German Handbuch, with this exception, that, if both players repeat the same series of moves six times in succession, then either party may claim a draw.

14. For any act of a player during the match which may be unjustly offensive or injurous to his opponent, a fine may be inflicted by the Referee of not less than ten dollars, and not exceeding one hundred dollars.

15. For any violation of the main conditions already agreed upon, which may delay the commencement or the progress of the contest, or which may otherwise injure the financial proceeds expected from the public exhibitions, or which may tend unduly to increase the expenditure of either player, a fine of from fifty dollars up to two hundred and fifty dollars may be imposed by the Referee on the offending party, if claimed by his opponent.

16. For any breach of the Rules and Regulations the Referee may inflict a fine of from five dollars to fifty dollars for each offence. All fines shall be paid at once to the Referee and shall belong to the opponent of the offending player.

17. The Referee may act on the representations of either player or his Umpire, but an exact copy of the complaint made to the Referee shall be sent simultaneously to the opponent of the complaining party, and the latter shall have three days' time to file his answer, on receipt of which the Referee may give his decision at once. Any frivolous or groundless charge may, however, on the motion of the accused party, be adjudged by the Referee according to Rule Fourteen.

18. The entire official correspondence between the respective seconds of the two players (Messrs. Frère and Minchin) shall be take into consideration by the Referee for the purpose of interpreting the conditions of the match.

Witness our hands, in duplicate, this twenty-ninth day of December, 1885.
 W. Steinitz.
In presence of Thos. Frère.J. H. Zukertort.

Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n5, January 1886, pp136-137

Sunday, January 10, 1886.

Battle Of Chess Giants.
Great Contest Between The Two Master Strategists.
A score of long standing to be settled by a pitched battle to last many weeks—Conditions and special rules of the game.

At 2 o'clock to-morrow afternoon there will begin in this city one of the most exciting chess battles ever fought in this country. The contest will occur in the Dancing Academy Hall, in Fifth avenue, and is to be between the great masters of the game, Herr Wilhelm Steinitz and Dr. J. H. Zukertort. Herr Steinitz is a native of Austria and Dr. Zukertort is a Hungarian who but recently came to our shores for the express purpose of meeting his old rival in the match in question.

Both of these noted masters of the game have for several years past been rivals in all the great European chess tournament, first one and then the other scoring tourney victories of note. In the long run, however, Herr Steinitz has been the most successful. At the London tourney of 1872 Steinitz came off victorious, the great English champion, Blackbaum [sic], being second, and Dr. Zukertort third. The outcome of this tourney was a special match between Steinitz and Zukertort, which the former won by seven games to one. In the grand tourney of 1882, at Vienna, Steinitz won the honors, Winauer [sic] being second, Mason, the young American player, third, and Zukertort fourth. At the London tourney of 1883 Zukertort was the victor, Steinitz being second, though in their tourney games together each won one game. It was out of this tourney that the controversy arose as to the respective skill of the two leaders, which ultimately culminated in the arrangement of the present match. Through the overzeal of some of the friends of the two players, an unpleasantness arose between them which for some time proved a barrier to the progress of the arrangements for the present match, bit it has been happily adjusted.

A special code of rules to govern the contest was drawn up and was signed by both contestants on the 23d of last month. The match is to be for the championship of the world and for a stake of $2,000 a side, and is to be decided by either player winning ten games, draw games not counted. The contest is to be divided into three parts, the first part, up to the point when one player is victorious in four games, to be played under the auspices of the Manhattan Chess Club; the second part, when either player has made three more victories, to be under the auspices of the St. Louis Chess, Checker, and Whist Club. The third and last part is to be under the supervision of the New Orleans Chess, Checker, and Whist Club. Not more than one week is to elapse between the end of the first part in New York and the beginning of the second in St. Louis, and not more than two weeks must intervene between the end of the series in St. Louis and the beginning of the series in New Orleans. Thirty moves must be made during the first two hours of each game, and fifteen moves an hour thereafter and there are to be three games a week, with intervals of one day between each game, the playing day to consist of eight hours.

Charles F. Buck of New Orleans has been chosen referee and stakeholder, and in each series of games each player selected an umpire from the club under whose auspices the series is being played. The players are to be turned loose in a short of prize ring or enclosure, with their umpires and the officers of the supervising club. The spectators must keep still as mice, but they can have little chess boards of their own, if they like, on which to repeat the moves as they are made, and the moves will also be repeated on a big board suspended in a conspicuous part of the room. Tickets for the whole series of games cost $5, tickets for one day come at $1 each, and afternoon or evening tickets at half a dollar.

The rules governing the actions of the players are very strict. They must keep together during absences from the hall if possible, and if not, each must be accompanied by the other's umpire, though this does not apply after adjournment at night. For misconduct, such as analyzing a pending game over the board, a fine is imposed, and the offender loses the game; for any breach of the rules agreed upon a fine of from $5 to $50 may be imposed, to be paid at once, and to go to the offender's opponent; and for other offences tending to annoy the offender's opponent, fines of from $50 to $200 may be imposed.

The committee of the Manhattan Chess Club, in whose hands the local arrangements of the match have been placed, conssts of George T. Green—the President of the club—Sacretary [sic] F. M. Teed, and Wm. M. De Visser. The umpires are Messrs. Frere and Miachin [sic]. There is already aroused great interest in the contest, both in this country and Europe, and chess players are anticipating one of the sturdiest and most obstinate battles on record.

The Great Chess Contest.
Much Interest In The Steinitz-Zukertort Match Which Begins To-Morrow.

Steinitz and Zukertort, the chess champions, will begin to-morrow the contest which is to decide forever, so far as they are concerned, the championship of the world. Everything in the power of the members of the Manhattan Chess Club has been done to make the preliminary proceedings satisfactory to the contestants who for a number of years have been bitter enemies, but who now are warm friends. Members of all the chess clubs in the United States and in Europe await the outcome with anxiety. Mr. Steinitz and Dr. Zukertort have met and defeated the best players on both sides of the Atlantic. They are both in excellent health. Mr. Steinitz says that he makes this fact public before the match begins so that he cannot crawl behind a plea of ill health in case of defeat. On this account it will doubtless be the hardest contest, most closely watched and most interesting contest that has ever taken place. Each move will be the result of long and careful study, backed by an experience which has given both a world-wide reputation. Many chess experts in this country have signified their intention to be present; and in view of the great interest take The Tribune will publish each day full and correct accounts of each day's game, with criticisms and analyses by Captain Mackenzie, who is well known as a chess player.

The play will begin at 2 p. m. in Cartier's Hall, No. 80 Fifth-ave., and continue for four hours in the afternoon, and then, with an intermission of two hours, until midnight. A board five feet square, with the diamonds painted plainly, will be suspended so that it can be easily seen, and all the moves made by the players will be represented on it.

Game 1: Monday, January 11, 1886.

To Play On A Historic Chess-Board.
Interest In The Steinitz-Zukertort Match—Not Much Betting.

At 2 o'clock this afternoon will begin the chess contest which is to decide for some time the championship of the world. After many months spent in corresponding between the representatives of the two contestants, the meeting for which every chess player in Europe and the United States has earnestly hoped has become a certainty. Both the principals are well known to all chess devotees, and the interest manifested in this match exceeds that of any previous contest. Long and careful study has been indulged in to effect a set of regulations for governing the contest, and the rules to be used are a translation of the German Hand Book of Chess, with the exception "that should both players repeat the same series of moves six times in succession either party may claim a draw." These rules have never been printed in English before. Mr. Steinitz made the translation.

Each player has chosen an umpire, who had to be confirmed by his opponent. Mr. Steinitz has selected Thomas Frère, who has been his representative in the arrangement of the preliminary details, and Dr. Zukertort has chosen Adolphus Urohle [sic]. They are both members of the Manhattan Chess Club, under whose auspices the game is to be conducted. The board which will be used is owned by Mr. Frère, and it possesses considerable historic value, having been used by such champions of over a quarter of a century ago as Morphy, Marache, Lichtenhein, Paulsen and Robertson. The moves of each game are to be reported on a large suspended board, and the spectators will be allowed to use small pocket-boards, but are prohibited from analyzing or discussing the game while it is in progress. A large number of chess players and members of the Manhattan Chess Club dropped intot he club rooms during the day yesterday to inquire about the health of Mr. Steinitz and Mr. Zukertort, and to discuss the prospects of the game. Little betting is being done here, but even chances are given on Mr. Steinitz. In the St. George Chess Club, of London, of which Dr. Zukertort and his second are members, small odds are given on Zukertort; but at the London Chess Club Mr. Steinitz is the favorite, and $5 to $4 is being wagered on him. Cartier's Hall, at No. 80 Fifth-ave., has been fitted up and the contest will be conducted there. A square space, fenced in by ropes, has been reserved in the centre of the hall for the players to keep back the crowd. The programme which has been issued contains a history of the match; the places and dates of previous games played by the principals; the rules and regulations which are to govern this game; and reminiscences of former champions, by W. J. A. Fuller. The Tribune's readers will be given complete accounts of the game and criticisms and analysis of each move by Captain Mackenzie, the well-known chess expert.

Meeting Of Chess Champions.
A Battle of Brains that Delighted Admirers of the Kingly Game.

There was a gathering of notable chess players in Cartier's rooms, Fifth avenue, yesterday afternoon, when Mr. George T. Green, President of the Manhattan Chess Club, introduced Mr. W [sic]. H. Zukertort and Mr. W. Steinitz as about to play one of the most important matches of modern times, for the championship of the world and a purse of $4,000. Among those who watched the players as they bent their heads over the historical board over which Morphy, Paulsen, Litchenstein [sic], Roberts, Marache, and other giants of chess have exercised their brains in the endless combinations of the game, were Mr. Martinez, President of the Philadelphia Chess Club; Mr. Samuel Lloyd, the noted problemist; Mr. Redding, the champion amateur of San Francisco; the veteran Thomas Frese [sic], owner of the historical board; Messrs. Rudd, Reynolds, Maxwell, and Chadwick, representative from the Danite [sic] Club of Brooklyn; Capt. McKenzie, W. S. Fuller, and other noted chess experts.

The players opened battle irregularly, Mr. Zukertort handling the white army and Mr. Steinitz the black. Mr. Zukertort moved the quicker of the two, his opponent studying the field with due deliberation, and moistening his lips occasionally by sipping a weak decoction of brandy and water. Mr. Zukertort kept himself warm by walking back of the table and swallowing small mouthfuls of coffee at rare intervals.

The game was somewhat dull up to the sixteenth move, when Mr. Steinitz made the first break, taking his opponent's king's pawn and crying check. This caused the first sensation, and a chorus of "ohs" arose when Mr. Zukertort took the knight with a pawn. Mr. Steinitz now attacked Mr. Zukertort's army with vigor, gaining two pawns for the sacrificed knight. Mr. Zukertort worked out of several ambushes by skilful moves, which elicited little ripples of encouragement. At 6 P. M., the time announced for recess, only thirty-one moves had been made on each side, with the blacks having apparently the best of the battle.

The progress of the contest in the evening was far more brilliant and brisk than during the afternoon. It began with Mr. Steinitz's reply to Mr. Zukertort's thirty-second move. The plan of the campaign inaugurated by the commander of the blacks when he gave up a knight for a couple of foot soldiers developed itself in a way that aroused the ardor of veteran devotees of the kingly game. By moving his pawns forward with masterly skill, and, swooping down with his main pieces when necessary, he kept up his lively attack on the white king's flank until Mr. Zukertort resigned at the end of the forty-sixth move.

The game was one of the most remarkable played in twenty years, fully equal to some of Paul Morphy's strongest in the days when he astonished the masters of chess in America and Europe.

Mr. Steinitz was the favorite at slight odds as a winner of the match before the opening, but when Mr. Zukertort led off with the whites, the most Mr. Steinitz's backers looked for was a drawn game.

The Chess Championship.
Steinitz Wins The Opening Game.
Zukertort gets first move—Queen's Gambit Declined—Characteristics of the men.

"Ladies and gentlemen, in the presence of their respective umpires and the committee of the Manhattan Chess Club in charge of the match, Dr. Zukertort and Mr. Steinitz will now begin their match for the chess championship of the world and a stake of $2,000 a side." This briefly George T. Green, the president of the Manhattan Chess Club, announced yesterday the beginning of the contest which is exciting the deepest interest in chess circles everywhere and is to settle the momentous question of who is to-day the best chess player in the world. Previous tournaments in various places have shown that this coveted honor belongs to one of these two men. Each has in turn vanquished all other claimants.

The two champions are seated on a slightly elevated platform in a small room at one end of a long hall at No. 80 Fifth-ave. Between them is an historic chess-board on which in days gone by the wizard of chess, Paul Morphy, exhibited his marvellous skill, and other noted players have shown their prowess. The lustre of its varnish has been somewhat dimmed by years. On the table, balanced on either side of a small rod, are two diminutive clocks of peculiar construction. When one clock is tipped up it stops running and the pendulum of the other begins to swing. When on a level both cease. When a player makes a move he tips upward his own clock thereby stopping it and starting his opponent's. Thus is shown how long each player takes over a move, and at the end of the game how much time each has consumed.

Though Zukertort and Steinitz are the giants of the chess world, in the circle which John L. Sullivan adorns they would be classed as feather-weights. They are both considerably below the medium height. Their physical development all runs to brain. Steinitz is the heavier of the two men, indeed for such a little man he is burdened with a respectable quantity of avoirdupois. His face is full, his forehead high and bulging. He has a bushy brown beard and an abundance of dark hair. His face wears an expression of imperturbably amiability. In features Dr. Zukertort presents a striking contract to him. With the aid of a little stage dressing he would make a first-rate Mephistopheles. His face is long and thin, his beard pointed, his nose long and sharp, his hair scant and revealing a little bald patch. He has as a shrewed, wide-awake look at all times and has a habit of occasionally bunching his eyebrows, corrugating his brow and scanning his adversary as though he would read his inmost thoughts. It would make a nervous man feel rather uncomfortable, but Steinitz's temperament is evidently phlegmatic. His spare frame is much like that of Senator Evarts' and at times he drops into the same fashion of knotting his legs together beneath his seat.

Only a few specially privileged persons are admitted within the room where the game is played. The spectators must content themselves with watching it through two wide open folding-doors or see it reflected in a large chess board hung on a well in the main hall. On this board Captain McKenzie repeats each move as it is made. Among those permitted to gaze on the two champions at close quarters are of course the two umpires. Thomas Frere, umpire for Mr. Steinitz, is even smaller than either of the contestants, and his cranial development is made all the more prominent by reason of his entire baldness. Adolph Mohle, Dr. Zukertort's umpire, has a good deal of length, but little breadth or weight. D. M. Martinez, of Philadelphia, who in 1882 paid Mr. Steinitz $1,000 for the privilege of losing seven successive games to him, is also admitted with the sanctum. An artist gained access for a short space to make a sketch of the champions at work.

There are not more than forty persons present, including two women, when the game begins. Later additions swell the number to about seventy. They are a brainy looking lot of men, however, apt to be rather careless as regards the niceties of dress, and their hair is generally ruffled from a habit of running their fingers through it common to most chess players. The German element seems to predominate. Many smoke. Near the door Miss Steinitz, who bears a striking resemblance to her father, has a stand where she sells her father's photographs for 50 cents, pocket chess books, chess magazines, etc. She explains that she has not yet been able to get photographs of Dr. Zukertort, but hopes to have them on sale soon. Among those present are the veteran chess player, W. J. A. Fuller, the Rev. J. H. Fitzgerald, of Newark; Samuel Lloyd, the noted chess problem-maker, recently elected president of the New York Chess Club; Dr. Juan N. Navarro, the Mexican Consul-General, swarthy complexioned with frosty hair and beard, who takes as much interest in chess as in diplomacy; John S. Ryan, who has been practising with Steinitz for the last two months and has the utmost confidence in his ability to win; F. M. Teed and William M. De Visser, of the committee on the match, and Mr. Reading the champion amateur chess player of San Francisco.

The game begins at five minutes after 2. Dr. Zukertort tosses up a cent, and wins the first move. He slips the copper back into his pocket, oblivious to the fact that the little flip he gave it has increased its commercial value one-hundred fold and there are people among the spectators who would willingly give a dollar for it, that they might preserve it as a souvenir. Dr. Zukertort proffers the queen's gambit by advancing his queen's pawn two squares. Steinitz promptly responds with the same move. The Dr. Zukertort quickly moves his queen's bishop's pawn two squares. Steinitz stretches his legs wide apart places his two hands upon them and settles down to some hard thinking. "Will he accept or decline the gambit?" everybody is mentally inquiring. Dr. Zukertort gives him a searching glance, but his placed countenance gives no clew to his intentions. At last he moves out his queen's bishop's pawn. It is evident, therefore, that his defence is not to be the orthodox one. This quickens interest in the game and keeps expectation on tiptoe. Dr. Zukertort seems the more nervous of the two. He often strokes his beard, changes the position of his fee, and sometimes beats a tattoo with them on the floor. Now and then while his adversary is meditating a move he rises from his seat and walks up and down the little room with his hands clasped behind his back. But it is not to be inferred that his thoughts are off the game. He can carry on several games without looking at the board, and so can Steinitz. After the game has been going on an hour and a half Dr. Zukertort, while pacing the floor yawns perceptibly. Steinitz does not often move from his seat. His short legs are not well adapted to walking.

Many of the spectators have pocket chess-books, and repeat each move on them. This is permitted by the rules of the match, but the same clause states "they shall not analyze or discuss the game under progress." They do both, however, but in an undertone that does not interfere with the players. To any person unacquainted with chess nothing could be much more monotonous than this game. But those present watch it with that same rapt attention which is depicted on the faces of the Madison Square Garden when Sullivan is engaged in a "knocking out" bout. At 6 o'clock the game is adjourned until 8. Each has then made thirty-three moves. Steinitz's last move is not announced and Dr. Zukertort rises from the table that he may not see it. This is done that he may not have the advantage of being able to use the intervening two hours to think over his reply to it. Soon after rening the game both men pull out cigars and begin smoking. Steinitz's face wears a look of placid contentment. The games seems to be going as he desires it. Dr. Zukertort does not look so easy, but he never looks as easy as his opponent under any circumstances. After 9 o'clock the moves are made rapidly. The game begins to look like a foregone conclusion and nobody is surprised when at 9:30 it is announced that "white resigns." Steinitz looks radiant when he comes out in the hall and accepts the quiet congratulations that are proffered him. But under no circumstances could one imagine him looking miserable. His features are not adapted to that sort of expression.

The next game will be played to-morrow at the same place.

Date: 1886.01.11
Site: USA New York, NY (Cartier's Hall)
Event: World Championship (Game 1)
White: Zukertort,JH
Black: Steinitz,W
Opening: [D10] Slav
1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6
Mackenzie: Generally considered inferior to 2...e6, but the line of play adopted by Mr. Steinitz in the present game would seem to show that it is nowise inferior to the orthodoxy reply of 2...e6.
Monthly: Not considered in accordance with the recognised defence in close openings. Steinitz evidently prepared a defence of his own upon a modified basis of Winawer's defence adopted v. Zukertort in the late London International Tournament. The main idea is the same, with the difference that Steinitz does not waste an important move with ...a6, like Winawer. In the game alluded to, however, Zukertort castled early, but, with this exception, his opening moves are almost the same.
International: The usual defense here is: 2...e6. The deviation in the text is adopted with the object of bringing out ...Bf5, and it also threatens ...dxc4, followed by ...b5.
3.e3 Bf5 4.Nc3 e6 5.Nf3 Nd7 6.a3
International: 6.c5 would be premature, for Black could break up the pawns by 6...b6, followed by 7...a5 if White defend by 7.b4.
6...Bd6 7.c5 Bc7 8.b4 e5
Mackenzie: An excellent move which either breaks up White's centre, or permits Black to establish a formidable pawn at e4.
International: Similar positions have arisen in match games between Zukertort (White) and Rosenthal, and in a beautiful game in which Zukertort, who had the attack, won against Winawer in the last London tournament. Black here introduces a change from the tactics of Zukertort's opponents on those occasions, and by the advance of the centre Pawn, prepares the weakening of the adverse king's side.
9.Be2 Ngf6 10.Bb2 e4 11.Nd2 h5
Mackenzie: An unexpected coup to most of the spectators, and the beginning of a profound combination.
International: In order to compel the adversary to push 12.h3, for otherwise Black would enter with his knight at g4, and White could not get rid of it excepting by an unfavorable exchange for the bishop, as pawn to h3 would be afterward of no use, on account of the reply ...Qh4.
Monthly: Necessary in order to prevent 12...Ng4, which could not be dislodged by 13.h3, because of 13...Qh4, etc.
12...Nf8 13.a4 Ng6 14.b5
Mackenzie: White pursues his attack on the queen's side, while Black masses his forces against the adverse king's entrenchments.
International: We agree with Mr. Zukertort who stated to us that he ought have played here 14.Nb3, in order to prepare an exit for his king at d2 and to strengthen his attack on the queen's side, while the entrance of Black's knight at h4 could then more safely be answered by pawn to g3.
Monthly: Premature. Black's design being transparent, White ought to have strengthened the queen's side, where his attack is directed, with 14.Nb3. It would have enabled him not only to proceed with 15.b5, to be followed by 16.a5; but Black's intended clever sacrifice of the knight would have been valueless, on account of the possible escape of the white king to d2.
14...Nh4 15.g3
Monthly: Under the circumstances 15.Bf1 would have been better. 15.0-0 might have exposed him to a very dangerous attack.
International: His best defense now was 15.Bf1, whereupon Black would, of course, have proceeded with 15...g5. But, as we believe, Black's sacrifice of the knight which now follows was very dangerous for White in actual play and ought to have been avoided.
15...Ng2+ 16.Kf1 Nxe3+
Mackenzie: A beautiful sacrifice, which forces the game.
Monthly: The sacrifice seems to have been contemplated when Black executed his manœuvre with the knight. Two pawns, White's exposed king's position, and the prospects of a formidable attack, are more than equivalent for a piece.
17.fxe3 Bxg3 18.Kg2 Bc7 19.Qg1
Monthly: Weak; involving great loss of time. The correct move is 19.Qf1, and if 19...Qd7, then 20.Kf2, with chances of bringing the king into safety.
International: If 19.Qf1 Qd7, followed by 20...Rh6, etc. But 19.Nf1 was his best defense and made it more difficult for the opponent to win, though, after Black's attack ought to have made its impression by judicious play, and the game might have proceeded thus: 19...Rh6 20.Rg1 (or 20.Kf2 Qd7 21.h4 Bh3 22.Ke1 Bg2 23.Rg1 Qh3 24.Kd2 Ng4 25.Qe1 Rf6, with an excellent game, for it White defend by 26.Nd1, then follows 26...Bxf1 27.Bxf1 Qh2+ 28.Rg2 Qh1, followed by 29...Nh2) 20...Rg6+ 21.Kh1 Rxg1+ 22.Kxg1 Bxh3, with three pawns for the piece, as White can hardly venture on 23.Bxh5, on account of the reply 23...Ng4, followed by 24...Qg5 if 24.Bxg4, with an excellent game.
19...Rh6 [?:??-1:00]
Mackenzie: The importance of Black's eleventh move is now very apparent. The rook comes at once into action, threatening a fatal check at g6.
20.Kf1 Rg6 21.Qf2 [1:00-?:??] 21...Qd7 22.bxc6
Mackenzie: Only a temporary diversion.
22...bxc6 23.Rg1
Monthly: Obviously necessary, to prevent the loss of the queen. After 23...Bxh3+, with 24...Bg3.
International: Nothing better, for Black threatens to win the queen by 24...Bg3, after 23...Bxh3+.
23...Bxh3+ 24.Ke1 Ng4 25.Bxg4
Mackenzie: If 25.Qh4 Nxe3 26.Rxg6 fxg6 27.Qg5 Ng2+ (better than 27...Nc2+) 28.Kd1 Nf4, and preserves three passed pawns with an extra pawn in the centre for the piece.
25...Bxg4 26.Ne2 Qe7
Mackenzie: Having in view the advance of the h-pawn.
27.Nf4 Rh6
Mackenzie: Decidedly better than the more obvious move of 27...Rf6, which had many advocates among the lookers on.
International: 27...Rf6 looks stronger, but, we believe, on examination it will not be found as sure as the move in the text, for although Black might have thereby won the exchange and an additional pawn, his game afterward will not appear very satisfactory and seems to leave to the opponent of good attack with some chances of drawing and even winning, e.g. 27...Rf6 28.Rxg4 hxg4 29.Qh4 Bxf4 30.exf4 Rxf4 31.Qh8+ Qf8 32.Qh5 (threatening 33.Qe5+) 32...Kd7 33.Qg5 Rf6 34.Nf1, followed by 35.Ne3, with a good game.
Monthly: 28.Qh2 would have temporarily prevented 28...g5, on account of the threat, 29.Rxg4, etc.
28...g5 29.Ne2 Rf6 30.Qg2 Rf3
Mackenzie: A capital stroke of play, reducing White's most important piece to a state of masterly inactivity.
International: Obviously his best, for he could not defend the pawn otherwise, and if 31.Nxf3, he would lose a piece by the answer 31...exf3.
31...Rb8 [?:??-2:00]
Mackenzie: 31...Bh3 looks very strong as it forces White's queen to h1, (he cannot play, 32.Qxg5 on account of the reply, 32...Rxf1+), but Mr. Steinitz sees he can wait, and seizes meanwhile the open file with his hitherto inactive rook.
Monthly: 31...Bh3 was perhaps stronger.
International: 31...Bh3 seems good enough, but, we believe, Black's winning could at least have been made very difficult and much delayed if White had then elected to sacrifice his extra piece, i.e. 31...Bh3 32.Qxg5 Rxf1+ 33.Kd2 Qxg5 34.Rxg5 Rxa1 35.Bxa1 Ke7 36.Rxh5, with a defensible game.
32.Kd2 (Adjourned) 32...f5 (Sealed) 33.a5 [2:00-?:??]
Monthly: Zukertort informs us that "this was the first move after the adjournment, and a very bad one." 33.Rh1, to enable White to attack the adverse rook with 34.Ng1, was preferable. 33.Nh2 with the same object in view is impracticable on account of 33...Bh3, etc.
International: Rather weak; but it is difficult to suggest a good move. 33.Nh2 might have led to the following variation: 33.Nh2 Rh3 34.Nxg4 hxg4 35.Rh1 Qh7 36.Rag1 Kf7 37.Rxh3 gxh3, and if 38.Qxg5, then follows 38...h2 and 39...Rg8, winning the queen.
33...f4 34.Rh1 Qf7
International: The decisive preparation in support of the rook before opening the f-file.
Mackenzie: The only move to save the loss of a piece which was threatened by 35...fxe3+, and 36...Rf2.
35...fxe3+ 36.Nxe3 Rf2
Monthly: Immediately after the conclusion of the game Zukertort pointed out the following continuation: 36...Rxe3 37.Kxe3 Bf4+ 38.Kf2 Rb3, and forces the game against any play.
International: Quite good enough and perhaps leading to a speedier decision than the tempting 36...Rxe3 37.Kxe3 Bf4+ 38.Kf2 (best) Rb3 39.Rhf1 Bxe2 40.Rxe2 Rxc3 41.Kg1, and if Black 41...Rg3, White would answer 42.Qxg3
Mackenzie: If 37.Qg1 then follows 37...Qf3 38.Nxg4 Qd3+ 39.Kc1 Rb1#.
Monthly: Forced. If 37.Qg1 then 37...Qf3, etc.
International: The sacrifice of the queen was forced on this move; if 37.Qg1 Qf3 38.Nxg4 Bf4+, followed by 39...Qd3+, and mates next move.
37...Qxf2 38.Nxg4
Mackenzie: Dr. Zukertort remarked afterward that he ought now to have played 38.Rhf1 attacking the adverse queen.
Monthly: 38.Rhf1 presented some slight chances of resistance, whereas the text move proves immediately fatal. Mr. Blackburne found the following pretty continuation in reply to 38.Rhf1, viz., 38...Rb2+ 39.Bxb2 Bxa5+ 40.K-moves Qxe3, and wins.
International: There was no draw by 38.Rhf1, and then by again attacking the queen 39.Rh1, for Black would release his queen by 38...Qh4, and then interposing 39...Bh6.
38...Bf4+ 39.Kc2 hxg4 40.Bd2
International: An ingenious attempt to snatch a draw from the teeth of defeat. For if Black accept the tempting exchange by 40...Bxd2, then White would answer 41.Ref1, and should Black then take the knight, White would draw by perpetual check with the rook from h1, as the black king could never attempt to retreat to d8 or c8 after a check of the rook at h7, on account of the impending mate by ...Rf8. Of course, Black could also avoid the draw by 41...Qxf1, followed by 42...Bxa5, or 42...Bf4, but he naturally preferred to preserve his queen.
40...e3 41.Bc1 Qg2 42.Kc3 Kd7 43.Rh7+ Ke6 44.Rh6+ Kf5 45.Bxe3 Bxe3 46.Rf1+
Mackenzie: A plunge of despair.
International: In the hope that Black might take the rook, whereupon he would win the queen by 47.Ng3+.
Mackenzie: Of course 46...Qxf1, White wins the queen by 47.Ng3+, etc.
0-1 [2:30-2:45]
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n5, January 1886, pp144-145 (cites The Field)
International Chess Magazine, v1 n2, February 1886, pp45-47

Game 2: Wednesday, January 13, 1886.

Zukertort Wins The Second Game.
A Sharp Attack Gives Three Consecutive Checks Puts it in his Hands.

Mr. William Steinitz, who is playing a match at chess with Mr. W [sic]. H. Zukertort for $4,000 and the championship of the world, entered Cartier's rooms at 80 Fifth avenue in high spirits yesterday. He had one of the four games necessary to make him victor in the New York series of the match. Over one hundred persons were waiting to see the second game. Every person present had a chance to play the identical game for himself that the masters were contesting in the next room, for a chess board was hung on the wall, and as fast as moves were made by the players inside they were announced in a loud voice from the doorway, and a boy made the corresponding move on the board on the wall, so that all could see them. The board was as big as a window. The pieces and pawns on it were flat, and a peg in the back of each piece or pawn fitted into a hold in the middle of each square.

The rooms are on the second floor of the building. The players sit near the Fifth avenue windows in a room that folding doors may shut off from the long room in the rear where the spectators sit. While the game is in progress the folding doors are allowed to remain open, and the players, who lean over the table holding a chess board and chess men, are easily seen. The table and the players are elevated on a dais. Red curtains against the windows shut out the sun's glare, and against the curtains the shape of the men's heads and their attitudes are distinctly revealed to the spectators.

Little chess boards, six inches square, and pictures of pawns and pieces printed on slips of paper, which could be stuck into the squares on the board, were in the hands of many in the room. When the players moved a piece they set it down on the board with an emphatic click which made the sleepy ones outside prick up their ears and made very one alert for the coming announcement. Among the chess players present, who arrived yesterday to witness the game, was Mr. Max Judd of St. Louis.

The game was a lively one after the necessarily dull skirmishing at the beginning. The opening was the Scotch gambit, so named from the famous Scotch-English correspondence games between players in London and Edinburgh, in which this opening became the favorite. Mr. Steinitz had the white and Mr. Zukertort the black. Mr. Steinitz (white) had the attack, but at the fourteenth move the black queen, supported by her king's bishop, attacked white king's rook's pawn and threatened check to the white king. To avert disaster, Mr. Steinitz attacked the bishop supporting his adversary's queen consecutively with his queen's rook and bishop. This caused an exchange, and from each player's forces were removed a rook and a bishop. This caused an exchange, and from each player's forces were removed a rook and a bishop. Then Mr. Zukertort, advancing pawns to the centre of the board, and bringing up his remaining rook, backed by his queen, strengthened his attack.

Mr. Steinitz was now pushed so hard that he was compelled to move his king from his king's knight's square to king's rook's second square for safety. After this he changed his defensive tactics and began to advance his pawns. While he was bringing other pieces to support them Mr. Zukertort blocked their progress with his pawns, at the same time managing to give check with his queen. The next move was check again with the solitary black rook. Then the queen captured the white queen and gave check for the third time. The game was plainly in Mr. Zukertort's hands.

These moves were made in feverish haste. The spectators applauded, but were hushed. Finally, Mr. Steinitz made a strong effort to prevent Mr. Zukertort pushing a pawn to queen, and, failing, resigned at the forty-sixth move.
The betting was in favor of Mr. Steinitz in the morning at $100 to $90, with few takes. At the close of the afternoon session the 31st move was reached, with victory perching on neither banner. Mr. Zukertort's victory descended so suddenly that his friends were unable to line their pockets.

Zukertort Wins A Game.
The Chess Championship Contest.
Steinitz opens with the Scotch Gambit—A stubbornly fought battle.

The second game of chess in the series for the championship of the world between Messrs. Steinitz and Zukertort was played yesterday at No. 80 Fifth-ave.

Steinitz is the first within the sanctum where the battle of brains is to be fought. He shakes hands cordially with Mr. Muhle [sic], Dr. Zukertort's umpire, and then greets cordially his own umpire, Mr. Frese [sic], diminutive in everything except his head. Mr. Steinitz's full, chubby face meanwhile beams effusively on everybody. His brow is as smooth as that of a child. The fierce mental struggles over the chess-board have left no furrows there. Dr. Zukertort arrives a few minutes later, with fur cap and long cape trailing down to his heels. As he throws open his cape with a quick gesture and casts a searching glance at the spectators, he suggest Irving's first entrance in "The Bells" with his "I am here." Steinitz ambles up to him—he can hardly be said to walk—and the two men exchange greetings, giving the spectators at the same time a good opportunity to observe the striking contrast between their expressions, Steinitz looking as placid as a mill pond and Dr. Zukertort restless and nervous with deep lines engraven on his sharp cut features. Then the two men take seats with the historic chess board between them, and doubtless each experiences something of
The stern joy which warriors feel
In foemen worthy of their steel

They are to engage in a battle of intellect against intellect, where the man who can see furthest and think deepest must win. A hush falls on the spectators. They are all expectancy. There are twice as many spectators as when the first game was played. They keep their overcoats and hats on and shiver until by reason of keeping the windows all sealed and doors closed and much consumption of oxygen by smoking and otherwise the room gets warm, but it is not warmth conducive to mental vigor. Mr. Green reserves the front row of seats, some forty in number, for the ladies, who don't come, and the chairs stand vacant half the day, until the order is rescinded. But the hall gets well filled before the afternoon closes, and measured by the ordinary standard the aggregate of brains would amount to something tremendous. Steinitz has the first move and makes it five minutes after 2 o'clock.

"White pawn to king's fourth," calls Mr. Paterson.

Before the move can be made on the big board, where all can see it, comes the reply: "Black pawn to king's fourth." Then after an interval of a few seconds only Steinitz moves again. Knight to king's bishop's third. He has selected for his opening the Scotch gambit which Paul Murphy [sic] always regarded as a bid for draw. Old chess players know that the contest is likely to prove long and stubborn and settle down in their seats to enjoy it. Knight to queen's bishop's third is Zukertort's prompt reply. The moves are now made as quickly as exchanges between pugilists in what is technically called a "rattling mill." Steinitz advances pawn to queen's fourth. "Pawn takes pawn" is the quick reply shouted to the man at the by-board. This is the "first blood" in the third move. In Monday's game fifteen moves were made before a man succumbed. Steinitz's knight takes the black pawn. Zukertort moves his knight to king's bishop's third.

Now the battle is fairly under way. The moves have all been made like lightning thus far and it is time to do some thinking. Steinitz sips some brandy and water, puts his hands in his trousers' pockets to keep them warm, and settles down to mark out some plan of the campaign. The spectators study the big chess board and their pocket chess-books and wonder what it will turn out to be. The placid, chubby little man with his hands in his pockets is an object of intense interest to them. Though outwardly so quiet, they know that he is dipping into the future as far as man can see in a game of chess, and that if his brain could be photographed it would be found to be tiled thick with chess squares and all manner of combinations. The man apparently least interested in him is Dr. Zukertort. He rises from his seat, paces the room abstractedly, and then crosses over to the umpires to look at portraits of himself and Steinitz in an illustrated journal which they have. When Steinitz has at last matured his plans and made his move he gets up and extends his dumpling-like little hands over the flames. The most comfortable men in the place are the two umpires. They are kept near the first. Miss Steinitz shivers near the door. She has added Dr. Zukertort's photograph to her collection. It is a prolific view, in which he shows to best advantage, and she sells many of them. Knights are exchanged in the next move. In the next move it is Dr. Zukertort's turn to put on his thinking cap. He does it after a nervous fashion far different from the imperturbably style which characterizes his opponent. He taps the floor, strokes his beard, leans first on one arm and then on the other, passes his hand over his brow and in various ways shows that he is tackling a hard problem. But he does it successfully as the sequel proves. The slaughter is thick. Pawns are again exchanged in the eighth move. Both men castle in the next move and with their kings firmly entrenched renew the fight. Then there is enacted a scene which for a chess player has all the charms of a mimic battle. Dr. Zukertort takes the aggressive. He throws his pawns out in skirmish line, unmasks his battery of bishops and concentrates their fire on his opponent's right hand corner, where the king is in hiding. His queen is brought boldly forward to find a vulnerable point in that king's defences. But it is not to be found this time. Steinitz skilfully parries every attack, turns the tide of war, and Dr. Zukertort's line of attack stubbornly retires. This is the situation at 6 o'clock when an adjournment is taken.

Steinitz passes through the hall, shakes hands with some friends, and his look seems to say plainly that he is thoroughly satisfied with the state of affairs. The fight is renewed at 8 o'clock. The board has become well thinned. The parport [sic] of every move is readily seen. For two hours more these masters of the game arrange the remnants of their forces in such combinations as fill with delight the admiring chess players. Dr. Zukertort again rallies to the attack. The tide of battle seems first to lean one way, then the other. The game is full of surprises. But at last the black men can no longer be beaten back. In vain Steinitz struggles to extricate himself. But he looks as imperturably [sic] as amiable as ever. A few minutes before 10 o'clock the announcement was made: "White reigns [sic]." Hand clapping resounds through the hall, whereat Dr. Zukertort rises and lifts his right hand deprecatingly. Then the doors of the sanctum are closed and the rival champions discuss "the might have been."

Among those present yesterday were Mr. Kaiser, of Philadelphia; Mr. Arnold, of Baltimore; Charles L. Edwards, of New-Orleans; Max Judd, of St. Louis, "the champion of the West," and C. M. Knox. The next game will be played at No. 80 Fifth ave. on Friday, beginning at 2 o'clock. The score now stands Steinitz 1, Zukertort 1.

Date: 1886.01.13
Site: USA New York, NY (Cartier's Hall)
Event: World Championship (Game 2)
White: Steinitz,W
Black: Zukertort,JH
Opening: [C47] Four Knights
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.d4
Mackenzie: The first time, so far as we can recall Mr. Steinitz's published games, that he, in an important match game as first player, adopts what is known as the "Scotch Gambit."
3...exd4 4.Nxd4 Nf6
Mackenzie: A favorite defence for Dr. Zukertort, who in more than one of his match games with Blackburne played the text move, in preference to the more popular 4....Bc5.
Monthly: This defence was introduced twelve years ago by E. v. Schmidt, and revived in 1876 by Steinitz and Potter, in a consultation game, v. Blackburne and Zukertort, at a chess party given by Mr. James Eccles. Since then Zukertort has adopted it in various matches, viz., against Blackburne, Paulsen, and others.
International: Professor Berger and, it seems, Mr. Zukertort who also adopted it against Blackburne, consider this the best defense.
Monthly: Blackburne played here 5.Nxc6, followed by 6.Bd3, in the first match game, v. Zukertort, and in the following games, 6.e5.
5...Bb4 6.Nxc6 bxc6 7.Bd3
Monthly: Paulsen continues here with 7.Qd4.
International: The usual move adopted at this juncture by Paulsen and other German masters is 7.Qd4. It generally leads to the following continuation: 7.Qd4 Qe7 8.f3 d5 9.Bg5 c5 10.Bb5+ Kf8 11.Qd2 (if 11.Bxf6 cxd4, winning a piece) 11...d4 12.0-0 Bb7, and ought to win.
Mackenzie: 7...Bxc3+ either on this or the preceding move, would break up White's pawns on the queen's side, but Black probably preferred retaining his two bishops.
8.exd5 cxd5
International: If 8...Nxd5 9.0-0 Nxc3 10.Qe1+, etc.
9.0-0 0-0 10.Bg5
Monthly: This is perhaps of questionable value. The bishop has to retreat afterwards; 10.Bd2 might therefore be suggested.
International: The d-pawn had to be defended of the knight exchanged. In the latter case White's disadvantage of a doubled pawn was fully compensated by his having two bishops and a prospect of an attack by ...c5 or ...Rb8.
11.Ne2 Bd6
International: Threatening 12...Bxh2+, followed by 13...Ng4+.
12.Ng3 h6 13.Bd2
Monthly: If 13.Be3, then obviously 13...Ng4 with advantage. Having once pinned the knight unnecessarily, it would have been preferable to take it off than to retreat.
Mackenzie: This move, in our opinion, gives Dr. Zukertort an unmistakable advantage in position.
Monthly: Now Black assumes the offensive, which is chiefly owing to white's 10th and 13th move.
International: An excellent move which gives the second player a slight advantage.
Monthly: If 14.h3 Nxf2 15.Kxf2 Qh4 16.Qf3 f5, with a winning attack.
International: The only defense, for 14...Qh4 was threatened, and if 14.h3 Nxf2 15.Kxf2 Qh4, followed by 16...f5 and 17...f4, recovering the piece by force, with a pawn ahead.
14...Qh4 15.Bxg4 Bxg4 16.Qc1 Be2
Mackenzie: Which, however, he throws away by this premature attack on the rook.
Monthly: The text move clearly neutralises the advantage of position which the defence has gained at this stage. Had Black, as second player, been content with a draw, 16...Bxg3 would have left bishops of different colour.
International: By this ill-advised sortie and the subsequent posting of that bishop at a6 Black throws away the advantage he had gained. 16...Bc7 was superior. Had he, however, advanced 16...f5 now, White by answering 17.f4, would have broken the attack and the adverse queen's bishop would have been badly posted.
17.Re1 [1:00-?:??] 17...Ba6 18.Bc3
Mackenzie: With this capital move White turns the tables on his opponent. He threatens 19.Bxg7, to avoid which Black must either play 18...Bc8, 18...Qg4, or make the text move 18...f5.
Monthly: Threatening 19.Bxg7, and 20.Nf5+, etc.
International: White has now assumed the offensive. He threatens 19.Bxg7 which can not be captured on account of 20.Nf5+, and Black dare not advance 18...d4, on account of the reply 19.Re4.
18...f5 19.Re6
Mackenzie: A formidable post for the rook.
19...Rad8 20.Qd2 d4 [?:??-1:00]
International: Though the pawn is only defended by the queen, it is obvious that White can not take it, on pain of losing a piece by by ...Bxg3 accordingly before or after the exchange of queens.
International: Better than 21.Rxd6 at once, for in that case Black would first take the bishop and would then advance ...f4 and ...f3.
21...Rd7 22.Rxd6 Rxd6 23.Bb4 Qf6 24.Rd1
Mackenzie: White might now have taken 24.Nxf5, but as the result would have been to leave the adversary, with bishop of an opposite color, which would probably lead to a draw, Mr. Steinitz, who is playing to win, prefers attacking the apparently weak centre pawn.
Monthly: If 24.Nxf5, then 24...Rd7 25.Bxf8 Qxf5, and the result might be a probable draw, the bishop being of adverse colour, which White apparently wanted to avoid.
International: 24.Re1 was much superior; but if 24.Nxf5 Rd7 25.Bxf8 Qxf5 and though White is a pawn ahead, Black has a good game and almost a sure draw with bishops of opposite colors.
24...Rd5 25.Bxf8 Qxf8 26.Nh5
Monthly: Useless. With this and the following knight's move, White allows his opponent to improve his position.
26...Qe8 27.Nf4 Re5
International: Black has finely taken advantage of the opponent's omission on the 24th move and has taken indisputable possession of the e-file.
Mackenzie: It is tolerably evident why White cannot capture the d-pawn, should the rook be captured.
International: If 28...g5, White would win by 29.hxg5, followed by 30.Nd3.
International: A weak move. Contrary to his usual style, Mr. Steinitz pursues a prospective attack on the king's side and neglects a positive and, we believe, a decisive advantage, which he could have obtained in the centre and on queen's side by 29.b4 at this point. The number of the move in the text and White's desire to save time, so close on the 30th move, may perhaps account for the omission.
29...Re4 30.c3 [2:00-?:??] 30...Qb8
International: The design of placing the queen on this diagonal is excellent, as it compels White to weaken his king's side, but we see no reason for not playing 30...Qe5 at once.
31.g3 (Adjourned) 31...Qe5 (Sealed) [?:??-2:00] 32.Ng6
Monthly: This has all the appearance of a mistake. We can see no reason why 32.f3 should not be played here, which would seem to secure at least a probable draw—e.g.: 32.f3 Re2 33.Nxe2 Bxe2 34.f4 Qe4 35.Re1 d3 36.Rxe2 dxe2 37.Kf2 Qh1, etc.
International: Total waste of time, as the retreat on the next move shows. He could have gained a fair advantage of position by 32.f3 Re3 33.cxd4 cxd4 34.Qxd4 Qxd4 35.Rxd4 Rxf3 36.Kg2 Bb7 37.Nd5 Re3 38.Kf2, etc.
32...Qd6 33.Nf4
Monthly: If 33.Re1, the reply would be 33...d3, etc.
International: A fine move, which greatly hampers White's game, but which would not have presented any real danger by proper precautions on the other side. It will be noticed that White can not take the pawn on account of 34...Bxd3, followed by 35...Re1+ and 36...Rxd1.
34.b3 c4 35.Rb1 Kh7 36.Kh2
Monthly: A lost move. Perhaps 36.bxc4 would have been better under the circumstances.
International: An unaccountably weak move. By 36.Rb2 at once, he would have obtained the same position which he had two moves later on, without giving his opponent time to withdraw the bishop to the more commanding diagonal at b7. 36.bxc4, followed by 37.Rb7 if the bishop retook, was also satisfactory enough. It is obvious that then Black's defense was much hampered, as he could not remove the queen and allow the rook to enter at b8, whereupon Ng6 was threatened.
36...Qb6 37.Kg1
Monthly: Forced. Black threatens 37...Re2 38.Nxe2 Qxf2+ 39.Kh3 Bb7, etc.
International: Black threatened 37...Re2, followed by 38...Qxf2+ and 39...Bb7.
36...Bb7 38.Rb2 Qc6
Monthly: Threatening 39...Re1+ and mate to follow.
International: Threatening 39...Rxf4, or 39...Re1+.
39.f3 Qc5+ 40.Qf2
Monthly: If 40.Kh2 Re2+ 41.Nxe2 Qf2+ 42.Kh3 Qf1+ 43.Kh2 Qxf3, and mate next move.
40...Re1+ 41.Kh2
Mackenzie: White in trying to avoid the draw, has drifted into an untenable position and must now lose the game.
Monthly: 41.Kg2 would have been better; but then Black would proceed with 41...Re3. If 41...Bxf3+, then 42.Qxf3, etc.
International: A fatal error. He still had at least an even game by 41.Kg2, e.g., 41.Kg2 Re3 42.Ne6 Bxf3+ 43.Qxf3 Rxe6 44.bxc4, etc.
41...Qxf2+ 42.Rxf2 Bxf3
International: A beautiful coup which wins a pawn and decides the game.
Mackenzie: If 43.Rxf3, the black pawn marches on to queen.
Monthly: Obviously if 43.Rxf3, the pawn queens.
International: Desperate, but he had no good resource. Obviously he could not stop the d-pawn if he took the bishop, and if 43.Ng2 Bxg2 44.Kxg2 cxb3 45.axb3 Rc1, and wins both pawns, for if now 46.c4 Rc2 47.Kf1 d2 48.Ke2 d1Q+ and wins.
43...Be2 44.Ng2 d2 45.Ne3 cxb3 46.axb3 Bxg4
Mackenzie: The latter part of the game is admirably played by Dr. Zukertort.
0-1 [Time, 5:56]
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n5, January 1886, pp146-147 (cites The Field)
International Chess Magazine, v1 n2, February 1886, pp48-51

Game 3: Friday, January 15, 1886.

Mr. Zukertort Wins Again.
By The Sacrifice Of A Pawn He Opens A Path To Victory.
A Game of Chess which for Hours Seems to be in Mr. Steinitz's Hands, but which has an Unexpected and Brilliant Termination.

There as a larger attendance at the chess contest between Mr. W [sic]. H. Zukertort of London and Mr. William Steinitz of New York, in Cartier's rooms, 80 Fifth avenue, yesterday than at either of the previous games. Two games had been played and each player had been victorious once. If the earnestness of the men was to be judged by their apparent close attention to the game, they strained every nerve yesterday as they had not done before. Mr. Zukertort found less time to perambulate in the contracted space where it was been his wont to promenade, puff cigarettes, and sip black coffee while waiting for his antagonist's play. Mr. Steinitz scarcely moved from his chair, but bent over the board and took for nourishment a very weak solution of brandy. The front row of reats [sic], reserved for ladies, was pretty fully occupied. Among the ladies present was Mrs. Warrall [sic], who played a correspondence game with Mr. Steinitz, and having accepted odds of a knight, won the game. Another player present was a keen-eyed old gentleman, who kept his eyes glued to the big chess board fixed on the wall. He was M. Perrin, and he played in New York with Paul Morphy in the famous chess congress in this city in 1857. M. Perrin was asked how Paul Morphy would compare with the best players of the present day.

"I do not want to be understood as making any comparisons." M. Perrin replied. "Chess ethics do not admit of comparisons; yet I believe that if Morphy had continued to play with the force he had in his best days, he would be as far ahead of the players of the present day as he was superior to the strongest in his day. It must be remembered that Morphy opened the way to much of the modern science of the game. His successors have profited by his genius."

Mr. Zukertort played with the white, and attacked by offering the queen's gambit. Mr. Zukertort has a deep and dangerous knowledge of gambit openings. Mr. Steinitz declined the queen's gambit, and proceeded with caution to strengthen the queen's side of his game. With his pawns he met Mr. Zukertort's queen's bishop's pawn, which Mr. Zukertort had pushed to the fifth square, and then both sides prepared to castle. Mr. Steinitz soon castled on the king's side, and then, by attacking the white queen with his queen's rook, made it so dangerous for Mr. Zukertort to castle with Mr. Zukertort consumed twenty-five minutes in making up his mind whether to castle or note.

In violation of the rules, spectators analyzed and discussed the situation, and they were requested to keep silence by one of the umpires of the game.

Mr. Zukertort castled on the king's side at the thirteenth move, and at the fourteenth the first exchange was made. Each player lost a pawn and a knight. The advantage was decidedly with Mr. Steinitz. His queen, king's bishop and queen's rook maintained a double bearing on Mr. Zukertort's forces, for the queen and rook threatened from the position on the black queen's knight's row to sweep straight down on Mr. Zukertort's first row in order to attack his king, and the queen and bishop looked diagonally across the board at the white king's rook's pawn. Mr. Zukertort's game was crowded into his king's corner. He found freedom by exchanging pieces, a bishop for a knight. When intermission was reached at 6 o'clock, after nearly three hours' playing, Mr. Zukertort was the last to move a piece, and he offered what seemed an unimportant choice to Mr. Steinitz. Mr. Steinitz, with his king's rook's pawn could either capture Zukertort's king's knight's pawn or could pass it. What Mr. Steinitz chose to do remained a mystery until the evening session began, for this move was written down and sealed up in an envelope, in order that Mr. Zukertort should not have two hours to think of his own next move. It was the sealed-up move which eventually decided the fate of Mr. Steinitz. When the envelope was torn open in the evening the move was read aloud. Mr. Steinitz had chose to capture the pawn. Mr. Zukertort immediately captured the victorious pawn with his knight, and at the next move advanced his king's rook forward along the rook's row left open by the pawn episode, and gave check to the black king. The same rook gave check again at the next move and again at the next move. Mr. Steinitz's pieces were in the middle of the board and so hemmed in that they were helpless to aid the king. It was remarked that so long as Mr. Steinitz continued to see-saw with his king, Mr. Zukertort had it in his power to make the game a draw. He strengthened his attack, however, by advancing his queen, queen's rook and knight. Meanwhile Mr. Steinitz recalled his king's bishop and queen's rook to the king's defence, but in vain. With his king's rook Mr. Zukertort captured the bishop's pawn standing next to the king. Mr. Steinitz replied helplessly by bringing his queen's rook next to the black king. Finally Mr. Zukertort captured Mr. Steinitz's bishop guarding the king, and check-mate was in sight. Mr. Steinitz resigned.
After the game Mr. George T. Green, President of the Manhattan Chess Club, cabled the result to London, Paris, and Vienna. The next game will be played on Monday next, beginning at 2 o'clock P. M.

Dr. Zukertort Wins Again.
Third Game In The Chess Contest.
Steinitz declines the Queen's Gambit—The first part of the game in his favor.

Each with a game to his credit, Messrs. Steinitz and Zukertort yesterday resumed their contest for the chess championship of the world at Cartier's Hall, No. 80 Fifth-ave.

Steinitz ambles in first, scattering smiles promiscuously on everybody in the hall, and shaking hands with those who have the honor of his acquaintance. He is the happiest looking man in the room, and but for the deeply furrowed time or care scarred faces of most of the chess enthusiasts who crowd the hall, which show his serenity to the exceptional, one would think that there is something in chess-playing which tends to preserve a youthful smoothness of face. Steinitz seems to be the only great chess-player who can think hard, over a game without wrinkling his brows. Zukertort's face is full of creases. He comes in a few minutes after his rival and walks to the little room where the game is to be played with a quick nervous tread, hardly noticing anybody in the hall. Interest in the contest is evidently increasing. Most of the people who witnessed the first two games are in the hall, and their number is swelled by many new comers. Old chess-players, some of them famous a generation ago, scent the battle from afar, and hurry to it. Most conspicuous of these is W. J. A. Fuller, with a venerable, Darwin-like head. Paul Morphy used to find more pleasure in beating him than any other man. He is allowed within the room where the champions sit and no one begrudges him the privilege. Mrs. Worrall, probably the best woman player in the country, who two years ago defeated Steinitz with the odds of a knight in her favor, braves the air of tobacco smoke and sits out the game. Others present are Eugene Delmar, J. M. Hanham, Philip Richardson, Leslie Bruce, Albert Merriam, Max Judd and August Vorath. Veteran Frederick Perrin, who enjoys the distinction of having been often beaten by Morphy, is also an interested spectators.

Zukertort seats himself opposite the white men. It is his turn to get first move and as on Monday he again selects the Queen's gambit for his opening, and again Steinitz declines it. The preliminary moves are made rapidly and until the fourth move on either side is reached they are the same as those made in Monday's game. On the forth [sic] move Zukertort plays pawn to queen's rook's third, instead of, as in the previous game, knight to queen's bishop's third. The queens are brought out early, but the haughty dames do not advance far into the fray. Zukertort pushes his to queen's knight's third on the sixth move, and Steinitz replies by moving his to queen's bishop's second. On the eleventh move Steinitz castles on the king's side and Zukertort does the same thing on this thirteenth move. Each is then where it is hardest for the enemy to get at him. Like skilful generals, neither neglects his own defences. Not until the fourteenth move does the board begin to get cleared. Then pawns are exchanged and knights in the following move. That allows more room for manœuvring. Steinitz pushes the attack. For a long time his objective point is the king's rook's pawn. Zukertort brings all his available pieces to the support of his threatened outpost. In vain. The little fellow is removed from the field on Black's 31st move.

One of the rules of the contest prohibits analyzing the games while it is in progress. But nearly everybody is figuring at it and talking about it. The buzz of conversation creates such a volume of sound that it disturbs the players, and even the amiable Steinitz looks appealingly at the spectators, while Zukertort, who is engaged on a knotty problem, frowns. "Silence, gentlemen," at length he exclaims in a tone more of command than entreaty. For the next ten minutes the people are as quiet as though at a funeral. Some of the comments are curious. "Steinitz will win," says one man with a somewhat "horsey" air. "He's got the best boiler. You must have a lot of steam to keep the thinking machinery going. That means plenty of stomach. Now, little Zukertort hasn't got enough. The strain'll break him up." To which novel opinion his friend, who doesn't believe much in analogies, replies curtly: "Humbug! You want nerves and grit. They don't take up much room and little Zukertort is full of both."

It is evident that Zukertort's stock has risen. Miss Steinitz sells all she has of his photographs early in the day. Still, at a casual glance up to the time of adjournment, his game does not wear an encouraging aspect. His pieces are packed together like a Kennebec River ice gorge. They are in each other's way. Steinitz has four pieces within his lines. But the wiry little doctor, as he showed on Wednesday, has an eel-like capacity for wriggling out of a tight place. Some people remember this as they observe Steinitz's gleeful look as he passes out of the hall after the 6 o'clock adjournment. When the battle is renewed at 8 o'clock Zukertort "wriggles" skilfully, extricates himself from his cramped position and assumes the aggressive. Steinitz seems somewhat hampered by the time limit. When pushed hard he needs more time than the rules of the game admit of, to think out of his moves. Neither of the champions has anything like Paul Morphy's facility for making rapid calculations, so say some of the veterans who can boast of having felt that wizard's prowess. In the 40th move Zukertort gives the first check and follows it with two successive checks. Steinitz is forced backward. Perhaps a Morphy might stem the onset, but Steinitz cannot. However, his chubby face gives no sign of the straits he is in, and when he says in an undertone, "I resign," he might, for aught the spectators could divine from his expression, be announcing "mate." But they are not left a moment in doubt. "White resigns," shouts Mr. Paterson in tones heard all over the hall. There is a slight, almost involuntary outbreak of hand-clapping, bit it is immediately checked. The game was finished at 9:25 o'clock.

The victory sends Zukertort's stock above par. The courage of the man in selecting the same opening which resulted in his defeat on Monday excites much admiring comment. The score now stands: Zukertort two games won, Steinitz one. The next game will be played on Monday at No. 80 Fifth-ave., beginning at 2 o'clock.

Date: 1886.01.15
Site: USA New York, NY (Cartier's Hall)
Event: World Championship (Game 3)
White: Zukertort,JH
Black: Steinitz,W
Opening: [D10] Slav
1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.e3 Bf5 4.a3
Mackenzie: Up to this move the opening is identical with that of the first game. Dr. Zukertort now plays 4.a3 instead of 4.Nc3.
Monthly: Preparing at once the advance of the pawns on the queen's side. The continuation in the first game was 4.Nc3.
4...e6 5.c5
Mackenzie: Preventing the black bishop from occupying the important square at d6.
Monthly: Mr. Steinitz thought this advance premature. If properly followed up, it was not so in Zukertort's opinion.
International: From the course which the present game takes we feel satisfied that this is not disadvantageous for the first player.
5...a5 6.Qb3 Qc7 7.Nc3 Nd7 8.Na4
Mackenzie: This hinders Black from advancing the b-pawn, but it seems to us puts the white knight woefully out of play.
International: 8...Ne7, followed by 9...Nc8, also has its points, and may be safely adopted.
9.Ne2 Be7 10.Ng3
Monthly: The knight ought to have been played to c3, as the sequel proved.
10...Bg6 11.Bd2 0-0 12.Be2 Rfb8
International: A powerful attack on the queen's side is instituted by this move. The opening of the b-file is forced at Black's option, for White can not fix his knight and eventually his pawn at b6, for he would ultimately lose that pawn by ...Nd7.
Monthly: For White would now continue with 13.Nb6 Nxb6 14.cxb6 Qd8, and White can protect the advanced pawn whenever required with Na4.
International: 13.Qd1 with the object of supporting the chain of pawns by 14.b4 was preferable, but Black, in that case, could also obtain a good game by 14...b5, followed by 15...a4.
Mackenzie: Mr. Steinitz, having completed his development now proceeds to break through on the queen's side by 13...b6.
14.cxb6 Nxb6 15.Nxb6 Rxb6 16.Qc3 Qb7 17.Ra2
International: Much as this hampers his game it was, no doubt, his best, and as will be seen, he obtains thereby the opportunity of placing his bishop at c3 after removing the queen. 17.Bc1 instead, the only other alternative, would have blocked his game beyond hope of extrication.
17...Nd7 18.Bd1
International: A bold move which offers to give up a pawn for position.
Mackenzie: The superiority of Black's position on the queen's wing is now manifest.
Monthly: Black could win a pawn with 18...Bb1 19.Ra1 Rxb2 20.Ba4 Nb8 (20...Rb6 21.Bxc6 Rxc6 22.Raxb1, etc.) 21.Rc1 Rb6.
International: If 18...Bb1 19.Ra1 Rxb2 20.Ba4 Nb8 21.Rc1 Rb6, or 21...Ra6, and though Black is a pawn ahead, he seems to have little prospect of utilizing his advantage.
19.Ba4 c4
Mackenzie: Opinions were divided among the lookers on as to whether this advance was as good as 19...cxd4.
20.Qc1 [1:00-?:???] 20...Nf6 [?:???-1:00] 21.Bc3 Bd6 22.f3
International: Loss of time. as he is immediately compelled to advance this pawn two squares, he would have better submitted to the necessity at once.
Mackenzie: An excellent move, almost compelling the further advancing of the f-pawn.
Mackenzie: 23.Qe1 would lose at least a pawn by Black's reply 23...Bd3.
Monthly: Forced. If 23.Qe1, then also 23...Bd3.
International: If 23.Qe1, Black would answer 23...Bd3, winning a pawn.
23...Bd3 24.Re1 h5
International: Of course with the object of advancing on the knight and then entering with his own knight at e4 into a commanding position.
Mackenzie: This advanced pawn is a source of weakness in White's game which Mr. Steinitz is not slow to profit by.
International: This pawn is ultimately lost, but it was, no doubt, his best play to defend the centre against the occupation of the adverse knight as long as possible.
25...Qd8 26.Bd1 g6 27.Qd2 Rbb8
International: 27...Rb5 was much superior, for it would have subsequently enabled Black to double the rooks without loss of time. White could not well displace the rook by 28.a4 without afterward subjecting himself to a vehement attack at b4.
28.Qf2 Be7 29.Bf3 Ne4
Mackenzie: His preparations being completed, Black now proceeds to the attack and capture of the pawn.
Monthly: If the knight retire, White would open the game with 30.e4 and get a fine position.
International: Hardly as good as 29...Ne8 with the object of afterwards playing the knight to d6 and b5.
30.Bxe4 dxe4 31.Nh1 Bxh4 32.g3 Be7
Mackenzie: With a pawn behind, his queen's rook and his knight, altogether out of play, White's chances are anything but promising.
Monthly: Black has now won a pawn, and he steadily follows up now a manœuvre by which he hopes to break up the opponent's game on the queen's wing, while White essays the same on the opposite win. The knight proves now very powerful, while the black queen's bishop is rather hampered.
33.Qd2 Qd5 34.Nf2 a4
International: Black pursues the simple plan of breaking in on the queen's side. But 34...g5, a move pointed out by Mr. J. Ryan, would have won with great ease, e.g., 34...g5 35.Kg2 (if 35.fxg5 Qxg5 36.Kg2, or 36.Kh2, 36...Bd6, followed by 37...h4, or 37...Kh7, and should win) 35...gxf4 36.gxf4 (best) 36...Kh7, with a winning attack.
35.Kg2 Rb3
Mackenzie: The object of this and of Black's previous move we have tried in vain to comprehend. Their only apparent effect is to give White time to establish an enduring attack on the black king.
36.Rh1 Kg7 37.Raa1 Bd8 [?:??-2:00] 38.g4 (Adjourned) 38...hxg4 (Sealed)
Mackenzie: If this be his best move, then Black is in a very bad way. The capture of this pawn brings White's knight and queen at once into active operations.
Monthly: This move Black had recorded at the adjournment. It would have been much better to continue with 38...Ba5. White's best answer was 39.Rac1 as defence.
International: An unhappy move which uselessly subjects him to a powerful attack, and is all the worse as he could have won the game straight off by 38...Ba5 39.gxh5 (if 39.Bxa5, Black retakes 39...Qxa5, and should White exchange queens, his b-pawn must soon fall. Black otherwise could also obtain a very fine game by doubling the rooks on the b-file) 39...Bxc3 40.bxc3 Rab8 41.hxg6 fxg6 42.Qd1 Qf5 followed by 43...Rb2, or 43...Rxc3, with a winning game.
39.Nxg4 Ba5
Monthly: Obviously unconscious of the imminent danger. If 39...f5 40.Ne5 Ba5 41.Rag1 Bxc3 42.bxc3 Rab8 43.Kf2!.
International: His game was no longer as good as before, though he was a pawn ahead. 39...Be7, followed by 40...Rg8 and 41...Kf8, would have given him fair chances of an attack, with at least a draw. The move in the text is a grievous blunder, which loses right off.
40.Rh7+ Kf8
Monthly: If 40...Kxh7 41.Nf6+ Kg7 42.Nxd5 Bxc3 43.Nxc3.
International: If he could have gained two pieces for the queen, it would have been his best resource, but he could not, e.g., 40...Kxh7 41.Nf6+ Kg7 42.Nxd5 and if 42...Bxc3, 43.Nxc3, while if 42...exd5, White answers 43.Bxa5.
41.Rh8+ Kg7
Monthly: If 41...Ke7, then 42.Rxa8 Bxc3 43.Ra7+ and 44.bxc3
International: If 41...Ke7 42.Rxa8 Bxc3 (or 42...Qxa8 43.Bxa5) 43.Ra7+, followed by 44.bxc3, with a rook ahead.
42.Rh7+ Kf8
Monthly: Black offered here a draw.
43.Qf2 [2:00-?:??]
International: A masterly coup which decides the game.
Monthly: If 43...Bxc3, then simply 44.bxc3, threatening of course 45.Qh4. If 43...g5 44.fxg5, threatening immediate mate. If 43...Ke7, then 44.Qh4+ Kd6 45.Rxf7 Bd8 46.Qh7 and 47.Ne5, etc.
International: No better was 43...Bxc3 44.bxc3 g5 45.Ne5, followed by 45...gxf4 or 45...Rxc3.
44.Ne5 Kg8
Monthly: If 44...Rb7, then equally 45.Rah1.
International: If 44...Ra7, the answer 45.Rh8+ was equally fatal.
45.Rah1 Bf6 46.Rxf7
Mackenzie: Conclusive enough, but the more brilliant coup, 46.Qh4, was expected by some of the experts who were lookers on.
Monthly: Best. 46.Qg3 would offer some chances after 46...Rab8 or 46...Qb5.
Monthly: Of course, if 46...Bxe5, then 47.fxe5, threatening 48.Rh8+.
47.Rxf6 1-0 [Time, 3:05]
Mackenzie: Because if 47...Rxf6, 48.Qh4, leaving Black without any satisfactory defence.
Monthly: As, whatever he does, mate follows in a very few moves.
International: Of course White wins by 48.Qh4.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n6, February 1886, pp168-169
International Chess Magazine, v1 n2, February 1886, pp51-53

Sunday, January 17, 1886.

Steinitz Talks On Chess.
His Opinion Of Paul Morphy's Play.
Qualities that make a good chess player—A few words with Zukertort.

A man who can do something better than any other man in the world is apt to "put on airs" and is rapidly excused for it. But neither Steinitz nor Zukertort, who, without doubt, can beat all other men at chess, needs any such excuse. They are both men of affable manners and exceptionally modest demeanor. A reporter of The Tribune called on Mr. Steinitz yesterday at his home, No. 986 Fulton-ave., Brooklyn, and found him hard at work preparing analyses of the recent games for his International Chess Magazine with the assistance of his co-editor, Eugene Soberheim. Nevertheless he readily consented to talk about chess. Though presenting all the outward aspects of a phlegmatic temperament Mr. Steinitz has found out to his sorrow that he has plenty of nerves, and they have cost him several sleepless nights since his match with Zukertort for the championship of the world began.

"But I expected it," he said cheerily. "I always suffer that way at the beginning of my matches or tournaments. It was so at the Vienna tournament in '82, when, after eight days of play I stood eleventh or twelfth in the race, but I recovered my 'form' got to sleeping well and as a result tied with Winawer for first and second prizes. The same trouble upset me at the beginning of the London International Tournament in '83. In my present match I have not only the strain of actual play to reduce but the work of analyzing the games and preparing the matter for my magazine involving an immense amount of exhaustive work. But, as has happened heretofore, I expect pick up my form and then give a better account of myself. When one doesn't sleep well he may plan a good game but is apt to blunder in carrying out the details. He can't see into the game so well."

"How far does an expert generally go into the game?" asked the reporter.

"One can't give a specific answer to that question. Sometimes two-move problems will puzzle an expert; at another time he may see the solution of a six-move problem at a glance. In some 'endings' one can see almost twenty moves ahead. Problems have been evolved looking one hundred moves ahead. But in such cases the moves are forced. The same process is repeated an there are no variations possible. Ordinarily I should say that a first-class player sees five or six moves ahead. The possible combinations in a game of chess are practically infinite. At the outset you have th choice of twenty moves and to each one of those moves your opponent in reply has twenty moves to choose from. It is like the old problem of starting with a penny and doubling it for each succeeding nail in a horse's shoes."

"What are the qualities requisite to make a good chess player?"

"First, I should say, judgment. That judgment may be intuitive or acquired by long practice. Intuitive judgment is the highest gift. That implies originality—capacity to depart from the beaten track. Then come the qualities of accuracy and what might be called far-seeing. One may be good at mapping out a general plan, but weak in carrying out the details. Another may be accurate in his play but not good at planning. The good chess player must have both qualities. Memory and imagination—the power to see with the mind's eye the men in various combinations—are important elements."

"What temperament do you think the best?"

"The nervous temperament. A race horse has more nerves than a donkey. It requires a delicate organization to produce the fine combinations necessary to rank as an expert. Good chess-players generally suffer much from their nerves."

"What do you think of chess as a mental exercise?"

"I think it does for the brain what athletics do for the body. It both stimulates and conserves the mental powers. Chess players as a class live long. A statistician has computed that the average duration of life for a professional chess-player is sixty-five years. Like every mental and physical exercise it may, of course, be overdone. A man should not go in for more of it than he can stand and he soon finds out what his limit is. It is opposed to the drinking habit and the gambling spirit. Therefore it is a good game for the workingman. It ought to be generally encoaraged [sic]."

"Will you give me your estimate of Paul Morphy as a chess player?"

"I know," replied Mr. Steinitz, smiling, "that is a delicate subject to speak of where Americans are concerned. He is their chess idol. But I will speak of him frankly. I owe much to him. His victories in Europe first, stimulated me to take up chess in earnest. I tried to imitate him until I found that modern progress had improved upon his play in some respects. There can be no doubt that the man had a genius for chess-playing. He was the best player of his time. HE was original. He invented new openings. But it is proved by those that great progress has been made since his day. Many of them have been modified by the accepted chess masters of this generation. The popular notion as to Morphy's style of play is erroneous. He was not a brilliant player, according to the ordinary understanding of that phrase. He didn't sweep Napoleon-like over the chess fields, making apparently reckless sacrifices to get at the King. He belonged rather to the modern school of chess players, was strong and safe. In his sixty-three match games, he never voluntarily sacrificed a pawn. When he played with weak players of course he was able to exhibit the brilliant headlong sort of play that captivates the spectators. It must be remembered also that of the many players he conquered who survived his retirement from the chess field only one remained in the front rank—Anderssen. What Paul Morphy did is on record. What he might have done, had he retained his faculties unimpaired and continued in the chess field, is a matter of conjecture. He might still be the best player in the world. But it is foolish to say that there has been no progress in chess since his day."

Dr, Zukertort seems to hold somewhat the same views of Morphy's play as does Mr. Steinitz. W. J. A. Fuller, writing recently of Paul Morphy, cites as an instance of his genius a game that he won from Paulsen, in which Morphy sacrificed a Queen for a Bishop. Paulsen deliberating an hour before taking the Queen. "Meanwhile," adds Mr. Fuller, "the rest of us had set up the position, and our joint analyses failed to discover Morphy's subsequent moves." Talking over this game the other day with Mr. Fuller, Dr. Zukertort said that before doing that Morphy had a mate in four moves, which he overlooked, and after the exchange he overlooked a mate in six moves. "This shows," said Dr. Zukertort, "that Morphy did not always make the best move possible. He was looking for mate in one direction and didn't see it near at hand. The same thing must often happen with all chess players."

The fourth game in the series between Zukertort and Steinitz will be played to-day at No. 80 Fifth-ave., beginning at 2 p.m.

Game 4: Monday, January 18, 1886.

Mr. Zukertort Wins Again.
The Fourth Game of the Great Chess Contest Not Remarkable for Brilliancy.

The fourth game in the chess match between J. H. Zukertort and W. Steinitz was played at Cartier's rooms, 80 Fifth avenue yesterday. At the end of the fourth hour Mr. Steinitz resigned on the fortieth move, after losing a knight for a pawn in a desperate attempt to win his adversary's queen. There was nothing brilliant about the game, and when Mr. Steinitz resigned there was no immediate attack. He had a knight and a pawn less than Mr. Zukertort, and judged rightly, perhaps, that his adversary was too strong a player to allow him to catch up. The spectators, however, were surprised at his resigning when there seemed still a chance to fight.

Mr. Steinitz said in conversation after the game: "As usual I have failed at the first of the match. I have no reason to give for my failure."

"Is it a fact that you are not able to sleep on the night after you have played a match game?" was asked.

"Last week I could not sleep for two nights, but last night I had no difficulty in getting sufficient rest."

"Then there is no reason why the game was not prolonged to a checkmate?"

"No reason that I know of."

The players move the pieces more rapidly yesterday than at any game they have played in the match. Neither player made a strong game. So far as the match has progressed Mr. Zukertort has won three games and Mr. Steinitz one game.

The conditions of the match are that the player who wins the match must be victorious in ten games. Games which are drawn do not count. Four games must first be won by one of the players in the city. Then the players are to go to St. Louis, and there one of the players must win three games. Finally, at New Orleans, one of the players must add as many victories to his score as will make, when added to his games won in New York and St. Louis, the number required for the match. Should the score stand at nine games won to each of the players, then the match shall be declared drawn. If Mr. Zukertort should win the game to be played to-morrow the score would stand: Zukertort, 4; Steinitz, 1.
The fifth game of the series will be played to-morrow.

Steinitz's Fatal Blunder.
Dr. Zukertort Wins The Fourth Game.
Something Wong with Steinitz's Form—Characteristics of the Game.

The great chess match of the world's championship between Zukertort and Steinitz has lost none of its attractions for the lovers of the game. They are content to sit still for four hours gazing at the large chess-board on which the moves are repeated, generally averaging about thirty for each player in that time, and answer only with silent and contemptuous pity all suggestions that it is a rather "slow" entertainment—that a horse race, a sparring match or a political convention might present more exciting incidents. To the number of about one hundred they gathered at Cartier's Hall, No. 80 Fifth-ave., yesterday afternoon to see the fourth game in the series. Five ladies, whose passion for the game is stronger than their aversion to tobacco smoke, add the charm of their presence to the assembly. But they occupy front seats and gaze so intently on the board that nothing but the rear elevation of their bonnets can be seen and these, as befits women of intellectual pursuits, are of the most sober character.

Steinitz as he toddles past the spectators, making for the little room where he is again to measure intellect with the wiry little Hungarian, remarks that he got seven hours' sleep the night before and feels in better condition, though still not quite up to his best "fighting form." His placid, chubby face does not look like that of a man who is kept awake o'nights by nervousness, but appearances are deceptive in his case. It would be easy to believe that Zukertort, with his sharp features, sunken and furrowed, and his incisive and impatient manner, often paced the floor of his bedroom pursued by phantom chessmen. But thus far Zukertort has received fair treatment from the drowsy god. Perhaps he finds it all the easier to sleep because he is ahead in the contest. It is again Steinitz's turn to move first. He adopts the Ruy Lopez opening, pawn to king's 4th followed by king's knight to bishop's 3rd, and king's bishop to queen's knight's 5th. Zukertort's opening tactics comprise what is known among experts as the Berlin defence, and involve no startling novelties. But it is a lively style of game so far as the exchange of pieces is concerned. Zukertort captures a pawn on the fourth move. Steinitz makes an even exchange of it on his sixth move. Zukertort replies by capturing a knight and immediately loses a knight to Steinitz, and in the eleventh and twelfth moves rooks are exchanged. Meanwhile both champions have castled, and with their kings solidly retrenched and the board tolerably clear for manœuveing [sic], there follows some lively skirmishing for weak places in each other's defences. There is no advancing in solid phalanx—pawns supported by the heavy artillery of queens, bishops and knights in crushing array—but the manœuvres rather resemble the thrust, parry and backward retreat of two skilled fencers, of a fight between to turtles, where one and then the other stretches out its long neck in search of a bite, only to dart back into its shell again. A bishop travels nearly the whole length of the board and a counter demonstration sends it in headlong retreat to the place where it started from. The queens and knights participate in the same sort of tactics. The rooks attest their prowess early.

To the casual observer it is a lively sort of a fight and the line of battle is continually changing. But the experts see nothing startling in it at all; they call it a book game; still it is the sort of book game which engages all their attention. The spectators have become accustomed to the two automaton-like figures in the little room and pay little head to them, giving all their attention to the big board on which the moves are repeated. It must be somewhat of a relief to the contestants to feel that they are no longer the objective points of a hundred pairs of searching eyes. Zukertort moves much faster than Steinitz. This faculty of ready play has worked to Zukertort's advantage in all the games. When a tough struggle comes near the end of a game he has plenty of reserve time in which to do his thinking, while Steinitz has to make all his moves in the time limit. Thus Steinitz consumes one hour in making twenty moves, while Zukertort in that time makes thirty. He is often pacing up and down the little room, darting sharp glances here and there, something after the fashion of a caged lion in the Central Park collection, although there is nothing leonine in his diminutive figure, sunken cheeks and rather scant hair. Meanwhile Steinitz, serene-looking, with his pudgy little hands on his knees, is "stewing" over some kink in the game, apparently oblivious to the flight of time. Bring an opera glass to bear on him and you see that he is perspiring with the intensity of his mental effort.

The game is apparently even up to the 37th move. Each has then lost a rook, a knight and two pawns. But, shade of Paul Morphy! what is this? Steinitz takes a pawn with his knight, and the pawn which protected it immediately snaps up the two venturesome cavalier. Why did he do it? Did he not see that though the moving of a pawn which captured his knight left his queen free to capture the opposing queen, it left the black rook equally free to swoop down on his rook and simultaneously checkmate him? Surely he must have seen this, think the less-practised of the chess players present, and has one of Paul Morphy's surprises in store. And they recall what they have read of Paul Morphy's celebrated game with Paulsen, where he threw away a queen for a bishop and won the game. But the experts, aghast and disgusted, are already exclaiming: "Why, this is fourth-rate chess. He has made a palpable and irretrievable blinder and lost the game." They are right. It is an unprecedented blunder in a match game or tournament between champions. They are not surprised, when, the knight being needlessly sacrificed, after a few moves comes the announcement "White resigns." So Steinitz loses his third game out of four played. His friends know that something is wrong with his "form." "It is just what often happens," he says with an effort at cheerfulness which one can't help seeing is somewhat forced. "I often break up at the beginning of match or tournament, but I always pull together before the end comes." Whereupon his friends counsel him again to let his chess magazine "so hang" until the match is over, and give the match his undivided attention.

Zukertort says that he suffered from sleeplessness in the London international tournament, took aconite, "braced up," got so far ahead that he could afford to lose the three remaining games, stopped the aconite, collapsed, and lost them, but won the tournament.

The next game will be played to-morrow at No. 80 Fifth-ave., beginning at 2 o'clock.

Date: 1886.01.18
Site: USA New York, NY (Cartier's Hall)
Event: World Championship (Game 4)
White: Steinitz,W
Black: Zukertort,JH
Opening: [C67] Spanish
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5
Mackenzie: Bringing about what is known as the Knight's game of Ruy Lopez, a solid opening, and one which is supposed to retain the advantage of the first move longer than any other.
Mackenzie: 3...a6 was formerly considered Black's best play at this point, but 3...Nf6 appears to have now superseded it in popular favor.
4.0-0 Nxe4 5.Re1
Monthly: This move is the alternative to 5.d4, which, of the two, is more frequently played.
International: This defense which was invented and favored by Anderssen is called the Berlin Defense. Although it blocks the d-pawn for some moves, yet it can be adopted with great advantage in numerous variations springing from this line of play.
International: The usual move here is 6.Bxc6, followed by 7.Nxe5
6...Nxe5 7.Rxe5+ Be7 8.Bf1
Monthly: A novelty, but to all appearance the move, if included in the theory of the Lopez, will be recorded as a matter of history only.
International: We believe this to be a novelty and better than 8.Ba4, as it prevents Black from developing his game by 8...b5 and 9...Bb7. Mr. Steinitz based his attack on this new retreat.
8...0-0 9.d4 Bf6 10.Re1
Mackenzie: So far, we believe, the moves are all "book."
Mackenzie: 10...Nf5, followed, should White play 11.a3 by 11...d5, is by no means a bad line of play.
Monthly: Perhaps 10...Nf5 might have been played here. The knight cannot be dislodged with 11.g4, because of 11...Nxd4. Obviously White could not continue with 12.g5, on account of 12...Bxg5 13.Qxd4 Bxc1, winning a pawn. White cannot capture the bishop on account of 14...Qg5+, and wins.
International: 10...Nf5 at once seems to us stronger. Black had nothing to fear from 11.g4, which would only lose a pawn, e.g., 11.g4 Nxd4 and if 12.g5 Bxg5 13.Qxd4 Bxc1, and if rook retake, Black won by 14...Qg5+.
11.c3 Rxe1 12.Qxe1 Nf5 13.Bf4
Monthly: Preventing Black's 13...d5, because of 14.Bxc7.
International: As White wishes to enter with his knight at e4, he prevents the adverse advance of 13...d5, which can not now be done on pain of losing a pawn by 14.Bxc7.
13...d6 14.Nd2 Be6
International: 14...g5 at this stage would have exposed Black's king side to a vehement attack, although he effected the doubling of the adverse g-pawn and the exchange of a knight for a bishop.
Mackenzie: White has the freer development, but apart from that there is very little to choose between the two positions, and the indications at present point strongly toward a "draw."
15...Nh4 16.Ne4 Ng6 17.Bd2
International: White with this move reserves to himself the option of utilizing this bishop on the queen's side, after pushing the f-pawn.
17...d5 18.Nc5
Mackenzie: With all due deference to Mr. Steinitz, we must confess that we look upon this move as an error. The reply 18...Bc8 is self-evident, after which 19...b6 drives the knight to a spot where he is comparatively out of play. 18.Ng3, where he is in close proximity to the black king, was, in our opinion, much to be preferred.
International: 18.Ng3 here was perhaps preferable.
18...Bc8 19.Qe3 b6 20.Nb3 [1:00-?:??]
International: White here should have played 20.Na6 where it can be sufficiently protected by the bishop and queen if necessary, while a good retreat could be prepared for it by throwing forward the b-pawn and c-pawn and then playing Nb4.
International: Not as good as 20...Bb7 at once.
Monthly: Presumably this manœuvre was executed to force the adverse bishop to quit the diagonal—at b7 it is somewhat out of play. Obviously, if 21...Qf8 then 22.Qc6, etc.
International: White here missed a very good opportunity. He should have played 21.Bxg6, whereupon the following line of play was a likely one: 21.Bxg6 hxg6 22.Qe8+ Kh7 (if 22...Qf8 White wins a pawn by 23.Qc6) 23.Re1 (if 23.Qxf7, White loses at least a piece by answer 23...Be6, compelling the reply 24.Bf4 in order to save the queen) 23...Qd7 24.Bf4 c6 25.Nc1 Qxe8 26.Rxe8 Bb7 27.Rxa8 Bxa8 28.Bb8 a6 29.Bc7 b5 30.Nb3, followed by 31.Nc5 or 31.Na5, as the case may be, with good winning chances.
Mackenzie: Should queen interpose, White wins a pawn at least by 22.Qc6.
22.Re1 Bb7 23.Qe3 Ne6
Mackenzie: An excellent post for the knight, both for defensive and offensive operations. Black now threatens 24...c5, with the object of breaking through on the queen's side.
Mackenzie: Intending 25.Qf5. Had he gone at once to h3 Black might have replied with 24...h6.
International: To prevent 24...c5, which can not very well be done now on account of the rejoinder 25.Qf5.
24...Rd8 25.Qf5 Nf8 26.Bf4
Mackenzie: The attack seems formidable, but Black is equal to the emergency.
Monthly: If 26...Qd7, then 27.Qxd7 Rxd7 28.Bf5, winning a pawn.
27.Nd2 Bc8 28.Qh5 g6
Mackenzie: White, in his turn, has now to beat a retreat.
29.Qe2 Ne6 30.Bg3
Mackenzie: Why not 30.Be5, thus avoiding the loss of time occasioned by this retreat?
Mackenzie: An excellent and by no means an obvious move.
International: The move in the text is an error of judgment, 31.Be5 was the correct reply.
Mackenzie: At last the opportunity for which Dr. Zukertort has so long been waiting has arrived, and he now forces his game considerably by the advance of this pawn.
32.dxc5 bxc5 33.Ne5 c4 [?:??-1:00] 34.Bb1
International: On examination we find that 34.Bc2 is a much stronger move, for the b-pawn, as pointed out to us by Mr. Richardson, is indirectly protected, as will be shown, and White threatened then to advance the b-pawn, breaking up the pawns on the queen's side. If then Black took the b-pawn at once, White would answer 35.Nxf7, and the king could not retake on account of the reply 36.Bxg6+, winning the queen. If, however, 34.Bc2 Bxe5 35.Bxe5 Qxb2, then might have followed 36.Bf6 Re8 37.Qe3 Qxc2 (if 37...Ng7, White of course gives up the queen by 38.Qxe8+ and mate in two moves) 38.Qh6, and wins, for, after making room for his king by 39.h3, White will play 40.Rxe6 and mates next move.
34...Bg7 [2:00-?:??] 35.Rd1
Mackenzie: 35.f4 seems to us the more natural move, but Mr. Steinitz is probably combining his forces on the weak d-pawn of his adversary.
Monthly: Threatening to win a pawn with 36.Nxc4; for if 36...dxc4, then 37.Rxd8+ Nxd8 38.Qe8+, etc.
35...Bd7 36.Qf3 Be8 37.Nxc4
Mackenzie: An astounding blunder for a player of Mr. Steinitz's calibre to commit.
Monthly: An oversight. White probably overlooked that he could not capture the queen, or that after 38...Nxd8, Black's queen is defended.
International: An extraordinary blunder. 37.Bc2 would still have given White the advantage, e.g., 37.Bc2 Qxb2 (if 37...Bxe5 38.Bxe5 Qxb2 39.Qf6, with a very strong attack) 38.Ba4 Bxa4 (or 38...Qb7 39.Bxe8 Rxe8 40.Qxd5, with at least an even game) 39.Qxf7+ Kh8 40.Qxe6, threatening the so-called Philidor's Legacy or smothered mate by 41.Nf7+ followed by 42.Nh6+, 43.Qg8+, and 44.Nf7#.
37...dxc4 38.Rxd8
Mackenzie: If 38.Qxb7 then 38...Rxd1#!
38...Nxd8 39.Qe2 Ne6 0-1 [Time, 3:55]
Mackenzie: Mr. Steinitz could probably have prolonged the contest for several hours, but as ultimate defeat was inevitable, he, with the courtesy characteristic of the great chess-player, preferred a graceful resignation.
International: With a piece behind and no advantage in position, the game is, of course, hopeless.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n6, February 1886, pp170-171
International Chess Magazine, v1 n2, February 1886, pp54-55

The Great Chess Contest.
Steinitz's Friends Still Confident—The Men Compared With Morphy.

But for the fact that Mr. Steinitz has often proved in previous chess contests that for him a bad beginning means a good ending, his loss of four successive games to Dr. Zukertort would cause his friends to relinquish all hope that he will win the world's championship. His own placid confidence in his ability to retrieve his defeats also has its effects upon the drooping spirits of those who were at first so sanguine of his success. "None of us are weakening," said his friend and umpire, Thomas Frere; "we have backbones of iron." But it is undeniable that in chess circles generally in this city the feeling which prevailed before the match that Steinitz would win has now changed to a foreboding that he will lose. It was natural that Steinitz should be the favorite here despite his defeat by Zukertort in the London International Tournament, because since 1883 he has lived in this vicinity, has made the personal acquaintance of all local chess-players of note and has said many flattering things of the people and the country. Then to those who judgment rises superior to all patriotic or merely personal feelings was the fact that in individual play with Dr. Zukertort Steinitz had the better record. Now since Steinitz has shown how badly he can blunder there is an uneasy feeling abroad that as a chess-player his powers are on the decline. "He is fifty years old," say some, "and a man can't always be at his best." To which others reply: "Wait awhile. He is only suffering from temporary 'bad form.'" The two champions played whist after Monday's game. Whist is mere childish recreation for a crack chess-player. Dr. Zukertort looked elated, but Steinitz certainly looked not one bit cast down. Dr. Zukertort always impresses one as an exceedingly nervous man. "It is true, I am nervous," he said, "but there are nerves and nerves. My nerves are strong, and I have so trained myself that at will I can dismiss all thoughts of a pending game of chess from my mind. Thereby I can economize the mental energy I have to spend on the game."

The contest has, of course, awakened all manner of idle speculations as to how the two contestants would have fared in an encounter with Paul Morphy. The old veterans who felt that wizard's prowess long years ago are almost to a man of the opinion that Morphy could have beaten them both. Those whose opinion of Morphy's play is as much a matter of patriotism as of information, of course hold that Morphy could have easily beaten both Zukertort and Steinitz in consultation. Here and there some staid chess-players of foreign extraction are found with hardihood enough to maintain that either man would give Paul Morphy, if he were playing now, a tough battle. But the contest has done much better than awaken these conjectures, which can never be settled. It has aroused interest in the game and increased its popularity.

Game 5: Wednesday, January 20, 1886.

Zukertort Wins The Fifth Game
The New York Series of the Great Chess Championship Contest Wound Up.

A large number of chess players assembled in Cartier's rooms, 80 Fifth avenue, yesterday to watch the progress of the fifth game in the New York series of games in the match between W. Steinitz of New York and J. H. Zukertort of London for $4,000 and the championship of the world. Betting players thought it was Mr. Steinitz's turn to win a game, and they backed him at even money, but at mild figures. The match started on Monday, Jan. 11, with bets of $100 on Steinitz freely exchanged for $90 on Zukertort. These odds were based on Steinitz's record, but Steinitz yesterday had lost three straight games to one game won, and his friends stood by him for only $5 and $10 worth, and lost their money.

The game was finished in the afternoon session, Steinitz resigning on the thirty-second move. Mr. Zukertort in considering his moves was less than an hour, while Mr. Steinitz was more than twice as long with his moves. Experienced chess players said that Mr. Steinitz was overmatched at every point. In their attitudes and behavior while playing yesterday the individuality of each player was seen as never before in their play in this city. Mr. Steinitz scarcely quitted his chair. He leaned so far over the board that his nose almost touched the pieces. It looked as though he meant to win by looking a dozen moves ahead. In contrast to this style of play, Mr. Zukertort jumped up from his chair after he had moved, lighted a cigarette, and talked with his second or the umpire, while he puffed clouds of smoke from his mouth as though he was enjoying himself mightily.

Mr. Zukertort was asked, after the game, whether he kept before his mind a picture of the board and the relations of the pieces while he was walking around the room.

"No." Mr. Zukertort replied. "I dismiss the game from my mind. I try to think of anything but chess. Then when my antagonist had played I try to grasp the situation as though I had come in and seen some one else playing. Mr. Steinitz has many games to play yet. I have known him to lose many more than he has lost and yet win the match."

Mr. Steinitz said that he was not in good condition to play, but he did not know why. He could only judge by the fact that he could not play as strong a game as he usually played.

The match is to be resumed in St. Louis on the 29th inst. One of the players must win three games in St. Louis before the match may be resumed in New Orleans, where it will be concluded. The score now stands, Zukertort, 4; Steinitz, 1.

Steinitz Outgeneraled.
Dr. Zukertort Wins His Fourth Game.
Opening with the Queen's Gambit Again—The Match to be Continued in St. Louis.

There were many new faces present when the fifth game in the world's chess championship series was played yesterday between Messrs. Zukertort and Steinitz at Cartier's Hall, No. 80 Fifth-ave. Dr. Zukertort having previously won three games, it was known that if he scored a fourth victory, under the terms of the match, it would be the last game in the series played in this city; so many availed themselves of what might be their last chance to see the two leading chess players of the world contending for supremacy. They congratulated themselves that they went, for as the sequel proved, it was their last chance. A group of ladies were among the newcomers. They brought a chess-board with them and chatted about the varying phases of the contest in open defiance of the rule prohibiting any discussion of the game while it was in progress. But their birdlike twittering offered such a pleasant contrast to the volume of guttural undertones from masculine throats that Mr. Green hadn't the heart to stop them, and nobody besought him to exercise his authority.

The two champions are on hand a few minutes before the hour assigned for beginning the game, 2 o'clock. Many hands grasp Mr. Steinitz's plump little fingers and inquire solicitously how he feels. He replies that he slept well, didn't do any work on his chess magazine, and feels able to give a good account of himself. Outwardly he looks in first-rate condition. The little doctor's creased and careworn face, on the contrary, seems to belie his statement that he, too, feels in good trim. He doesn't court inquiries and escapes many by the rapidity with which he walks to the room where the battle is to be fought.

As on each occasion when he had had first move, Dr. Zukertort selects the Queen's gambit for his opening, but this time introduces some variations which some of the experts say is an improvement on his play in the two previous games when he used this gambit. As he has twice done before in the match, Steinitz again declines the gambit. Dr. Zukertort seems in excellent form and spirits. He plays with marvellous rapidity. Throughout the game his actions are those of one who is sure of his point. Mr. Steinitz, on the contrary, ponders long over his moves and seems never sure that he has done the best thing. His clock, which records the time against him so relentlessly, seems to annoy him, and he often eyes it solicitously. He has need watch it sharply, for when he makes his thirtieth move he has only one minute to spare on the time limit. Mr. Steinitz rather shakes the confidence of his friends in his play at the outset of the game by pushing his Queen's Bishop to King's Bishop's fourth square on his fourth move, only to bring it back to the starting point on his sixth move. It looks as it his plan of the campaign had not been well matured. Throughout the game he consumes twice as much time over his moves as does Dr. Zukertort. The latter most of the time is pacing back and forth on the floor of the little room. A friend asks him afterward if when thus engaged he carries the game in his mind's eye.

"No," he replies, "I dismiss it from me entirely and pick it up again when I get to the board. That's the only way to play chess. One should economize his brain-power as far as possible while the game is going on."

But there is no "let-up" for Steinitz. The Doctor's tactics keep him thinking his hardest at the game from beginning to end. Dr. Zukertort makes eleven moves in fifteen minutes, while the same number of moves occupy Steinitz thirty minutes. At the end of the first hour he had made seventeen moves, Zukertort making his seventeen moves in thirty minutes. Steinitz smokes a cigar; and when he is tackling a peculiarly knotty point puffs vigorously. Dr. Zukertort supplies him with a light for his second cigar. In the few moves preceding the expiration of his first two hours of play Steinitz is so pushed for time that he can't keep his record of the game, and Dr. Zukertort reads off the back moves to him from his notes. It is pleasant to these little courtesies in view of the statements which find currency that there is bad feeling between the two champions. Steinitz takes frequent sips of water. He uses a plain goblet this time in place of the amber-colored one previously used, which made the spectators think that the water was diluted with brandy or something similar.

There is a great deal of manœavring [sic] without much slaughter in the game. Pawns are exchanged on the fifth moves, a White Knight for a Black Bishop on the twelfth and thirteenth moves, and pawns again on the twenty-seventh move. Only an expert can discern the drift of all the intricate evolutions. Both Kings are entrenched by castling early in the game, but they are left open to attack later on by the forward movement of two pans in front of each, which the exigencies of the game seem to compel. White secures the attack and concentrates in overwhelming force on the Black King's weak defences. In vain Steinitz tries to strengthen them. He can't bring reinforcements up in time. He spends twenty-four minutes pondering and perspiring over his thirty-first move, but no way out of the difficulties discloses itself to him.

Dr. Zukertort, meanwhile, lights a cigarette. A few friends wink knowingly at him, and he replies with a smile of self gratulation. The spectators are ignorant of what this little pantomime means, but it leaks out afterward that the doctor had told some of his well-wishers that when he felt assured of victory he would light a cigarette or cigar. His assurance is well founded. His reply to the move which Mr. Steinitz took twenty-four minutes to decide on is made with decisive rapidity, and after surveying the field for a few minutes. Dr. Zukertort's beacon of victory meanwhile burning brightly, Mr. Steinitz resigns. Dr. Zukertort made his thirty-two moves in a little less than one hour. The rules of the match allow him two hours in which to make the first thirty moves. Mr. Steinitz took all the time which the rules admit, and evidently would have been glad to get more. This victory makes the fourth game won by Dr. Zukertort out of five played. But he is not going to allow himself to be entrapped into over-confidence.

"You have got a big start doctor," says a friend.

"Oh," replies the doctor, shrugging his shoulders "it's nothing. I have known men to get a much better start than I have and yet lose."

The next game will be played in St. Louts [sic], February 3, and the champions will continue playing there until one for the other shall have added three victories to his New-York score.

Date: 1886.01.20
Site: USA New York, NY (Cartier's Hall)
Event: World Championship (Game 5)
White: Zukertort,JH
Black: Steinitz,W
Opening: [D10] Slav
1.d4 d5 2.c4 c6 3.Nc3
Monthly: White modified his opening here. In the first and third games he played 3.e3. The text move is probably the strongest continuation.
Monthly: If 3....dxc4, the theoretical continuation is, 4.e3 Be6 (if 4...b5 5.Nxb5 cxb5 6.Qf3, etc.) 5.Nf3, and White would either recover the pawn or obtain an overwhelming advantage of position. If 3...Bf5, then 4.cxd5 cxd5 5.Qb3, or at once 4.Qb3, etc.
International: 3...dxc4 would not be good, as White would attack the pawn by 4.e3, which can not be protected by 4...b5, on account of 5.Nxb5, followed by 6.Qf3.
4.e3 Bf5
International: This is disadvantageous now, as White thereby gains a move, the bishop being compelled to retreat to c8. For Black date no then play ...Qd7, as will be seen later on.
International: This is a deviation from White's usual course which consists in advancing the pawn on the queen's wing. Mr. Zukertort herewith seems to have abandoned his favorite development on that side.
5...cxd5 6.Qb3
Mackenzie: Dr. Zukertort's management of this opening (which he now adopts for the third time) in the present game, is, to our thinking, a great improvement on the line of play used by him in the first and third games of the match.
Mackenzie: This retreat is of evil omen, and tacitly admits that Black's fourth move was an error.
Monthly: The book move here is 6...Qd7, with the continuation 7.Nf3 e6 8.Ne5 Qc7 9.Bd2, etc.
International: If 6...Qd7 7.Bb5 Nc6 8.Nf3 e6 9.Ne5 Qc7 10.Qa4 Rc8 11.Qxa7, etc.
7.Nf3 Nc6 8.Ne5 e6
Monthly: Obviously if 8...Nxe5, 9.dxe5, and Black loses a pawn.
9.Bb5 Qc7 10.Bd2 Bd6 11.f4 0-0 12.Rc1 Bxe5
Mackenzie: We doubt the prudence of this capture as it opens White's f-file, and drives the black knight out of play for the time being.
International: Forced; for White threatened 13.Bxc6, followed by 14.Nb5, winning at least a pawn, e.g., 12...Bd7 13.Bxc6 bxc6 14.Nb5 Qb8 15.Nxc6, etc.
13.fxe5 Ne8
Monthly: If 13...Nd7, then 14.Bxc6, and, however Black retakes, White would be able to establish his knight at d6.
International: Best. If 13...Nd7 14.Bxc6 bxc6 15.Nb5 Qb6 16.Nd6 c5 (if 16...Qxb3, the c-pawn must shortly fall) 17.dxc5 Nxc5 18.Qc2 Nd7 (best, for if 18...Ne4, White captures the bishop which Black dare not retake, as White could effect mate by giving up the queen for the two rooks) 19.Qa4, with a fine game.
Mackenzie: Both kings are now safely entrenched, and in surveying the position of the opposing forces, we think the advantage is decidedly in favor of White. His pieces are not only better developed, but can also be brought much more easily into co-operation.
Mackenzie: Hoping to open the f-file, but White very cleverly thwarts him.
International: Loss of time. 14...f5 at once would have been much superior.
Mackenzie: Because if now 15...fxe5 White wins the exchange by 16.Bxh7+, etc.
Monthly: If 15...Bd7, the following continuation was probable: 16.Nxd5 exd5 17.Qxd5+ Kh8 18.e6 Bc8 19.Qh5 g6 20.Bxg6 Qe7 (best) 21.d5 Ne5 22.Bb4, and should win.
International: If 15...fxe5, White wins the exchange by 16.Bxh7+.
16.Qc2 f5 [?:??-1:00]
Mackenzie: A disagreeable necessity now, but the combined action of White's queen and bishop had to be neutralized at all hazards.
Monthly: Forced—so leaving White's centre intact. If 16...g6, then 17.Bxg6 hxg6 18.Qxg6+ Kf8 19.exf6, followed either by 20.e4, or 20.Rf4, with a formidable attack and three pawns for a piece.
International: If now 16...fxe5, White gets an overwhelming attack, thus: 17.Bxh7+ Kh8 (or 17...Kf8 18.Bg6 Rxf1+ 19.Rxf1+ Nf6 20.g4, and wins) 18.Bg6 Rxf1+ 19.Rxf1 Nf6 20.Qd1, followed by 21.g4, with a winning attack.
17.Ne2 Bd7
International: 17...g6, now as well as later on, was much preferable.
International: We see no reason why 18.g4 at this point should not be played.
18...Rc8 19.Bc3
Monthly: Preparatory to the doubling of the rooks. If 19.Rcf1, then 19...Qb6, and White would have no satisfactory means of preventing threatened exchanges with 20...Nb4.
19...Qb6 20.Qd2 Ne7 21.Rcf1
Mackenzie: Dr. Zukertort has utilized the superiority of his position in capital style, more after the fashion of the renowned Paul Morphy than in accordance with the principles of the "modern" school of chess.
21...Bb5 22.Bb1 Qa6 23.g4
Mackenzie: The beginning of an attack which proves irresistible in a few moves.
23...g6 24.h3 Rc7
International: 24...Bc4 would have been a very strong move now. It would have forced White to play 25.a3, for if 25.b3, he would lose a piece by 25...Bxe2, followed by 26...Rxc3. Black's bishop at c4, would have effectually protected the centre and indirectly the king's side, for if White then exchanged the g-pawn, Black would retake with the knight instead of pawn, as he was forced to do eventually, and afterward, if White advanced the e-pawn, Black's bishop would be available for the protection of the centre.
Mackenzie: Releasing his knight from the "pin," and compelling Black either to capture it, or see another piece brought round to the assault on his king.
Monthly: Having made all the arrangements to keep the knight pinned with what would seem the obvious intention of taking it off, Black suddenly changes his mind, and instead of the necessary 25...Bxe2, he makes an indifferent move. Everybody knows that two knights are inferior to two bishops; but in the present instance the choice lay with the lesser evil, especially as White's intention to release the knight was clearly indicated by 25.Re1.
International: It was probably better not occupy this square with the knight, and Black should have reserved for himself the option of playing ...Rg7.
26.Nf4 Nc8
Mackenzie: Black's tactics seem to lack purpose, but his game is so cramped that there is really nothing to be done.
27.gxf5 gxf5
Monthly: If 27...Nxf5, White would have proceeded with 28.e4, breaking up the centre and threatening a direct attack with the two bishops.
International: If 27...Nxf5, then follows 28.e4 dxe4 29.Bxe4, and Black can not stop the fatal advance of White's d-pawn.
28.Rg2 Kh8 29.Kh2 Qc6 30.Reg1 Ne7 [?:??-2:00] 31.Qf2
Mackenzie: Before the commencement of the match the Doctor told Mr. Mohle, his second, that whenever during the progress of play, he should light a cigar or cigarette, it was a sign that he had won a game. After this move he lit a cigarette.
Mackenzie: Mr. Steinitz consumed twenty-four minutes on this move.
Monthly: Black took nearly half an hour over this move, which loses a piece. His game was, however, utterly disorganized, e.g.: 31...Qd7 32.Bb4 Nc6 33.Bd6 Rc8 34.Qh4 Na5 (If 34...Qd8, then 35.Qh6, etc.) 35.Rg4 threatening 36.Ng6+ K-moves 37.Qxh7+ Kxh7 38.Rh4+ Nh5 39.Rxh5+, and mate in two moves. If 31...Ng6, then 32.Rxg6 hxg6 33.Nxg6+ Kg8 34.Qh4, etc.
International: Of course fatal at once, but there was nothing to be done If 31...Qd7 32.Qh4 Rc8 33.Nh5 Rg8 34.Nf6, and wins; of if 31...Qd7 32.Qh4 Rc8 33.Qh6 Rg8 34.Bb4, and wins.
32.Rxg7 1-0 [Time, 3:30]
Mackenzie: Because after the exchange 32...Rxg7 33.Rxg7 Kxg7, White takes 34.Nxe6+, and then captures 35.Nxc7, winning a piece. The whole game is admirably played by Dr. Zukertort, who never gives the adversary a chance from beginning to end.
Monthly: Obviously Black would not continue to prolong a hopeless case. If 32...Rxg7 33.Rxg7 Kxg7 34.Nxe6+ and 35.Nxc7, etc.
International: If 32...Rxg7 33.Rxg7 Kxg7 34.Nxe6+ K-moves 35.Nxc7, with a piece and a pawn ahead. Mr. Zukertort deserves high praise for the rare skill and vigor with which he had conducted this attack.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n6, February 1886, pp171-173
International Chess Magazine, v1 n2, February 1886, pp56-57

Sunday, January 24, 1886.

The Chess Players.
A Chat With Max Judd About Zukertort and Steinitz—The Match Here.

Mr. Max Judd returned yesterday from New York whither he had gone to make arrangements for the continuation in St. Louis of the chess match between Zukertort and Steinitz for the championship of the world. To a Post-Dispatch reporter Mr. Judd said to-day that he had a very pleasant time in New York and enjoyed the five games between the great chess players hugely. "Zukertort," said he, "is a great chess player. Everybody knows that, but I've no doubt that he is the greatest chess player in the world. Steinitz was a great surprise to me. He is playing badly, very badly, but he intimated to me before I left that, although the match stood four to one games against him, he entertained the strongest hopes of winning yet. I see that there were some reports floating about in St. Louis here that Steinitz was drinking so much whisky as to interfere with his play. You can just say for me that such is not the case. He has a habit of drinking whisky and water during the game, and I suppose that he doesn't consume more than two tablespoonsful of the first in the whole course of the evening. So far as his being intoxicated is concerned, it is altogether false."

"Does Zukertort play quickly?"

"He does; and that is just the difference between him and his adversary. Zukertort's playing is really phenomenal, second only, I feel certain, in the history of chess to the famous Paul Morphy. Comparing the two, I should say that Zukertort plays about twice as quickly as Steinitz. Still, you understand that the two are considered the finest chess men in the world."

"Are the two completely reconciled at last?"

"Oh, yes; so far as appearances go anyhow. You know the matter was brought about by mutual friends, and when Steinitz came to New York everything was prepared for the meeting. They came together, received each other like gentlemen, and have been on good terms ever since. They are both very clever fellows, pleasant to talk to, and on the whole well-informed, educated and polished gentlemen."

The players will arrive in St. Louis in about a week's time, and the St. Louis series of games will begin on February 3. The hall in which the match will take place has not yet been definitely fixed upon, but the Harmonie club rooms will in all probability be the place selected.

Friday, January 29, 1886.

Mr. Max Judd received a telegram yesterday from Zukertort, saying that he and Steinitz would arrive in the city to-night from New York. The chess players will stop with friends.

Saturday, January 30, 1886.

The Chess Players.
Zukertort and Steinitz arrived in the city Saturday evening from New York. They will meet in the rooms of the Harmonie club at Olive and Eighteenth streets, Wednesday afternoon. No tickets can be had at the door but are for sale at Mr. Snow's office, No. 415 Olive street.

Messrs. Steinitz and Zukertort arrived at St. Louis on Saturday evening, the 30th of January, having started together from New York the previous morning. They had at first intended to make a short stay of about a couple of hours duration at Baltimore where they had arranged to meet some Chess friends, but having by mistake failed to leave the train on its arrival in that city they proceeded on their journey without any stoppage.
International Chess Magazine, v1 n3, March 1886, p74

Monday, February 1, 1886.

The Chess Tournament.
The interest taken in the chess match that will occur at the Harmonie Club to-morrow afternoon at 2 o'clock is still unabated. The committee reports that the chess players are coming forward with liberal subscriptions, and there is no doubt that the required amount for expenses will be subscribed before the game begins. Tickets may be secured of S. M. Joseph, 103 North Broadway; Ben R. Foster, Foster Academy, Pine and Sixteenth streets; Wm. Duncan, room 303 Chamber of Commerce; James Milburn, Seventh street and Cass avenue; Wallace Delafield, Delafield & Snow, 405 Olive street; or Max Judd, 712 Washington avenue. The associated Press will cable the game in full to the London papers—a fact which proves that the game was never so popular. Mr. Warwick H. Ripley, Secretary of the Indianapolis Chess Club, will be in the city and report for the Indianapolis Journal. Dr. E. Hoelke, a member of the Leadville Chess Club, is here, having come expressly to see the match games. F. Intropedi, of the Manhattan Chess Club, New York City, has arrived and expects to be one of the spectators. The champions were entertained in fine style last night by the St. Louis Club, corner Ewing avenue and Locust street, where they indulged in their other favorite amusement, whist, in which they also excel. Dr. Zukertort as a whist player is in all probability superior to Herr Steinitz in the same capacity. They seem in good health, and the latter is still confident that he will win a majority of the games that are to be played here. The former is willing to let things take care of themselves. Probably the best chess in the world will be played on the middle battle ground.

Game 6: Wednesday, February 3, 1886.

The Chess Match.
Everything is now ready for the second section of the match between J. H. Zukertort and Wm. Steinitz, the greatest chess-players of the day. The number of games to be played here will be at least three, and probably more. The stakes are $2,000 a side, and the time limit is set at fifteen moves per hour. The umpires will be Ben R. Foster for Steinitz and Wm. Duncan for Zukertort. The contest will open at Harmonie Club, Olive and Eighteenth streets, at 2 o'clock this afternoon. No tickets will be disposed of at the door, and they can be secured only from the members of the Committee on Arrangements. The New York Chess Club has made preparations for exhibiting each move as it is telegraphed on, as well as any interesting events of the match. The New York Evening Telegram will have a reporter for its paper. Henry Turner, President of the Brooklyn Chess Club, is in the city, and will witness the contest.

"The first five games," says a gentleman writing from the East, "were very unsatisfactory. Both players played badly and did themselves no credit. The games will not bear analysis, and only prove that either the players are entirely out of practice or are not possessed of sufficient nerve to play for such high stakes, or that they have deteriorated in their play."

Spectators will be permitted to use pocket chess-boards only for following the games, but no analysis of them is allowed and load conversations can not be indulged in. The Secretary of the Chess, Checker and Whist Club, S. M. Joseph, No. 103 North Broadway, will furnish tickets on application to him. A large attendance at the match is expected.

Their First Game.
Zukertort And Steinitz, Chess Champions, Begin Their St. Louis Series.
A Light Attendance at the Harmonie Club—The Ruy Lopez Gambit Used in the Opening Contest—Status of the Tourney—To-Day's Game in Detroit.

Quite a number of gentlemen interested in the scientific game of chess gathered in the directors' room of the Harmonie club this afternoon to witness the continuation of the chess match between J. H. Zukertort and Wm. Steinitz. Amongst the strangers present were W. H. Ripley, secretary of the Indianapolis chess club; Major Henry Turner, president of the Brooklyn club, D. McAfee of the Quincy club; Dr. E. Hoelke of Leadville, Colo.; Mr. Intrepidie [sic] of the Manhattan club, New York, and Mr. Foster of the Baltimore club. Arrangements had been made for the seconding of the players so that Dr. Zukertort had for his best man Mr. William Duncan, and Steinitz, Mr. Ben R. Foster. The terms of the match are $2,000 a side and the championship of the world, a limit of fifteen moves an hour. The match will be continued in St. Louis until one of the players wins three games. Five games were played in New York, out of which Zukertort won four and Steinitz one. The match will be finished in New Orleans and will be continued until either of the chess men shall have won ten games.

At The Hall.
It was was [sic] not until 1:30 that many of the chess players of the city began to gather at the Harmonie club. They immediately sought the dining-room on the first floor, where six rows of eleven chairs each been placed for the spectators. The chairs faced the west and, the spectators followed the game from a large board with a forty-eight-inch field, elevated on an easel. Mr. Lewis Haller manipulated the pieces on this board. The champions themselves were to sit in the center of the reading-room, facing east and west, upon a platform eight feet by six, and one foot high. This platform was placed directly in the center of the space afforded by folding doors, which were thrown open, giving the audience a side view of the great players, who sat in such a position that they could throw their side-glances out on Olive street.

The board and pieces were loaned by Judge Chester H. Krum, the board being of morocco with red and cream squares. The pieces were club-size Staunton. The rules of the match required 30 moves in the first two hours. The time was measured by a unique arrangement of two small clocks, one for each player, hung on a balance, like a seesaw, and so adjusted that neither would run unless it was depressed. Each second looked after the clock of his champion, and as soon as the play was made pressed down his clock, and the time of the move began to be ticked off.

At 2 o'clock the distinguished players had not arrived, but the following gentlemen were among the fifty persons present: Wallace Delafield, Maj. Humphreys, Max Judd, Isador Judd, Adolph Judd, L. Hellman, Judge Woerner, D. V. Haydal, Fred Cochran, Ed Martin, A. H. Robbins, Wm. E. Ware, W. F. Woerner, Col. Rowley, S. M. Joseph. Mr. Steinitz has chosen the white and Mr. Zukertort the black men.

The two players arrived at the hall about 2:15 p.m., and the game was started about fifteen minutes after. It will be seen that Steinitz, who opened the first, used the well-known Ruy Lopez gambit.

Secured By Steinitz.
The Sixth Game In The Chess Tournament Results In Zukertort's Defeat.
A Rattling Contest Opens the St. Louis Series—Great Interest Among Local Players—The Official Record of the Moves—Steinitz Getting Into His Old Form—Notes.

The morning papers, in their report of the Steinitz-Zukertort chess match at the Harmonie club yesterday, differ so materially in respect to several moves that the following record of each move, compiled from the official score taken by Mr. S. M. Joseph, is here presented as the correct account of this brilliant game.

As was stated in the Post-Dispatch last evening, in announcing the first sixteen moves, the opening by Steinitz was the well-known Ruy Lopez, which, though considered a very safe one, was handled in a masterly manner by the white, who began to drive his opponent toward the wall on the sixteenth move. The game was played at the Harmonie club until 7 p.m., when, after recess, an adjournment was taken on the forty-sixth move to the rooms of the Chess, Checker and Whist club, at Eighth and Olive streets, owing to the previous engagement of the rooms at the Harmonie club. The next contest will take place to-morrow afternoon at 2 o'clock and the third in the series on Monday. The conditions of the match require that one of the players shall win in St. Louis at least three games.

Steinitz Wins A Game.
Chess Champions Renew Their Battle.
The Winner Opens With The Ruy Lopez Knight's Game.
[By Telegraph To The Tribune.]

St, Louis, Feb. 3.—The sixth game for the chess championship of the world was begun in the director's room of the Harmonie Club at 2:30 p.m. to-day. Among the strangers present were W. H. Ripley, secretary of the Indianapolis Chess Club; Major Henry Turner, president of the Brooklyn Club; D. McAfee, of the Quincy Club; Dr. E. Hoelke, of Leadville, Col.; Mr. Intrepidis [sic], of the Manhattan Club, New-York, and Mr. Foster, of the Baltimore Club. Arrangements had been made for the seconding of the players, so that Zukertort had for his best man William Duncan, and Steinitz Benjamin R. Foster. Steinitz chose the white and Zukertort the black men, and Steinitz, who opened first, used the well-known Ruy Lopez Knight's game. The champions themselves were to sit in the centre of the reading-room, facing east and west, upon a platform eight feet by six and one foot high. This platform was placed directly in the centre of the space afforded by folding doors which were thrown open giving the audience a side view of the players. The spectators followed the game from a large board with a forty-eight-inch field elevated on an easel. The time was measured by a unique arrangement of two small clocks, one for each player, hung on a balance like a see-saw, and so adjusted that neither would run unless it was depressed. Each second looked after the clock of his champion and as soon as the play was made pressed down his clock and the time of the move began to be ticked off. At 6 p.m. Steinitz had a shade the advantage and an adjournment was taken to the rooms of the St. Louis Chess Club in Olive-st. where the game was renewed.

Watching The Game In This City.
The moves of the chess match made in St. Louis yesterday were telegraphed to the New-York Chess Club, at No. 49 Bowery, and repeated on a large suspended board, while the record of the game was kept on an adjacent blackboard. Thus lovers of the game were able to follow the varying fortunes of the players as well as though they had them in full view. In fact they found it rather an advantage to have the players over 1,000 miles away, because they were freed from all restraints about analyzing the game. They gathered in knots about the chess boards, and discussed "the might have-been," if Steinitz had done this, or Zukertort had done that, with a great deal of zest. When there came a long break in the game it required but a little stretch of the imagination to picture Steinitz with legs wide apart and his dumpy little hands on his thighs, eying [sic] the board with an expression of amiable gravity, while Dr. Zukertort, with his hands clasped behind his back, paced to and fro with quick, nervous steps, secretly rejoicing that the flight of time was being recorded against his opponent. Miss Steinitz collected the admission tickets, and sold photographs of the players. Before the game began the betting was generally about 25 to 20 that Dr. Zukertort would win the match.

The Steinitz-Zukertort Match

The two champions arrived in St.Louis on the 30th ultimo, both looking and professing to be in good health and spirits. They were met at the train by Messrs. Max Judd and Ben R. Foster, acting as special committee on behalf of the St. Louis Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, and took up their quarters at Hotel Glenmorde, which is specially convenient to the hall of the Harmonie Club, where their games are played.

With comparative punctuality on the afternoon of Wednesday, the 3d instant, both players appeared on the battle ground and, after some delay in changing the board first provided, which had red and white squares and against which Mr. Steinitz protested, the first game of the St. Louis section and the sixth of the match was begun in the presence of an audience some two hundred in number and including several ladies. Among those present were many chess-players from other cities and sections, and nearly all the prominent players of St. Louis. Mr. Wm. Duncan acted as umpire for Dr. Zukertort, and Dr. C. D. N. Campbell (in the absence of Mr. Ben R. Foster) for Mr. Steinitz.

The arrangements for play seem to be very similar to those at the games in New York. The public in general occupy the hall of the club, which has a seating capacity of about 600; the players are seated upon a slightly elevated platform in a smaller room, adjoining and connected with the larger apartment, and directly between is situated the table for the members of the press. The moves are reproduced, as in New York, upon a mammoth board, in full view of the audience, and upon the occasion of the first game Mr. Louis Haller, of the local chess club, successfully managed this portion of the affair. In addition, upon a large scoresheet, 30x40 inches, prepared by Mr. S. M. Joseph, the efficient secretary of the club, that gentleman wrote out the score as the play progressed.

Date: 1886.02.03
Site: USA St. Louis, MO (Harmonie Club & St. Louis Chess Club)
Event: World Championship (Game 6)
White: Steinitz,W
Black: Zukertort,JH
Opening: [C67] Spanish
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Nf6 4.0-0 Nxe4 5.Re1
Mackenzie: 5.d4 is also a very good continuation at this point.
5...Nd6 6.Nxe5 Nxe5 7.Rxe5+ Be7 8.Nc3
Monthly: In the fourth match game, White played here 8.Bf1 and we doubted whether the move would be included in the theory of the Lopez, otherwise than "recorded as a matter of history only." The text move is infinitely superior. For the student it might be pointed out that if 8...Nxb5, White would win with 9.Nd5 0-0 10.Nxe7+ Kh8 11.Qh5, etc.
International: Though as a matter of course no first-class player would at this juncture capture the bishop, we give for the benefit of weaker students some variations springing from this line of play as they lead to speedy and brilliant terminations. Supposing 8...Nxb5 9.Nd5 0-0 10.Nxe7+ Kh8 11.Qh5 (threatening 12.Qxh7+ followed by 13.Rh5#) 11...g6 (or 11...h6 12.d4 Kh7, best, as White threatens Bxh6, 13.Nf5, attacking the knight and once more the h-pawn, and wins) 12.Qh6, and now White threatens the beautiful 13.Rh5, followed, if Black take by 14.Qf6#. He threatens as well 13.b3, followed by 14.Bb2. Black has therefore nothing better than 12...f6 13.Nxg6+.
Mackenzie: In the fourth game of the match Mr. Steinitz now retreated the bishop to f1. The text move, although it blocks the d-pawn, is certainly more attacking.
Monthly: This is an improvement of the fourth game, where Black could have developed his knight with 10...Nf5, White's text move prevents this.
9...Bf6 10.Re3
Mackenzie: Another deviation from his play in the fourth game, when the rook was brought back to e1.
Monthly: And here, in consequence of the better position of the bishop, the rook need not retire to e1. White now threatens to win with 11.Bxh7+, etc. We do not venture at present to give an opinion on the merits of White's mode of conducting the Lopez; but, as compared with the opening of the fourth match game, the present is distinctly preferable.
Mackenzie: A necessary precaution, as White threatened 11.Bxh7+ followed—if the bishop be taken,—by 12.Rh3+ and 13.Qh5, etc.
Monthly: If 10...h6, then 11.Nd5 would probably be the reply. The text move enables Black to post his bishop at g7 as an additional defence; and, it may be observed, he was constrained to some such immediate movement on account of the threatened 11.Bxh7+ and 12.Qh5, etc.
11.b3 Re8
Monthly: Perhaps 11...b7, followed by 12...Bb7, might be considered.
12.Qf3 Bg5
Monthly: This move seems to be of doubtful value. Temporarily, it brings Black's knight into a better position, and allows the development of his centre pawns; but this is more than counterbalanced by the bad position which the king's bishop is forced to occupy.
International: Not as good as keeping his bishop on the same diagonal with the view of retreating it eventually to g7 and attacking now the rook by 12...Bd4.
13.Rxe8+ Nxe8 14.Bb2 c6
Mackenzie: Taking the d-pawn would be extremely hazardous, as the reply 15.Ne4 would give White a most formidable attack.
Monthly: Apparently Black played 12...Bg5 to prevent White's manœuvre with the queen's bishop; but perceived that if 14...Bxd2, the following variation might ensue: 15.Ne4 Bh6 16.Bc4 Qe7 17.Re1, with a formidable attack.
International: 14...Bxd2 would have either cost a piece or subjected him to a vehement attack which involved still greater loss, e.g., 14...Bxd2 15.Bc4 Nd6 (or 15...Qf6 16.Qxf6 Nxf6 17.Nb1 Bg5 18.f4 and wins) 16.Ne4 Nxc4 17.Nf6+ Kf8 18.Nxh7+ Ke8 19.Nf6+ Kf8 20.bxc4, with a fine game.
15.Ne4 Be7 16.Qe3
Mackenzie: A very embarrassing move for Black, as the subsequent play shows.
16...d5 17.Qd4
International: In this and similar positions it is of importance to force the adversary to move the f-pawn which thus becomes weak and also unavailable to support some minor pieces which usually block the centre row at e3.
17...f6 18.Ng3 Be6
Monthly: Here 18...c5 might have served. It would enable Black to shut out the adverse queen's bishop if necessary, and if followed up by either 19...Nc7, or 19...Ng7, the queen's bishop might then be developed, with apparently a more favourable position for Black than the one he obtained.
19.Re1 Ng7 20.h4 Qd7 21.h5 Bf7 22.hxg6 Bxg6
Monthly: Upon examination 22...hxg6 will be found inferior.
International: In order to release the king, as White threatened 23.Qe3, followed by 24.Qh6.
International: 23.Qf4 at once would have been inferior, for Black could answer 23...Re8, and White would then lose a piece (if he took the f-pawn) in a very similar manner as in the fourth game of the match, for the bishop could exchange, attacking the rook, and then, if White exchanged rooks, the knight, by retaking, would protect the bishop.
23...Kf7 24.Qf4 Re8
Mackenzie: 24...Bxd3, although it doubles White's pawns, would be injudicious, as White would presently play his queen to h6, cramping Black's movements considerably.
25.Re3 Ne6 [?:??-1:00]
Monthly: This is an ill-judged move. 25...Bd8 was the reply.
International: White's answer initiates a powerful attack, but it is difficult to suggest anything better at this stage, as White also threatened 26.Rf3 and 26.Qh6.
26.Qg4 Nf8 27.Nf5 Bc5
International: He seems to have nothing better. If 27...Bd8 28.Nh6+ Kg7 29.Bf5, followed by 30.Rxe8.
Monthly: White repeated the same move here five times, probably to gain time for the final combination. It is rather surprising that he did not select the obvious continuation 29.Qh4, which seems to yield a more immediate result.
28...Kg7 29.Nf5+
International: Under the conditions of time limit the loss of time becomes a gain of time.
29...Kf7 30.Nh6+ Kg7 31.Nf5+ Kf7 32.Nh6+
Mackenzie: Mr. Steinitz was probably short of time hereabouts, which accounts for the repetition of these checks.
32...Kg7 33.Nf5+ Kf7 34.Nh6+ Kg7 35.Bxg6 [2:00-?:??]
Mackenzie: Had he checked again, his adversary, we believe, according to the rules governing the match, could have claimed a "draw."
International: Hardly more could be got of this position than this combination of exchanges, which gives White ultimately a pawn surplus. If 35.Rf3, then Black would first check with 35...Re8+, and either the bishop would have to interpose and become almost useless or a second check by 36...Qc7+ would make room for the defense ...Nd7.
35...Qxg4 36.Nxg4 Rxe3 37.fxe3 Kxg6 38.Nxf6
Mackenzie: The plan of attack commenced by Mr. Steinitz on his sixteenth move has been admirably carried out, and results in the gain of this most important pawn.
38...Bb4 39.d3 Ne6 40.Kf2 h5 41.g4 h4
Mackenzie: In Black's place we should have been satisfied to take 41...hxg4 and fight for a draw.
Monthly: It would seem better to take the pawn, it being difficult to defend it in its isolated position. After all, White is only a pawn ahead, and to hope for a draw, Black having still two minor pieces left, would not be considered an over-sanguine expectation.
International: He ought to have exchanged pawns, and though it would have cleared the wing and left White's king freedom to support the centre, Black could have made it much more difficult for him to win with only one pawn majority than by this advance which endangers the h-pawn and gives White a passed pawn.
42.Nh5 Bd6 43.Kg2 c5 44.Bf6 Ng5 45.Bxg5 Kxg5 46.Kh3 Be5 (Adjourned)
Appeal: At this point and at 7 o'clock, recess was taken until 8:30 o'clock, when the play will be resumed.
47.Nf4 (Sealed)
International: The game was here adjourned and the move in the text was sealed by Mr. Steinitz. The knight enters not a moment too soon at f4; or else he would lose a pawn or be cut off by 47...d5. Obviously Black dare not exchange, as White would easily win with the g-pawn.
Monthly: If 47...Bxf4, then 48.exf4+, followed by 49.Kxh4 and wins.
48.Ne6+ Kf6 49.exd4 cxd4 50.Nc5
Mackenzie: With a pawn behindhand, and the disadvantage of a bishop against a knight, Black's chances of drawing are small indeed.
International: Nothing better, as White also threatened 51.Nd7+.
51.Nxb7 Kf4 52.Na5 Bf6 53.Nc6 Ke3 54.Nxa7 Kd2 55.Nc6 Kxc2 56.a4 Kxd3 57.Nb4+
International: This move makes the win for White clear and easy.
International: If 57...Ke3 58.Nd5+ Ke4 59.Nxf6+ Ke5 60.g5 d3 61.Ng4+, followed by 62.Nf2, and wins. Or if 57...Ke4 58.a5 Be7 (or 58...d3 59.Nxd3, and Black can not stop the pawns on both wings from queening) 59.a6 Bc5 60.Kxh4, and wins.
58.a5 Be7 59.Nd5
International: 59.a6 would not have won as easily, e.g., 59.a6 Bxb4 60.a7 d3 61.a8Q d2 62.Qe4+ Kf2 63.Qd3 Ke1, etc. The move in the text is stronger, for if Black now advance the pawn, White answers 60.Nf4+, and then takes the pawn.
Mackenzie: A slip probably, but one not of much consequence, for the game was not to be saved.
Monthly: Leaving the piece en prise makes no difference to Black's game, which is quite hopeless.
60.Nxe7 d3 61.Nd5 1-0 [3:33-1:53]
International: The knight is in time to return to c3 and stop the pawn.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n6, February 1886, pp173-175
International Chess Magazine, v1 n3, March 1886, pp75-77

Steinitz has played chess the longer.

Max Judd thinks that Zukertort is still a pretty sure winner.

Four ladies were present at the afternoon session at the Harmonie.

Zukertort admitted that he lost the game on the twenty-fifth move.

When Zukertort gets deeply absorbed he puts on a pair of eye-glasses.

In just an even hour after the start, Zukertort got up and began to pace the floor.

Wallace Delafield kept order by cautioning excited chess-players against talking too loud.

The only stimulant the champions take is coffee, which they sip from a stand at their side.

After the game last night Zukertort was crusty and went home, but Steinitz stayed and played whist.

S. W [sic]. Joseph was the pink of courtesy and earned the title of "daisy." He kept the Associated Press bulletin, and kept it straight.

Both men are under 5 feet 5 inches and when they sat down at the high table, the spectators said. "The table's not too big, the men are too small."

Neither champion can give Max Judd a single piece and beat him. In fact, Max beat Zukertort several games when the latter was here a year ago.

"A boss move," said Mr. Joseph, as Steinitz played his twenty-sixth. "And another boss," he continued, as the white checked with the knight on the fifty-seventh.

Max Judd, as the local champion would give no running comment. "The game's too deep. No good chess player will express an opinion as yet," he remarked at the thirty-seventh move.

The numerous checks of Steinitz, beginning on the twenty-first move, were compelled by the fact that his time was nearly exhausted, as the rules require thirty moves in the first two hours.

Steinitz generally keeps his hands on his lap under the table, but Zukertort often leans his head on his left hand. This has been done so much that his right shoulder has got a decided hump.

Steinitz said yesterday that he had learned the intricacies of the queen's gambit by recent analysis, and was now so well posted on it that if Zukertort opens his next game with P to Q 4 he (Steinitz) will surely beat him or make a draw.

Steinitz has been attacking Zukertort bitterly in his chess magazine the past six months, but since they have been playing in this match they are growing more friendly, and Joseph says that Steinitz called his opponent "Zukey" yesterday.

The score now is: Zukertort, 4 games; Steinitz, 2. It is pretty generally believed that Steinitz is getting back into his old form, and is going to beat the doctor. The only previous match the two ever played together was in London in 1873, when Steinitz won seven in a series of eight games.

Game 7: Friday, February 5, 1886.

Steinitz's Second Game.
Eighth [sic] Game of the Chess Tourney Played Yesterday.
Dr. Zukertort Somewhat Restless and Irritable—The Strongest Game of the Match—The Russian Leads Off with the Queen's Opening.

The two principals in the great chess tourney, which is at present occupying the attention of the entire chess world, began the second game of their series in the Directors' room of the Harmonie Club promptly at 2 o'clock. The previous game, which had been one of great skill and brilliancy, had the effect of a grand advertisement, and yesterday the large room was filled with the devotees of the game and curiosity seers. Of the contestants Steinitz was the first to appear upon the scene of his recent victory, and his full face exhibited a good deal of determination and brightness. He has still a strong feeling predicating his success in the great contest, and many of his stanch friends say that he will win in spite of the lead of three games which stared him in the face when he finished the New York engagement. There is a great desire upon his part to be the victor from other than pecuniary reasons. The growing record of Dr. Zukertort as a great player has for some time promised to eclipse the marvelous honors which Steinitz has made during his years of successful competition against every one who figured at all prominently in the royal game. This tournament will effectually establish the supremacy of one of these players, and Steinitz is very desirous of keeping the honors upon this side of the globe.

Zukertort Wins The Move.

When the hour for the game arrived Dr. C. D. N. Campbell adjusted the ingenious Vienna clocks and dusted off the chess board. The two masters then took their seats upon the elevated platform and adjusted chessmen, records and their glasses and went to work. Zukertort chose the white and won the lead. The little clock went down with a click, there was a careful searching glace at the board, and an insignificant looking "pawn" marched into "queen's fourth." Again the clock clicked, and Steinitz duplicated the move. The game was no fairly underway, and was what is known as "the Queen's Gambit declined." Both players settled down to hard labor and deep study. The little Russian rested his head upon his hand, as though in attitude of prayer, but there was an intelligence in his look and firm setting of the jaw that evinced the fact that he was playing chess for all he was worth. In the meantime Herr Steinitz gave vent to his nervous spirit and moved about in his chair very much as a man would do who was playing a game with odds greatly against him. So nervous did he become along about the fifteenth move that he ordered a cup of strong coffee and took an extended stroll in the club lobby. There is one peculiarity about both of these players which has received very little attention at the hands of the press, and that is their excessively irritable spirit. During the first game the Directors of the Chess, Checker and Whist Club suffered considerable inconvenience as a result of this peculiarity. This fact is a matter of comment among the chess-players of the city. Yesterday both of the contestants insisted upon the tables being removed into another room, owing to some imaginary cause, but when the time for the game arrived they concluded that the old room would be more convenient.

An Active Opening.

The first ten moves of the game were rapidly played, but from this point on both devoted more time to the analysis of the contemplated move. Dr. Zukertort is much the more rapid of the two, and seems to have a line of action laid out before his opponent sets down his piece. At the completion of the fifteenth move odds seemed slightly to favor Steinitz, owing to an isolated pawn, but old chessmen refused to make any predictions on such a superficial indication. The picture of one of these great games at any time during their progress is a unique and interesting one. Upon a drab-colored platform, about 8 feet by 6, stands an elegantly carved rosewood table; at the right and left of the table sit the greatest players of chess in the world. Upon the right the short, heavy-set form of Wilhelm Steinitz is bending over the board in a brown study, his sandy beard sweeping over a chessman now and then. Across the board is Dr. Zukertort, who, unlike his antagonist, sits with his back against the chair and contemplates a long range the battlefield. Both players do more squirming to the square inch than a liberated alligator would, and there is every indication that should either of them make a false movement of his men the world would cease to revolve.

As the limits of the game were drawn to more critical situations both men seemed to be extremely nervous, and the spleen of the Russian was vented by means of impatient refusals to allow his opponent to converse during the game. It was quite evident that the situation, at the close of the twenty-sixth move, while slightly favoring the black, was desperately close, and both players exercised the greatest care. The plays of Zukertort were now more deliberate, and he consumed almost as much time as his rival across the board.

Almost Hopeless.

When the thirtieth inning was reached popular belief was firm that the white had no hope whatever. The strongholds of the black seemed impregnable. The hour of adjournment was now very near, and Steinitz was in the midst of a deep study when Zukertort asked it the adjournment should be made after the next move. This led to a spirited discussion of the rules of the game, and was finally brought to a close by Zukertort's saying he was ready to go on with the game. It was decided, however, that after Steinitz made his play the game should be held over until 8 o'clock, as the four hours required by the regime had already been exhausted. This met with general approval, and the crowd of chess players scattered for something more substantial. The game is considered by competent experts to be as fine as the one played Wednesday, and it was a subject of extended remark that Steinitz was playing in much better form than at the games in New York City.

When the evening session was called to order Zukertort wore a decidedly worried look and the predictions regarding the probable termination of the game had doubtless been breathed to him. At 8:30 o'clock the competitors took their seats upon the elevated platform, and Zukertort, being the first to move, set the clock in motion. His hopes were soon to be cut short, for from the beginning of the evening's work Steinitz gradually drew in his forces about his adversary, and, by the thirty-third move, the fate of the Russian was sealed.

Nearing The End.

The game proceeded steadily without any hitch until the thirty-sixth move, when the white was forced to resign. The Russian looked disappointed, but came down from his chair and talked pleasantly with his friends. Congratulations were offered Steinitz by the score, and it was generally talked that the prospects of the German for winning the tourney were good. There can be no doubt but that if he does come out victorious he will have played the greatest games of chess ever heard of. The next game comes off at the same place at 2 o'clock Monday afternoon. During the rest of their stay here the players will be entertained by the members of the St. Louis Chess, Checker and Whist Club.

Steinitz Gets It.
Zukertort Gives Him the Opening, for Which He Was Yearning.

The second St. Louis game in the great chess match between Zukertort and Steinitz began this afternoon at the Harmonie club. The time set for the beginning of the game was 2 o'clock, and long before that hour about a half-dozen gentlemen gathered in the hall and looked expectantly at the big board placed before them. In the room where the players sit Mr. S. M. Joseph, C. F. Wadsworth, chess editor of the Auburn Citizen, Auburn, Ill.: Max Judd and the seconds of the players stood around and discussed the merits of the last game and the probability of the winning man in the game to-day. The seconds remained the same as in the first game, viz: Messrs. Duncan and Foster, and Dr. Campbell and Isador Judd as substitutes. As the hands of the clock approached the hour the audience began to increase perceptibly and those gentlemen whose proclivities to chess are well known began to stroll in by the twos and threes. Amongst those present were Albert Blair, Rudolph Koerper, C. M. Tucker of Pittsfield, Ill., Dr. L. Haydel, Mr. Wetherall, Fred Gabel, I. B. Pachall and Col. R. G. Rowley. Steinitz arrived early and seemed confident and serene. He employed himself by pacing up and down the players' room with his eyes fixed on the floor and a very meditative aspect on his face. Promptly at 2 o'clock the players took their seats at the table. Zukertort white; Steinitz black.

Nip And Tuck.
Steinitz Wins Another Game and Draws Up Near Zukertort.

Another bewildering account of yesterday's chess battle was presented by the morning papers. The record of the game presented a confusing difference which would muddle the best chess player. The contest was so brilliant throughout, the attack of Steinitz was so well maintained, and the extraordinary prescience shown by Steinitz in his thirty-second move was so remarkable, that the game is not only entitled to tank as the best of the series, but as one qualified in every respect to delight the hearts of chess players the world over. There can be little question that such is the verdict of the groups of players who gather in the leading cities of this country and Europe this morning to discuss the game. The importance of the contest is such that the official score is presented below in order to let the chess-players follow the different moves without being puzzled by any mistakes.

A larger number of persons than were at the previous game filled the rooms in Harmonie club up to the very finish, which was shortly before 9 o'clock. Close attention was paid to every move, but no particular demonstration was made until the thirty-second move was made by Steinitz. It happened so that this play produced a dramatic effect. It is the rule for the second player when the time comes for a recess to record his move on a piece of paper and seal it up in an envelope and give it to his opponent's second, who, on play being resumed, announces what the move is and the piece is so placed. Last night, although the room was filled with chess-players of ability, not one imagined what Steinitz would move after the recess, and it never occurred to any amateur head present that the bishop would be handled first. When this was done and the price was put on the king's fourth square and check was called, the advantage so brilliantly secured was evident to all and the greatest enthusiasm of the series was noticeable in the audience who could scarcely repress loud expressions of admiration. In just three more moves the white was cornered, and, as Zukertort had but one additional move, that to K R 4, he gracefully resigned without more ado. At the conclusion Zukertort tried to get Steinitz to play it over from the twenty-eighth move just for fun as Zukertort claimed his twenty-ninth lost him the chance to draw. Steinitz was too tired to do it, and so Zukertort demonstrated alone the disaster produced by the twenty-ninth. The score now stands: Zukertort, 4; Steinitz, 3.

Steinitz Again Winner.
The Second Game Of Chess In St. Louis.
Zukertort Thinking Of One Piece Moves Another.
[By Telegraph To The Tribune.]

St. Louis, Feb. 5.—The second game in the chess championship series was played this afternoon at the Harmonie Hall. As the hour for the opening of the game approached the number of spectators increased rapidly, and at 2 o'clock the parlors were thronged with distinguished people. General Sherman and wife were the centre of the interesting group, and the old warrior was continually importuned for his opinion on the relative strength displayed by the two champions. Chess editors from Chicago, Cincinnati and Kansas City were present and watched the game with eager interest. Steinitz arrived early and looked serene and calm. He paced up and down the room in a meditative way with his eyes on the floor. Dr. Zukertort sat chatting with Max Judd and other friends and said several times that he hoped Mr. Steinitz would do some of his thinking before the game and thus save time.

At 2 o'clock the players took their seats and Zukertort, who had the move, offered the Queen's gambit, which Steinitz declined. Both men were ill-humored and lost no opportunity to make each other uncomfortable. Steinitz was as deliberate as usual and this seemed to make Zukertort nervous. He arose and walked around the room and rolled and smoked cigarettes while waiting for Steinitz to move. As each move was made, the figures on the mammoth board for the benefit of the spectatars [sic] were arranged to correspond and the three hundred people present watched the struggle with intense interest.

The game turned on Dr. Zukertort's twenty-ninth move, and after his defeat he told The Tribune reporter that he intended to move his Queen instead of his Bishop. To this move he ascribed his defeat. He resigned on the thirty-fifth move. He requested Mr. Steinitz to play the game from the twenty-eighth move for the purpose of illustrating his mistake, but Steinitz said that he was too tired. Then Max Judd sat down with Dr. Zukertort, and after a half-hour's play the game was drawn. Mr. Steinitz was jubilant over his victory and says that he feels assured now of winning the tournament.

Dr. Zukertort spent most of his time after the contest in holding a post-mortem examination on the play. He does not seen dejected, but says that he has been in exceedingly bad form since he arrived.

Date: 1886.02.05
Site: USA St. Louis, MO (Harmonie Club)
Event: World Championship (Game 7)
White: Zukertort,JH
Black: Steinitz,W
Opening: [D40] Queen's Gambit Declined
1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6
Mackenzie: Mr. Steinitz in this game, abandons his former method of declining the gambit, by 2...c6, and adopts what, in the chess world, for the last forty odd years has been considered Black's best line of play, namely, 2...e6.
Monthly: Black adopts here the recognized defence of this opening. In the previous games he played, 2...c6, and 3...Bf5.
International: The old classical defense in the time of Labourdonnais and McDonnell was now to capture the c-pawn, followed by 3...e5 in reply to 3.e3. This plan was adopted with the object of liberating the queen's bishop. But we believe that the latter piece has no good aggressive square in that case, and it is much better to disolve the c-pawn and to keep the queen's bishop for defensive purposes shut up, for a time, as was done in the present game.
3.Nc3 Nf6 4.e3 c5
Monthly: Generally 4...Be7, followed by the queen's fianchetto, is considered the defence here. However, Black prefers, even if he travels the beaten track, an occasional side path.
5.Nf3 Nc6 6.a3
Mackenzie: Whether this advance is necessary is still a mooted question among chess experts of the present day.
Monthly: Giving up the advantage of the first move. Instead of the text move, White could have played 6.dxc5 Bxc5 7.cxd5, leaving Black with an isolated d-pawn; whereas by the course adopted he remains himself with an isolated d-pawn.
International: With the object of playing 7.dxc5, and then, if Black retake with the bishop, to advance 8.b4 and 9.c5. This manœuvre which establishes the majority of pawns on the queen's wing, while Black's centre also becomes indifferent on account of White being enabled to bring his bishop to b2 at once, was first adopted by Steinitz against Anderssen in the Vienna tournament of 1873.
6...dxc4 7.Bxc4 cxd4 8.exd4
Mackenzie: White has now an isolated pawn, which in all probability, sooner or later, will prove an element of weakness in his game.
International: As it would be useless to attempt to break through by 8...e5 or to exchange any hostile minor piece that might be posted in the king's centre, the post at e7 is the best for defensive purposes in the present situation.
9.0-0 0-0 10.Be3 Bd7 11.Qd3
Monthly: 11.d5 exd5 12.Nxd5 Nxd5 13.Bxd5 would have yielded quite an even game.
11...Rc8 12.Rac1 Qa5
International: The queen occupies here a strong position, with the view of coming to the succor of the king's side if necessary and also to check the advance of the centre pawns or those of the queen's wing.
Monthly: White could still play 13.d5.
Mackenzie: Already aiming at the weak spot in White's position.
Monthly: 14.Rfd1 seems better. The rook has less scope on the e-file.
International: This makes the king's side impregnable and opens the long prepared attack against the d-pawn. Up to this White might have at any time disolved the centre pawn by advancing it, but he would have obtained at the utmost an even game, and on account of his a-pawn having been previously advanced to a3, we believe that his queen's wing would have remained a shade weaker.
Monthly: Also unnecessary. It is quite transparent that Black would concentrate his forces on the d-pawn. The text move facilitates that design, inasmuch as Black can carry it out simultaneously with his defence.
15...g6 16.Qe2 Bf8 17.Red1 Bg7 [?:??-1:00]
Monthly: We should certainly prefer Black's game now.
18.Ba2 Ne7
International: Holding the d-pawn tight.
19.Qd2 Qa6
Mackenzie: An excellent move, preventing a series of exchanges which, had the black queen remained at a5, White might have compelled by 20.Ne4.
International: Of course the queen had to retreat or be defended, as White threatened 20.Nd5 and then to take one of the knights with check. It was only a question whether the queen should manœuvre to the king's side or remain on her present wing where the post selected was the best, for at b6 she would subsequently have been subject to attack, as will be seen.
20.Bg5 [1:00-?:??]
Monthly: White, labouring under the disadvantage of the weak d-pawn, ought not to weak it more by removing a defending piece.
20...Nf5 21.g4
Mackenzie: It is difficult to account for such a reckless move as this is, in an important match game. Dr. Zukertort must have altogether failed to take into account the telling counter stroke of his adversary.
International: A weak move which makes Black's plan of attack still more effective, as it also loosens the king's side.
Monthly: A well-timed sacrifice, which apparently equalises the position, but nevertheless leaves Black with a margin of advantage sufficient to turn the scale.
22.Nxd4 e5 23.Nd5
International: Owing to Black's 19th move the double attack on the knight is now harmless, as the queen protects the row. It will now be seen that the queen would have been badly placed at b6.
23...Rxc1 24.Qxc1 exd4 25.Rxd4 Nxd5 26.Rxd5
International: Or course if 26.Bxd8 Bxd4 27.Bxd5 Qd6, winning a piece.
26...Rxd5 27.Bxd5 Qe2
Mackenzie: The series of exchanges resulting from Black's 21st move tells altogether in favor of Mr. Steinitz, whose queen now occupies a very aggressive post.
28.h3 h6
International: It was of importance to make room for the king in many contingencies, especially against the sally of 29.Qc8, which White might have resorted to in answer to 28...Bxb2 at once, e.g., 28...Bxb2 29.Qc8 Qd1+ 30.Kh2 Qxd5 (30...Be5+ is even worse, for White interposes the f-pawn and then moves 32.Kg3 in reply to 31...Qd2+) 31.Qxe8+ Kg7 32.Be7 Be5+ 33.Kg1, and Black can hardly do more than draw. Black intended to capture the pawn next move and to force the first part of the above line of play, with the difference in his favor that his king would have stood more secure at h2.
Mackenzie: Surely 29.Be3 was preferable to this almost suicidal move, which permits the black queen and bishop to be brought to bear with deadly effect against the white king.
Monthly: If 29.Qd2, then probably 29...Qxd2, followed by 30...Bxb2 and Black's a-pawn, would probably cost a piece.
International: An error which gives Black facilities for instituting a decisive attack against the king at once. But his game was inferior. If 29.Qd2 Qb5, followed by 30...Bxb2, with a pawn ahead and a safe game. Or 29.Be3 Bxb2 30.Qb1 (if 30.Qc8 Qd1+, followed by 31...Qxd5) 30...Kh7 31.Bxb7 Bb5, followed by 32...Bd3, with an excellent game.
29...Qf3 30.Qe3 Qd1+ 31.Kh2 Bc6 32.Be7 (Adjourned) [2:00-?:??]
Mackenzie: If 32.Bxh6, Black wins by: 32...Bxh6 33.Qxh6 Qh1+ 34.Kg3 Qf3+ 35.Kh4 Qxf2+ 36.Kg5 Qe3+ winning the queen.
Monthly: White has really no satisfactory move. If 32.Bxh6, then 32...Bxh6, and wins.
32...Be5+ (Sealed) [?:??-2:00]
International: This was the move sealed at the adjournment.
Mackenzie: Should queen take 33.Qxe5 then follows: 33...Qh1+ 34.Kg3 Qf3+ 35.Kh4 Qxf2+ 36.Qg3 g5+ 37.Bxg5 hxg5+ winning the queen.
Monthly: Mr. Steinitz played the ending with great judgment and precision.
International: If 33.Qxe5 Qh1+ 34.Kg3 Qg2+ 35.Kh4 Qxf2+ 36.Qg3 g5+ and wins the queen.
33...Bxf4+ 34.Qxf4 Qh1+ 35.Kg3 Qg1+ 0-1 [2:05-2:10]
Mackenzie: Because queen must interpose, whereupon Black wins as before by 37...g5+, etc.
Monthly: The position is singularly instructive. If the bishop be taken the loss of the queen follows forthwith.
International: Black wins now the queen by 36...Qe1+, followed by 37...g5+.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n6, February 1886, pp175-176
International Chess Magazine, v1 n3, March 1886, pp78-80

"St. Louis is a Steinitz town, you can bet on that," said a chess player to-day. "You see it's a matter of patriotic pride. We want to make this country the leading one in chess. We don't want to see Zukertort go back across the water with all the laurels. Steinitz is going to live in this country after this, and we ought to give him a lift."

Steinitz is troubled with insomnia and complained yesterday of being unable to woo the drowsy god.

"The last game was the best in the series so far. It was well contested throughout," is the general verdict.

A. H. Robbins, the best problemist in the city, calls off the moves for the official scorer. He keeps his eye on every move but keeps mum at the same time. He always stands ready to courteously explain the last move.

The Chicago and Cincinnati papers come to hand, had a correct account of the game, and S. M. Joseph, the official scorer, is tickled to think the Associated Press sent the same accurate score all over the world.

Some think that Steinitz is the better analyzer but that Zukertort carries the game along the better. Others, however, deny it.

Steinitz is a good whist player but Zukertort can beat him. When either plays, nobody reneges.

Game 8: Monday, February 8, 1886.

A Draw Game.
No Advantage Gained by Either of the Chess Players.
Dr. Zukertort Explains Himself to the Press and Subsequently Proposes a Cessation of Play—The Ninth Game on Wednesday.

Predictions were freely circulated among the prominent chess players present in Harmonie Hall yesterday afternoon, before the commencement of the game, that the ultimate result of the championship series would find Steinitz in the lead. The reasons advanced in support of these prophecies were based upon the brilliant chess the German has been playing here. There can be no doubt but that in the two preceding games Zukertort had been outgeneraled and overmatched. Both of these games were considered from a theoretic standpoint much more masterly than those played in the East. There the odds were greatly favoring Zukertort, as Steinitz was unwell and playing in exceedingly bad form. Here he has struck his playing gait, and is more devoted and careful of his work. Since his arrival in this city Dr. Zukertort has been unwell, extremely nervous and only obtaining sleep at long intervals. This condition of affairs has had an apparent effect on his nervous system, and his friends claim that this is one reason he lost ground here. The game yesterday was the third one of the series to be played here, and was of unusual interest from the painful knowledge that the rules governing the match stipulated that three won games for one player should close the series in any one place, and for this reason if Steinitz won the game the chess world in St. Louis would have seen their last championship game.

Zukertort The Favorite.

For this cause alone there were many expressed desires, unpatriotic but sincere, that the little Russian would take the game, in order that more of this brilliant playing might be witnessed here. There was a troubled look upon the broad forehead of Dr. J. H. Zukertort when he entered the hall of the Harmonie Club in company with Max Judd and other well-known chess-players. There were wrinkles everywhere noticeable, and his face was unusually pale. When he entered the room in which the games are being played he inspected the chess-board as usual and then went out in an adjoining room for season of mediation and prayer. While he was out his opponent, Herr Wilhelm Steinitz, arrived, and everything being supposed to be all right the players seated themselves for the contest. Zukertort, had the black; Steinitz the white. The latter had the move and a pawn went to king's fourth. The game was known as the Ruy Lopez, and had a brisk inauguration. During the first half hour more moves were made than during any game played before between these champions. This was not a foretaste of what was to follow, for after this the play was more deliberate than ever before on the part of both. Zukertort was, however, much the more impetuous of the two. The game had proceeded only a short way when the discovery was made that the ingenious little clock, which is the sole time-keeper of the movers, had ceased to operate. A suspension of operations was at once made, and the contrivance taken to a neighboring jeweler's shop where half an hour was lost while it was being repaired. During this interval the little Russian crossed over to the reporters' table and delivered a rather lengthy but interesting dissertation on the relation of the press to the chess player.

He never complained, he said, or anything—not even of the St. Louis streets—with the exception of his treatment at the hands of the American newspapers. There was one thing he had noticed—that nearly every report that had been written concerning him was sheer nonsense. New York papers had made him pose in the role of a Hungarian, a Russian, an Englishman and a Frenchman. While in fact he was not a native of any of these countries. He seldom spoke of these things, but meant no offense.

Play Resumed.

The talk, which covered a period of half an hour, touched upon general topics and exhibited the resources of his broad mind and extended experience. There was a wide respect created for his intellectual caliber among the hearers who were entertained by him, by his cleverness in conversation. The time-keeping mechanism having been repaired, was returned in hot haste and the play went on. When the fifteenth move was made chances were about even, although several prominent players thought the prospects slightly favored the white. The study of the players was not marked at this session by such excessive nervousness. There was less of the restless uneasiness and squally repartee. No special incidents marked the progress of the game until Zukertort proposed a draw and Steinitz, owing to his faint condition, concluded to accept it. There as a good deal of talk among the spectators regarding the necessity of such a termination of the game, but according to the rules governing the game, the draw was properly authorized. This game, then, does not change the situation in the least. Next Wednesday at 2 o'clock another game will be played, and which will probably be finished. The attendance was as large as at any previous session, and there was considerable interest shown during its continuance.

The Eighth Chess Game.
Steinitz and Zukertort Renew Their Battle at Harmonie Club To-day.

The beautiful character of the third day of the chess match between Messrs. Zukertort and Steinitz had an enthusing effect up the players, as was evidenced by Steinitz leaving his quarters across the street at 1:30 and taking his place at the open window of the Harmonie club at Eighteenth and Olive streets and letting the warm southern wind blow through his whiskers, for the half hour preceding the game. Zukertort was not so prompt in getting on the field.

Promptly at 2 o'clock Steinitz led off with the white, playing his pawn to king's fourth, and then four moves were rapidly made and the game was just growing intricate enough to hush the murmur in the room when Zukertort observed that his clock was not running, and after the white had played the fifth move, a recess of twenty minutes was taken, whilst the committee skirmished around for another clock.

Played To A Draw.
Zukertort and Steinitz Agree to Declare the Eighth Game "Off."

Yesterday's game was the most unsatisfactory one yet played in the Steinitz-Zukertort chess series. The day was beautiful, the men started promptly at the appointed hour, and the large audience expected to witness a brilliant contest. But just as the moves became intricate enough to hush the murmurs in the rooms, it was found that one of the clocks would not work and the players had to wait for half an hour. Dr. Zukertort voiced the sentiments of the anxious spectators when he said he couldn't understand why the committee did not have two sets of clerks [sic] to provide against accident. Both players were rendered nervous by this interruption, and interest lagged even when play was resumed. The opening was an old chestnut well eaten up by book worms, while nearly all the audience had been hoping that Steinitz would make one of his own brilliant openings and proceed to develop is system. As the plays succeeded one another without any startling departure from the regular book moves, disappointment began to show itself with the growing belief that the last of the series in St. Louis was to be the stupidest of all. So when, on the twenty-second move, Dr. Zukertort proposed to call it a drawn and Steinitz consented, there was considerable quiet delight among the old chess players at the prospect of another chance to see a good game. On the seventeenth move, the white was crowded back into the first row, making it necessary for him to effect a lively exchange of pieces which resulted in the loss to each of a rook, bishop and knight. There were eleven pieces on the board when the game was thrown up, but the local lights were nearly unanimous in the opinion that that was the best way out of a dull game, which would have added nothing materially to either's reputation had he won. The conditions of the match requiring one player to win at least three games in this city, the contest will be continued to-morrow afternoon at 2 o'clock at the Harmonie club, Eighteenth and Olive streets. It is not unlikely that this may be won by Zukertort, which would still further prolong the series here. The total score now is: Zukertort, 4; Steinitz, 3; drawn, 1; St. Louis games—Steinitz, 2; Zukertort, none; drawn, 1. It will thus be seen that the first drawn game of the series occurred in this city.

A Drawn Game Of Chess.
A Contest Ended In Twenty-Two Moves.
The Third Game in St. Louis Between Zukertort and Steinitz.

St. Louis, Feb. 8 (Special).—The third game of chess between Dr. Zukertort and Mr. Steinitz occurred to-day at the Harmonie Club before a much larger number of spectators than was assembled at either of the preceding games. Unfortunately for those who attended, the game was short and uninteresting, and was a draw after the twenty-second move. Steinitz had the opening and once more chose his favorite, the Ruy Lopez move. The game began sharp at 2 p.m., and after two or three moves had been made, Zukertort began to wrap nervously for the umpire. It was found this his clock had broken down and refused to tick. He shook it viciously and it obstinately refused to go. Then the umpire and several of the spectators shook it, but without success, and the official scorer, Mr. Josephs [sic], started with it to the nearest jeweller. A recess was taken and the players wandered about the room, chatting pleasantly with acquaintances. The next game will be played on Wednesday.

Date: 1886.02.08
Site: USA St. Louis, MO (Harmonie Club)
Event: World Championship (Game 8)
White: Steinitz,W
Black: Zukertort,JH
Opening: [C67] Spanish
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5
Mackenzie: The Ruy Lopez seems to be as great a favorite with Mr. Steinitz as the Queen's Gambit is with Dr. Zukertort. This is the third time that he opens with it, out of the four games in which he has had the move.
3...Nf6 4.0-0 Nxe4 5.Re1
Mackenzie: We have mentioned before that in our opinion 5.d4 is more attacking than the text move.
5...Nd6 6.Nxe5 Be7
Mackenzie: Dr. Zukertort varies here from his play in the fourth and sixth games, in both of which he took 6...Nxe5.
Monthly: In the 4th and 6th games the book moves 6...Nxe5 occurred. The text move seems preferable.
International: Better than 6...Nxe5 as played at this point in the fourth and sixth games of the match. Black now threatens 7...Nxb5 which would release his game and against White's actual answer he retains the option of exchanging knights, followed by ...Bf6.
Mackenzie: As a general rule the posting of the bishop at d3 before the d-pawn is moved, is not to be commended, but as Mr. Steinitz in his plan of attacking deploys the queen's bishop at b2, the blocking of the d-pawn is not of much consequence.
7...0-0 8.Qh5
Mackenzie: This appears to us to be premature. The mate threatened is easily guarded against, and the white queen is so liable to attack in her present position that Black in all probability will gain time and develop his forces in driving her back.
Monthly: After 8.Bxh7+ Kxh7 9.Qh5+ Kg8 10.Re3 Nxe5 11.Rh3, Black would secure his position with 11...f6.
International: The attack initiated here is illusory, for it leads to no more than a draw at the best. 8,Nc3 is more solid and keeps Black's game confined for some time.
International: This changes matters at once. Had he played 8...g6, the game might have proceeded thus: 8...g6 9.Nxg6 fxg6 10.Bxg6 hxg6 (or 10...Rf7 11.Bxf7+ with two pawns for the exchange and a strong attack) 11.Qxg6+ Kh8 12.b3 (this seems best for the attack unless he elects to draw at once by perpetual check. If 12.Re3, Black answers 12...Nf5, followed by 13...Bh4 in answer to the check of the rook, and then 14...Qf6) 12...Nf5 (best) 13.Bb2+ Bf6 14.Re8 (we see nothing better) 14...Bxb2 15.Rxd8 Rxd8 16.Qxf5 Bxa1. And with four pieces for the queen, Black ought to obtain the best of the game either by ...Bg7 or by soon playing ...d5 in case his bishop be blocked out and then to bring his king slowly over to the queen's side.
International: It was much better to exchange knights, followed by 10.b3.
9...Nxe5 10.Rxe5 g6 11.Qf3 c6 12.b3 Nf7
Monthly: From this point Black gets a slight superiority.
Monthly: If 13.Bc4, then 13...Bf6, followed up with 14...d5. To play at once 13...d5 would be bad on account of 14.Nxd5 cxd5 15.Rxd5 Q-moves 16.Bb2, threatening 17.Qc3.
International: 13.Bc4 was tempting and would have succeeded had Black ventured to attack the bishop at once, for, in that case, White could well sacrifice the knight for the two pawns, and after retaking with the rook he could obtain a winning game by 16.Qc3. But Black would, before advancing ...d5, first answer 13...Bf6, a move which he has cleverly and with fine judgment reserved, and whether White then exchanged the bishop for the knight or not, the opponent was bound to obtain the superior game.
13...d5 14.Bb2 Bf6 15.Rae1 [1:00-?:??] 15...Qd6
International: An excellent move which changes the aspect of the battle. He threatens 16...Ng5, followed accordingly by 17...d4 or 17...f4. White's queen is now badly placed, and he has nothing better than to adopt defensive measures by initiating a series of exchanges.
Mackenzie: This appears to us to indicate a wish to draw the game, which, from the nature of the positions on both sides, would probably be the natural result.
Monthly: The only saving move. Black threatened with the winning rejoinder 16...Ng4.
International: Though the two doubled rooks appear very strong on the only open file, White could not make any better use of them than to get rid of the one of the adversary's rooks, for he had no good square for his own, in order to release his queen. The loss of a piece was threatened by 16...Ng5 17.Qe3 (if 17.Qg3 f4 18.Qh4 Nf3+, and wins the queen) 17...d4, and wins.
16...Bd7 17.Rxa8 Rxa8 18.Nd1
Monthly: White proposed here a draw.
International: 18.Na4, in order to retreat Qd1, was probably better. At this point Mr. Steinitz intimated that he would accept a draw, but Mr. Zukertort wished to play a few more moves before deciding the matter. His game, no doubt, looks a little the better of the two.
18...Ng5 19.Qe2 Re8 20.Qf1 Bxb2 21.Rxe8+ Bxe8 22.Nxb2 ½-½ [1:15-0:20]
Mackenzie: Black, it seems to us, has as shade the best of it, but the advantage—if any—is so slight that Dr. Zukertort probably acted wisely, and saved himself some severe mental labor in agreeing to call the game a draw.
International: It would have been waste of time to go on with the game. Against 22...Qa3, White might reply 23.Qb1, and if, at any time, Black enter with his knight at e4, White would exchange and remain with a knight against the bishop, which would give him good winning chances in the ending, especially as Black's pawns on the king's side are far advanced. And Black proposed a draw which White accepted.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n7, March 1886, p202
International Chess Magazine, v1 n3, March 1886, pp81-82

Game 9: Wednesday, February 10, 1886.

Steinitz Wins Again.
Close of the St. Louis Section of the Famous Chess Tourney.

Public interest in the progress of the chess games that are being played in this city seems to be on the wane. The attendance at the fourth contest yesterday afternoon at the Harmonie Club room, was much smaller than at any of the preceding ones. In some way the idea has gained ground that the match is a hippodrome, and that it has been influenced. As near as can be ascertained this idea had its inception at the game last Monday, when, for reasons unstated to the audience present, the battle was declared a draw. This supposition is well-known to chess players to be a baseless fabrication, the drawn being legitimate in every respect and or frequent occurrence in such contests. Drawing the issue, while a disappointment to the large audience, who had paid the price of admission, was in every sense legitimate and proper. It seems the next thing to impossibility that the mere pittance from spectators, or even the inuendoes [sic] of stakeholders or interested parties, could have any influence upon two such honorable men as Herr Steinitz and Dr. Zukertort. That the struggle is proceeding entirely upon the merits of the contestants is, among chessmen, universally believed. Doubtless the aspirant for honors who wins will have played the best chess, and may be accounted the greatest master of his time. The game yesterday began promptly on time, with the "Queen's Gambit Declined." The odds were slightly favoring Zukertort, who had the opening. This was only an implied advantage, and before many moves had been made the chances were evenly divided. Owing to the desire of Herr Steinitz the players changed places before the game began. When the black had made his tenth move a letter was handed him. He drew the yellow envelope up to his face—he being near-sighted—and rose with some agitation. In doing so he inadvertently upset several chessmen. "J' Doube," said the German, which means in American ordinary, "I adjust." This had a nerving effect upon Zukertort, who seemed annoyed. The progress of the entire game was unmarked by any incident worthy of note, both men playing chess and devoting their time to that alone. When the result was announced the usual congratulations were offered. The games played thus far have all been splendid ones, and this period of the championship struggle will become famous, as the most famous chess games played for years occurred during that time.

Deciding The Draw.
Zukertort And Steinitz Meet For The Ninth Game Of Their Series.
Progress of the Chess Party This Afternoon—Zukertort Opens With the Queen's Gambit, Which Steinitz Declines—Details of the Game.

Mr. Steinitz, as usual, was early at the Harmonie club this afternoon, and seemed as eager to begin the chess match as his phlegmatic nature would allow. As he wandered through the corridors he was interrogated by a Post-Dispatch reporter as to his hope of success. Mr. Steinitz' round, florid face was widened somewhat by the smile that at once followed, as he said, with but a slight foreign accent: "I am feeling ever so much better now. My fit of nervousness and insomnia, which rendered me an unworthy opponent in New York, has left me now and I feel that I am myself again. Of course I cannot tell when this trouble will attack me again, but I do know that at present I have the strongest hopes of winning. Why, in New York I was so unfit for playing that I wouldn't back myself. Indeed, Dr. Zukertort's friends will tell you that he did not outplay me in New York at all, but that my blunders were so wonderfully erratic that an insignificant player could have defeated me. These attacks of nervousness have been my bane before. In the Vienna tournament I was thirteenth at the end of the first week but pulled up and tied for first and second places."

Mr. Steinitz had read, with great anxiety, the Post-Dispatch accounts of the London riot and said he was eager to get at the evening paper to read the latest details, as he lived for twenty years in London and was afraid that the outbreak was a general communistic movement.

When the players began play at 2 o'clock promptly there was an even dozen spectators, the smallest audience they have yet begun before. Among these twelve were:

Isidor Judd, E. C. Simmons, Adolph Judd, Lewis Haller, S. M. Joseph, J. E. Martin of Toledo, Judge Woerner, Max Judd, E. Helke of Leadville and Col. George Rowley. This gathering was gradually increased as the game proceeded. Dr. C. D. N. Campbell acted as umpire for Steinitz, and Mr. Isidor Judd for Zukertort.

This, the ninth game of the series and the fourth in St. Louis, was opened by Zukertort, who chose the white, and opened with queen's gambit, which Steinitz at once declined. This is the same opening Zukertort has chosen in all the games he has played in this series so far, and there was a little disappointment, as the local players had been expecting something better. Both players were deliberate, and took things less nervously than formerly.

Steinitz Wins Again.
The Concluding Chess Game in St. Louis a Very Brilliant One.

The concluding game of the Steinitz-Zukertort series in St. Louis afforded an example of most brilliant chess and also clearly demonstrated that the tournament is in no sense a hippodrome. If any doubt of the genuineness of the players' motives was engendered by the draw game of Monday it was dispelled by the magnificent display of yesterday. Some of the local players made the invidious remark at the beginning of the contest yesterday that it would be another hippodrome, but when about the twentieth move they say the veins on Zukertort's forehead swell out and half an hour slip by while he was studying the move, the spectators realized that the battle was for blood. The chess club ware jubilant over the fact that the local series closed with the best game of the tournament so far. Indeed, S. M. Joseph, an enthusiastic Steinitz man, said: "Yesterday's contest ought to be classed with the immortal games." The features of yesterday's play was that neither party made a single blunder, and that Steinitz won by outplaying his opponent at all points. In an exchange of pieces Zukertort's pawn was left isolated on the queen's fourth square, and this contributed one of his points of weakness. Steinitz played with unusual rapidity. The game was to be adjourned at 6 o'clock, but just two minutes before that time Zukertort resigned.

The players have two weeks to spend here before going to New Orleans and will probably occupy it in whist-playing, their only relaxation. They were paid to-day $150 each, the amount raised by the Chess, Checker and Whist club to bring them here. This sum the club does not begrudge, as they say their organization has received a decided boom, a number of applications for membership having been made. The general opinion in the club is that Steinitz has shown himself Zukertort's superior in the St. Louis games. Even Max Judd, the doctor's champion, admits that. The total score now stands four games won for each, and one draw. This leaves one player to win six games in New Orleans, as the conditions require ten victories before either can claim the stakes. The players, on their return from the south, will probably play some blindfolded and simultaneous games with local lights.

The game was erroneously recorded in both the morning papers, but the following is the corrected official score:

Zukertort Again Beaten.
The Chess Contestants Now A Tie.
Mr. Steinitz In Better Condition And Hopeful Of Winning The Championship.
[By Telegraph To The Tribune.]

St. Louis, Feb. 10.—Mr. Steinitz won his third successive victory in the chess championship series this afternoon, and his remarkable record here has rendered him so jubilant that he expresses himself confident of winning the championship. After the game he said: "I am feeling ever so much better now. My fit of nervousness and insomnia, which rendered me an unworthy opponent in New-York, has left me now, and I feel that I am myself again. Of course, I cannot tell when this trouble will attack me again, but I do know that at present I have the strongest hope of winning. Why, in New-York I was so unfit for playing that I wouldn't back myself. Indeed, Dr. Zukertort's friends will tell you that he did not outplay me in New-York at all, but that my blunders were so wonderfully erratic that an insignificant player could have defeated me. These attacks of nervousness have been my bane before. In the Vienna tournament I was thirteenth at the end of the first week but pulled up and tied for first and second places."

The players were punctual and when they took their seats the following chess experts were among the spectators: Gidor [sic] Judd, E. C. Simmons, Adolph Judd, Lewis Haller, S. M. Joseph, J. E. Martin, of Toledo, Judge Woerner, Max Judd, E. Helke, of Leadville, and Colonel George Rowley. This gathering was gradually increased as the game proceeded. Dr. C. D. N. Campbell acted as umpire for Steinitz and Gidor Judd for Zukertort. Dr. Zukertort chose the white and offered the Queen's gambet, which Steinitz declined. There was some disappointment at this opening, as the local players expected something new. The game, however, proved to be the best of the series. Zukertort looked tired and worn. He played slowly at first and with none of his usual buoyancy. Both men settled down to steady work. After Steinitz's thirty-eighth move, Zukertort waved his hand deprecatingly and said: "It's your game." In a few minutes he returned to the board and began explaining to some of his friends how he had lost. "I was all right up to the twenty-ninth move," he said. "I made my mistake in the thirtieth move. Instead of playing Rook to Knight's third, I should have played Pawn to Queen's fifth." "It would make no difference." said Mr. Steinitz. "Sit down and I'll show you. I thought you would make that move, and had it analyzed." Both played the game again but drew, each believing that he was right.

"When I got my Bishop safely at Bishop's third the game was won." said Mr. Steinitz.

"I think this one of the best we have played," he continued, "and I shall treat it at some length in my magazine."

"I don't know what is the matter with me." said Dr. Zukertort. "Since I came to St. Louis I have been pursued with bad luck, and to-day I felt all out of sorts. I haven't the admiration for the afternoon's game that my friend Steinitz has."

The players will take a rest for nearly two weeks, when the series will be resumed in New-Orleans. The contestants are now tied, each having won four games.

Date: 1886.02.10
Site: USA St. Louis, MO (Harmonie Club)
Event: World Championship (Game 9)
White: Zukertort,JH
Black: Steinitz,W
Opening: [D26] Queen's Gambit Declined
1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6
Mackenzie: Mr. Steinitz has evidently come to the conclusion that the "old school" in chess was correct in preferring the text move to the inferior defence of 2...c6.
3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Nf3
Mackenzie: In the previous games at this opening Dr. Zukertort generally played 4.e3 at this juncture. From the course the game takes, however, it appears to be immaterial which is played first.
Monthly: Better, probably, than 4.e3, as played in the 7th game.
4...dxc4 5.e3
International: If 5.e4, Black could well answer 5...Bb4.
5...c5 6.Bxc4 cxd4 7.exd4
Mackenzie: an isolated pawn has a certain amount of weakness about it, and it is well known that Mr. Steinitz is always well pleased when he can bring about this element of weakness in the adversary's game. For that reason alone we should have captured 7.Nxd4.
Mackenzie: These games would seem to prove that 7...Be7 is a better development for the bishop than 7...Bd6, which was formerly considered the best square for him.
8.0-0 0-0 9.Qe2 Nbd7
International: An improvement, we believe, on Black's plan of development as compared to the seventh game. The object is to fix one of his knights strongly in the centre, as will be seen.
Mackenzie: Anticipating the attack on the bishop by 10...Nb6.
Monthly: There was no immediate necessity for the retreat of the bishop, which might have been played when attacked to d3.
International: If he wanted to get rid of his isolated pawn, he could do so now by advancing it, but of course he would not have any show of attack after that.
10...Nb6 11.Bf4 Nbd5 12.Bg3 Qa5 13.Rac1 Bd7 14.Ne5 Rfd8 15.Qf3
Mackenzie: Two bishops are looked upon as being somewhat stronger than two knights, so that we should have felt very much inclined to have now taken 15.Nxd7. It is very possible, however, that White did not wish to give the adversary an opportunity of rapidly doubling his rooks on the d-pawn.
Monthly: 15.f4 would have given more scope to the queen's bishop.
15...Be8 16.Bh4
Pope: The sequence 16.Rfe1 Rac8 17.Bh4 Nxc3 18.bxc3 Qc7 is given in the International Chess Magazine. This is the only source that gives this sequence and appears to be in error.
International: He threatens now 17.Nxd5 which would compel Black to retake with the pawn, and would not alone cover White's weak d-pawn, but in turn would subject Black's d-pawn to attacks.
16...Nxc3 [?:??-1:00]
Mackenzie: This, it is true, unites White's pawns, but an examination of the position will show that they are intrinsically weak, while those on Black's side are compact and impregnable.
International: This was obviously Black's best reply and though it strengthens the opponent's centre, it will leaves White's pawns on the queen's wing in a loose position.
17.bxc3 Qc7
International: With the object of protecting the king's bishop whenever he thought fit to offer another exchange by ...Nd5.
18.Rfe1 Rac8 19.Qd3
Monthly: 19.Bc2 would be much better.
19...Nd5 20.Bxe7 [1:00-?:??]
Monthly: It would have been better to continue with 20.Bg3.
20...Qxe7 21.Bxd5 Rxd5 22.c4 Rdd8
International: Best, for if 22...Ra5, White could well institute a powerful attack by advancing 23.d5, which now would be inoperative on account of the reply 23...b5.
23.Re3 Qd6 24.Rd1 f6 25.Rh3
International: A tempting and ingenious offer of a sacrifice which, if accepted, might have involved Black in serious troubles and would at any rate, have deprived him of all chances of winning.
Mackenzie: Had he taken the knight the following variation might have occurred: 25...fxe5 26.Qxh7+ Kf8 (best) 27.Rf3+ Bf7 28.Qh8+ Ke7 29.Qh4+ drawing by perpetual check, or recovering the piece sacrificed, with much the better game.
Monthly: 25...fxe5 would offer White, after 26.Qxh7+ Kf8 many strong continuations for attack, as 27.Rg3, which wins by force against any defence except 27...Rd7. Or 27.Rf3+ Bf7 28.Qh8+ Ke7 29.Qxg7 Rf8 30.h4, etc. Black avoided complications, as he was pressed for time.
International: With this move in the text Black initiates the offensive which, we believe, must have yielded him the superiority of position under any circumstances by best play on his own part. Whereas, if he had taken the knight, he could not hope to win and might have greatly endangered his game, e.g., 25...fxe5 26.Qxh7+ Kf8 27.Rf3+ (Mr. Zukertort informs us that he intended to go on with 27.Rg3, to which, however, 27...Rd7 would be a satisfactory though the only correct reply. We may, however, safely assume that Mr. Zukertort's fine position judgment in offering the sacrifice would have been supported by accurate reckoning if it had come to this point.) 27...Bf7 (best) 28.Qh5 (a most important finessing move for the attack) 28...Qd7 (Black has nothing better than to withdraw the queen there or to c7, though this disables him from interposing her at any time at f8. If 28...Rc7, White answers 29.c5, and 28...Rd7 loses a rook by 29.Qh8+) 29.Qh8+ Ke7 and now White obviously has a draw by perpetual check, commencing with 30.Qh4+, but we believe he may fairly try to win, with hardly any risk of losing, by 30.Qxg7, followed by 31.h4, or 31.d5, according to circumstances.
26.Ng4 Qf4 27.Ne3 Ba4
International: The finessing with the bishop has a great bearing on the future of Black's counter-attack. It was of great moment to force the withdrawal of White's rook from the first rank and to leave the white king without sufficient protection.
International: He might have made it much more difficult for the opponent to find the most potent attack if he had played 28.Rd2 at once. But no doubt he would have also had a bad game in that case, e.g., 28.Rd2 b5 29.Rf3 (this seems best now) 29...Qb8 (29...bxc4 would be bad on account of the reply 30.Qa3) 30.cxb5 Rc1+ 31.Nd1 e5, threatening 32...Rxd4 as well as 32...e4, with an irresistible attack.
28...Qd6 29.Rd2 Bc6
International: Which establishes this bishop on the most important diagonal.
International: He had no means of dislodging the bishop. If 30.d5 exd5 31.cxd5 Bxd5 32.Nxd5 Rc1+, followed by 33...Rxd1+ and 34...Qxd5, with a pawn ahead and the superior game.
30...f5 31.Rg6
Mackenzie: It is not easy to say where White played badly, but there can be no doubt that at the present stage of the game his pieces, both for defensive and offensive operations, are most awkwardly situated; we believe, in fact, that his game is now hopelessly lost.
International: He had nothing better, as 31.c5 was threatened.
31...Be4 [?:??-2:00] 32.Qb3 Kh7
International: The king had to play to this square in accordance with Black's plan, for otherwise he could not utilize his queen at great distance from his king, as White, after pushing 33.c5, would threaten 34.Qxe6+, followed accordingly by 35.Rxh6+ or 35.Rf6+, with at least a draw by perpetual check.
Mackenzie: The only chance left, for if 33.Rg3, then comes 33...f4, winning a piece; but the weakness of the white pawns now becomes apparent.
33...Rxc5 34.Rxe6
Monthly: 34.Qxe6 was better, perhaps.
International: If 34.Qxe6 Rc1+ 35.Nd1 (or 35.Nf1 Qxe6 36.Rxe6 Bd5, followed by 37...Bc4) 35...Qxe6 36.Rxe6 Bd5 37.Re1 Bxa2, and if White take the bishop, Black answers 38...Rxd4, and wins.
34...Rc1+ 35.Nd1
Monthly: 35.Nf1 was a little better.
International: Had the knight interposed at f1, Black could answer 35...Qc7, threatening 36...Bd5 as well as a continuation of the attack by 36...Rb1 or 36...Qc4, in case White's queen moved from her post at b3.
35...Qf4 36.Qb2
Mackenzie: We cannot play 36.Qe3, for Black would exchange queens, and then win easily by 37...Bc2.
36...Rb1 37.Qc3 Rc8
International: Decisive.
Mackenzie: Should queen go to a5, Black can either attack the queen with 38...b6, or move 38...Rcc1, winning easily.
International: A desperate resource on the chance that Black might take with the pawn, whereupon White would answer 39.Qxc8, threatening to draw by perpetual check, commencing with 40.Qf5+.
38...Qxe4 0-1 [1:55-2:12]
Mackenzie: He must now exchange queens, whereupon Black will play ...Rcc1, gaining the knight. The whole game is a beautiful example of the patient skill with which Mr. Steinitz, after obtaining a slight advantage in position, slowly but surely keeps on increasing it, until the adversary is completely in the toils beyond all hope of extrication.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n7, March 1886, p203
International Chess Magazine, v1 n3, March 1886, pp83-85

Chess And Supper Together.
From the St. Louis Republican.

At supper, after the ninth game between Steinitz and Zukertort was over both Steinitz and Zukertort gave a most entertaining and unconscious exhibition of chess without the chess board. Zukertort was attending to the wing of a duck, but his defeat was evidently still rankling in his mind. "Steinitz," he said, "what would you have done if I had played rook takes bishop's [sic] pawn?"

"Pawn takes rook," replied Steinitz, digging out a bonne bouche from the duck's breast.

"Queen to knight's sixth, check," said Zukertort, reaching for his glass of beer.

"King to bishop's square—please pass the bread," replied Steinitz.

"Queen takes pawn rook's sixth, check: no, thanks, no sugar."

"King to bishop's second; what is in that dish, potatoes?"

And so it went on; both gentlemen carrying on the business of the table and each with a vivid chess-board pictured mentally before him. They played this variation out to the end of it, and then took up another and another, evidently able to call up a photograph of the game at any stage at will.

"How do you do it, doctor?" queried the Republican reporter.

"I can't explain it," he said. "I see the board and the pieces just as clearly as though they were before me."

"Doesn't that require a tremendous exertion of the memory?"

"No. Of course everybody can not do it, but it is not hard to do if you go at it right."

"Isn't the effort exhausting?"

"Not at all. I would much sooner play ten games blindfolded simultaneously than one match game."

"How many games can you play blindfolded simultaneously?"

"I have played sixteen. There is no mental limit, however, to the amount of that sort of thign that one can do. Of course some do not push it as far as others."

Wednesday, February 17, 1886.

Dr. Zukertort, the distinguished chess player, left last evening for New Orleans, where the match is to be continued. He said yesterday that he was in the best of health and spirits, and expressed confidence in his ability to maintain his former reputation. Herr Steinitz has not yet set his date for leaving, and seems to be in no hurry to again change his climate.

Friday, February 19, 1886.

Arrival Of Dr. Zukertort, The Great Chess Player.

Dr. Zukertort, the world-known chess player, arrived in our city yesterday after a pleasant trip from St. Louis, and was immediately taken charge of by friends. Last evening he paid The Times-Democrat office a visit when he charmed all by his pleasant conversation. He is below medium height, of a genial, frank countenance, but the habit of concentration has left its impress in the lines of for the forehead. He talks freely and has a keen sense of the humorous.

Mr. Steinitz is expected to-day.

Sunday, February 21, 1886.

The Coming Contest.

The greatest chess battle in years will be continued here this week and played to a finish. Herr Zukertort arrived several days ago and yesterday evening Herr Steinitz made his appearance in New Orleans. The chess champions will be tendered an informal reception at the rooms of the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club on Monday evening. They will play their first game here on next Friday night. The games will take place at the rooms of the Chess Club, but one game will probably be played in public.

Every arrangement for the comfort of the players has been made. They will sit in one of the parlors, on a raised platform, and the moves will be shown on a large blackboard for the benefit of the spectators.

Each player has won four games. According to the terms of the match it requires ten games to win. This makes at least six games to be played here. There will be three games a week until the match is ended.

Game 10: Friday, February 26, 1886.

Two of the conditions of the match were altered by mutual consent of the players, who had agreed, in the first place, to reduce the score, which rendered the match a draw, to eight all, instead of nine all, as previously stipulated. There can be no doubt that both the principals acted bona fide and chiefly in the interest of their backers in agreeing to such a modification of the original terms of the match, for their main reason in adopting the alteration was to exclude all element of chance as much as possible and to avoid risking the issues at stake on the result of two games. But, on consideration and in order not to establish a questionable precedent, we feel bound to say that the opinions of some critics who, without in the least impugning the motives of the two principals, have expressed doubts on the legality of such a proceeding, now appear to us reasonable. For it is justly contended that the two players had no right to alter any of the main conditions of the match without consulting their backers, who had deposited their stakes after the chief terms had apparently been finally settled.

It was also agreed between the two players to change the hour of commencing the game to one o'clock instead of two o'clock, and also to add half an hour to the duration of the first sitting, which was previously limited to four hours. The object of this modification was to give the players a better chance of finishing the games without any adjournment over the dinner hours, and, as a matter of fact, this result was attained in all but two games out of the eleven which were played at New Orleans. The two players were evidently entitled to make this alteration of arrangements which were not of great importance, and clearly belonged under the caption of "Minor Rules and Regulations," which had not been absolutely settled at the time the stakes were deposited.
International Chess Magazine, v1 n4/5, May 1886, p118

The Great Chess Players.
Their Games Will Commence Here at 1 O'Clock To-Day.

To-day at 1 o'clock the great chess champions, Messrs. Zukertort and Steinitz, will meet over the board at the rooms of the Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, at the corner of Baronne and Canal streets. This match has excited the greatest interest throughout the country, and as the games here are to be the deciding ones, this interest has ripened into something like an excitement.

The management of this club have taken every pains to secure the perfect quiet and comfort of the players, and as only club members will be admitted, they will not be annoyed by hundreds of lookers-on.

To-day's game will hardly be finished before 5:30 o'clock if they play it out in the average time consumed elsewhere. Each move will be posted on a board in the club for the inspection of members.

It will be remembered that each player has won four games, so that the result of the match will depend on those played here.

The Chess Match.
The First Meeting of the Masters Results in a Draw.

Yesterday, at the comfortable and commodious rooms of the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, was commenced the concluding series of games in the great international chess match for the championship of the world between Dr. J. H. Zukertort, editor of the Chess Monthly of London, and Mr. William Steinitz, editor of the International Chess Magazine of New York.

These gentlemen are considered the strongest players in the world, and this is not the first time they have tested each other's prowess on the checkered field, and with varying results. The following are memoranda of their previous contests, up to the beginning of the present match in New York:

1872—London International Tournament, Steinitz 1st, Blackburne 2d, Zukertort 3d.

1872—At London, match between the two, Steinitz 7, Zukertort 1, drawn 4.

1882—Vienna International Tournament, two games with Steinitz, won 1, drawn 1.

1883—London International Tournament, Zukertort first, Steinitz second. The general score between the two was Zukertort 1, Steinitz 1.

The contract for the present match was made on the 29th of December, 1885, at New York, for the championship of the world and a stake for $2000 a side. The specifications of the match are as follows: The winner must gain ten games. Drawn games are not counted.

Said match up to a point where either party shall have scored four games shall be played under the auspices of the Manhattan Chess Club of New York. The second part of the match up to a point where either player shall have added thee won games to the score made previously in New York shall be played under the auspices of the St. Louis Chess, Checkers and Whist Club. The third and last part of the match shall be played under the auspices of the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, and shall begin two weeks after the conclusion of the play at St. Louis.

The time limit for each game shall be at the rate of thirty moves during the first two hours, and fifteen moves to the hour thereafter. Eight hours a day may be consumed in playing, with a recess of two hours after four hours of play. Games shall be played on alternate days, and the days selected are Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, commencing at 1 o'clock in the afternoon.

Hon. Charles F. Buck, of New Orleans, has been chosen referee and stakeholder, while Mr. Charles A. Maurian represents Dr. Zukertort as umpire, and Mr M. F. Claiborne performs a like service for Mr. Steinitz.

At 1 o'clock in the afternoon of Friday the first game in the New Orleans series was begun. The players were located on a low platform in the corner parlor, which fronts on Canal and Baronne streets, and is lighted from both. This room is connected by broad archways with rooms on the other two sides. The players are inclosed within a barrier of ropes stretched in a quadrangle around their platform, and no persons besides them are allowed within its precincts save the referee, umpire and officials of the club. The strictest silence is enjoined on all spectators, and when the two champions faced each other at the call of time, and took their seats for the commencement of the game a barely audible murmur of expressed interest rose from the half a hundred spectators present. The two champions were about to commence a sort of intellectual prize fight, but there was nothing exciting in their appearance or subsequent movements, nothing to arouse enthusiasm or call forth applause. It was in every possible way the antithesis of what would have been witnessed had two champion pounders met for a contest in the prize ring.

Steinitz got the white pieces and the move, and he led out with his king's pawn to kin's fourth square, to which Zukertort responded with a like move.

Steinitz then brought out his king's knight to his bishop's third square, developing an opening in Ruy Lopez style. The full text of the consecutive moves will be found below.

Zukertort played with considerable readiness and decision, while Steinitz deliberately considered his moves, and at the 10th and 11th regarded the board for perhaps ten minutes each time. At the 14th move Steinitz paused for some 16 minutes, while he attentively studied the board and ate chocolate ice, which had been brought to him. Zukertort in the meantime, arose from his chair, and walked to a window, where he spent some time in looking out.

At the 17th move Zukertort said something to Steinitz which was not heard by the spectators, but it was afterwards understood to be a remark suggesting a draw as the probably result. Steinitz made no reply, but at the 21st move a conference of a few moments took place, and a drawn game was announced.

A Drawn Game.
Zukertort And Steinitz Play Their First Game Here.
Steinitz Selects the Ruy Lopez Knight's Opening—They Make Twenty-One Moves and a Draw—The Rooms of the Chess, Checkers, and Whist Club Crowded with Lovers of the Game—The Records of the Players—Notes on the Game, Etc.

Since the commencement of the great match between Dr. John Herman Zukertort, of Russia, and Mr. Wilhelm Steinitz, of Bohemia, in New York City, chess players throughout the world have been watching with interest its progress. Probably not since the days of the great Paul Morphy has there been such excitement among lovers of the game. In the clubrooms everywhere the moves are watched with eagerness, and the result will settle with most of the world the superiority of one or the other.

After the battles of New York and St. Louis, the games stand: Zukertort four, Steinitz four, and here the winner of the next six will be declared the victor.

The Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, of which Chas. F. Buck, Esq., is the president, labored long and hard to get this place as the battlefield for the closing contests of the match. New Orleans, the birthplace and home of Paul Morphy, was peculiarly appropriate for such a tilt of the great chess champions, and the club set about to make every preparation for the two gentlemen. Committees were appointed to look after every detail, from the admission of the press to the preservation of silence. Nothing was overlooked, and the consequence was that yesterday morning everything moved with a smoothness that was remarkable.

The club rooms are spacious and afford ample room for the large attendance that will be present during the games. The noise of the street does not distract the attention from the game,, and there is closely at hand whatever refreshment may be called for.
On the second floor of the clubroom are the chess playing quarters proper. A long apartment about fifty by twenty-five feet with a row of tables down each side, in front of which, at the Canal street corner, is the room (the library of the club) in which the match is played. This is about thirty by twenty, and is connected with the general chess room by a wide door, across which is stretched a string to keep visitors from intruding on the players. The apartment is handsomely papered in gold and tan, and a heavy fresco runs around the ceiling. In the centre of the room, on a carpeted platform about twelve feet square, stands the walnut table, inlaid in the top of which are the black and white squares of the chess board, on each side of which is a receptacle for captured men. The light was ample, and flooded the room from four large windows and a corner transom set in the wall. Two small bookcases and a few pictures and eight or ten chairs completed the furniture of the room.

The view from the windows was most animated, for there was a constant panorama of pedestrians on the other side of Canal street passing before the eye. If diversion is necessary to the player when not in concentrated thought certainly no more entertaining a picture could be given.

The attendance of the club was larger than usual at as early an hour as 11 o'clock, and from that time to noon members began to drop in by twos and threes.

At 12:15 Mr. Steinitz arrived in front of the entrance, where a number of gentlemen were talking, and was greeted pleasantly. He was dressed in a light suit of gray, a little thin for the change in the weather, and said he thought he had caught a slight cold. He chatted pleasantly about the weather and like subjects, when in a full suit of black Dr. Zukertort stepped up and shook hands with his opponent. "Why haven't you your overcoat along?" said Mr. Steinitz: "they tell me we need one."

"Oh," replied Dr. Zukertort, "I'll get along to-day without one. It will be warm enough after awhile."

Steinitz took a stroll off up Baronne street by himself, looking into the show-windows, and the doctor went upstairs into the clubroom.

The Attendance.

The rooms were quite crowded shortly after the game began. Conspicuous among the well-known chess players present were James McConnell, Esq., A. E. Blackmar, C. O. Wilcox, L. L. Labatt, F. C. Kaczoroski, H. C. Hoover, of Staunton, Va., and the talented problemists, B. G. Barton and H. Ernst.

The special managing committee, so thorough in the preparations for the match, were Col. E. J. Hamilton, chairman; Prof. J. L. Cross, Jas. G. Blanchard, Jas. D. Seguin and H. F. Warner.

By 2 o'clock there were fully 100 members in the rooms, many of them engaged in following the moves on their boards.

Getting Ready.

Col. E. J. Hamilton announced that the match would begin at once and asked for quiet.

Steinitz had his seat with back to the light coming in from the Baronne street windows, and played with the white men. He sat on the edge of his chair, leaning forward, his hands on his knees, while Zukertort rested his head on his hand, his elbow being supported by the arm of his chair.

Zukertort apparently took things easy, judging from his position when the game opened. He leanded back in his chair with his legs crossed, his head a little inclined to one side. The movements of his hand were quicker and more nervous than those of Mr. Steinitz, whose actions appear to be more lethargic. The short compact figure of the latter, his ruddy face and ruddier whiskers, his slow respiration were in marked contrast with Dr. Zukertort's slighter form, darker hair and whiskers, clear white face and sanguine nervous temperament. The doctor looked as if ready for the ladies' saloon; Mr. Steinitz as better prepared for walk with a male friend. The doctor's black coat fitted him neatly, his opponent's gray hung loosely on his shoulders. Mr. Steinitz's constant companion, a rough knobby stick, was indicative of his tough, stubborn disposition as a chess combatant.

In the library with the players were, when the game commenced. Mr. F. Claiborne, umpire for Mr. Steinitz. Mr. Chas. A. Maurian, umpire for Dr. Zukertort and Mr. Chas. F. Buck, the referee and stakeholder.

The Game.

Steinitz looked in the best of humor, and when 1 o'clock came, after the announcement of Col. Hamilton, he dashed off with Pawn to King's 4th. There was hardly a moment's delay when Zukertort answered with P to K 4. It was evident they wished to gain time, for Steinitz sent out his Knight to King's Bishop 3d, and immediately Zukertort answered with Knight to Queen Bishop 3d; Steinitz replied with Bishop to Knight's 5th, and the Ruy Lopez Knight's opening was begun.

Zukertort, in response, played his Knight to King's Bishop 3, constituting the favorite Berlin Defense of the great Anderssen. Steinitz then castled. The play up to this time had been very rapid, and each player seemed to be willing to develop the game early in the action. Zukertort seeing a pawn that would be an easy prey took it with his Knight, and Steinitz, taking a strong aggressive, moved his Rook to King's square. Eight minutes only had been consumed in these moves, but now matters were growing so interesting more time was taken for consideration.

Zukertort leaned forward, both elbows on the table. His eyes wandered over the board, taking in Bishops, Knights and Pawns. He saw that already his opponent threatened speedily a vigorous attack and the real work had begun. The game at that point looked very much like two of the games played in St. Louis, one of which Steinitz won and the other proved a draw. Zukertort brought his Knight to the Queen's 3d, and Steinitz took a Pawn with his Knight. Zukertort moved up his Bishop to King's 2d. There was a hesitation now on the part of Steinitz. He clasped his hands in front of him and looked steadily at the position. His glance ran over to Rook's corner and then to the centre of the board. After some four minutes he played his Bishop to Queen's 3d and Zukertort castled.

There was more deliberation on the part of Steinitz. He thought his next move out in about three minutes and put his Queen's Knight to Bishop 3d, Zukertort taking his opponent's Knight without delay. This eighth move of Steinitz constituted the first radical deviation from the last Ruy Lopez game in St. Louis.

Steinitz then moved his Rook to Knight's square, and in four minutes Zukertort sent his Pawn to Queen's Bishop's 3d.

Both men were now thoroughly down to their work. Each had his elbow on the table and each was concentrated in thought. Once in awhile Zukertort would raise his eyes and can the features of his rival, but Steinitz riveted his gaze on the board. Zukertort had a manner when waiting for his opponent to move of shaking his right foot tremulously, his legs being crossed. It was a sort of spasmodic action, not in the least indicative of nervousness. Steinitz, after a pause, placed a Pawn to Queen's Knight's 3d, and Zukertort dwelt long upon the situation. The time for a marked change in the games was fast approaching. He moved his Rook to King's square.

This caused the slight depression between Steinitz's eyes to deepen a little. He leaned closer to the board. There was an intenser look in his eye. Zukertort looked out of the window at the people across the street. Five minutes elapsed but Steinitz was still wrapped in thought; six, seven, eight, nine, ten, and his fingers grasped his Bishop and moved it to Rook's 3. Zukertort, without a moment's reflection, answered with Bishop to King's Bishop's square.

Steinitz took about four minutes, and placed his Rook at King's 3d, and Zukertort immediately took the Rook with his own Rook, Steinitz capturing his opponent's Rook in turn with the Bishop's Pawn. Zukertort studied the situation and sent his Knight to King's 5th.

He evidently felt satisfied with this move, which caused a momentary ripple of surprise among the audience, for he got up and walked up and down looking out at the animated street.

Steinitz certainly had his pieces seemingly better developed, for in the third row he had two Bishops and a Knight, while Zukertort had but a Knight off royal row, which was standing isolated at King's 5th.

They had been playing now one hour and had made thirteen moves, and Steinitz was still pondering. After ten minutes or more, he ran his Bishop over and captured Zukertort's Bishop, and the latter immediately answered by taking Steinitz's Knight. The latter, without delay, then played Queen to Rook's 5th. Zukertort attacked the White Queen with his Queen's Knight's Pawn, and Steinitz replied by playing her Majesty to King's 5th, threatening mate on the move. Zukertort foiled this threat by capturing the adverse Bishop with his Queen, and Steinitz answered by taking a Knight with his. The interchanges had commenced and the moves were rapid. Zukertort moved his Queen to Knight's 2d, and Steinitz took the doctor's Queen, losing his own to the latter's King.

Among the best players it now looked as though the game would be a draw.

On the seventeenth move Dr. Zukertort, leaning toward Mr. Steinitz, asked, smilingly: "Are you going to play for a win?" The game looked to outsiders very much like a draw then, and the field had been pretty well cleared of pieces, the Pawns not suffering much in the fray. Each had a Rook, a Bishop and seven Pawns left.

Steinitz replied he would see, and played on. At the twenty-first move he said to the doctor: "Well, will we make it a draw?"

The doctor assented, and it was so announced.

Immediately after the termination of the game had been agreed to, the doctor began to show, in a good-natured way, that the interchange of pieces was substantially a mutual necessity.

The game took one hour and twenty-one minutes, of which Steinitz consumed fifty-eight minutes and Zukertort twenty-three minutes.

Both players remained near the table some time after the end of the game, and a number of local players gathered around them. Mr. James McConnell suggested to Dr. Zukertort that perhaps if he had made such a move, pointing it out on the board, the draw might have been avoided. The doctor smiled and said he hardly thought so.

"At least," said Mr. McConnell, "the game would be kept going."

"Ah!" said the doctor, laughing, "perhaps that would please you all, but we have to look out for something else than that."

Someone suggested that the position of Mr. Steinitz's two bishops looked threatening where they stood so well advanced. "Oh, no." replied Zukertort, "that don't amount to anything. I am afraid of but one mane with two bishops like that."

"Who is that?" inquired a looker-on, "Paulsen?"

"No! no! it is not Paulsen. It's myself." and the doctor picked up his hat.

The next game will be played on Monday, commencing at 1 o'clock punctually.

The Steinitz-Zukertort Match.

As described in our preceding column, preparations for the great match at the local club were pushed actively throughout the past week by the special managing committee, consisting of Col. E. J. Hamilton, chairman, Prof. J. L. Cross and Messrs. Jas. G. Blanchard, H. F. Warner and Jas. D. Séguin. By Friday afternoon the date appointed for the resumption of play, everything was in due order for the grand contest, and as members began dropping in by twos and threes from a comparatively early hour, by noon the chessroom of the club, which had been converted into the auditorium, was filled with animated groups of chess players and other members discussing the coming battle. Among those present then or during the course of the play, besides the managing committee and Hon. Chas. F. Buck, president of the club and referee, were nearly all the most prominent devotees of Caïssa in New Orleans, including Messrs. Jas. McConnell, Durant da Ponte, A. E. Blackmar, B. G. Barton, R. C. Hyatt and Chas. A. Maurian, who may be said to represent the veteran remnant of the Morphy days of New Orleans chess, and a large number of the younger or later generation of players, such as Messrs. L. L. Labatt, C. O. Wilcox, F. C. Kaczoroski, F. Claiborne, L. Claudel, B. C. Elliott, Geo. D. Pritchett, H. E. Barton, H. Ernst, Dr. J. B. Elliott, Geo. LeSassier, Chas. Janvier, John A. Wogan, I. K. Small, D. P. Larue, R. Schmidt, and many others. All was expectation, and the prayer was as universal as the contrary fear that another Ruy Lopez would not balk the audience of the wished-for excitement of a lively game.

By mutual agreement between the two masters, the hour for beginning play had been changed from 2 p.m., as fixed in the New York and St. Louis sections of the match, to 1 p.m., in order to permit an earlier arrival of the dinner adjournment, if necessary, and promptly at the appointed time both gentlemen appeared upon the field of battle. Mr. Steinitz selected Mr. Fernand Claiborne as his umpire, and at Dr. Zukertort's request Mr. Chas. A. Maurian acted upon his behalf. At a few minutes after 1 o'clock Col. Hamilton, the chairman of the managing committee, advanced to the edge of the elevated platform in the reading-room of the club, and in a few brief remarks announcing that play in the great match was about to be resumed, requested strict silence upon the part of the numerous crowd assembled. At the same moment the two players took their seats at the elegant table, and at 1:10 p.m. Mr. Steinitz, to whom, in the sequence of the games, the move now fell, pushed his Pawn to King's 4th, and in tilting down his own clock, set his adversary's in motion. But his pendulum had scarcely time to swing before Dr. Zukertort's replied with the same move, and as rapidly as the little balances could be oscillated, the opening moves of a Ruy Lopez were made by the players, and displayed upon the mammoth board before the audience. There was half a sigh of disappointment for the lovers of lively games; for once the expected had hapened [sic], and they consoled themselves with the hope that some startling novelty might be developed by the Bohemian Cæsar, whose liking for the unusual was a well understood fact. But they were doomed to be disappointed. Dr. Zukertort adopted the favorite Berlin Defense of his preceptor, Anderssen. Mr. Steinitz castled at his fourth move, and the game rapidly drifted into a position very analogous to the early situations in the sixth and eighth games of the match, the first striking deviation consisting in Mr. Steinitz's abandoning his coup of 8 Q to R 5, as played in the latter, and proceeding with 8 Q Kt to B 3.

Drawn Game Of Chess At New-Orleans.
The Contest Between Mr. Steinitz And Dr. Zukertort Resumed.

New-Orleans, Feb. 26.—The tenth game of the match between Messrs. Steinitz and Zukertort was played to-day. Mr. Steinitz was seated with his back to the light coming in from the Baronne-st. window and played with the whites. He looked in the best of humor, and when the game was opened, at 1 o'clock he dashed off with pawn to King's four. There was hardly a moment's delay when Zukertort answered with P. to K. four. It was evident that they wished to make time for the second move, for Mr. Steinitz sent out his Knight to Bishop's third and immediately Zukertort answered with Knight to Queen's Bishop third, and the Ruy Lopez gambit was accepted. Mr. Steinitz pushed out his Bishop to Queen's Knight third [sic], and Dr. Zukertort, without delay, placed his Knight to King's Bishop third. Mr. Steinitz then castled.

The game was the Ruy Lopez Knight opening and book game up to the fifth move. The first variation considered now was the eleventh move. At the seventeenth move Dr. Zukertort asked Mr. Steinitz the question, "Will you play to a win?" as a draw seemed inevitable. Steinitz replied that he would play a while longer. On the twenty-first move he said he was willing to make it a draw. Dr. Zukertort assented. Immediately after this both began to show how they would have won had there been no exchange of Queens. They will play the next game on Monday.

Date: 1886.02.26
Site: USA New Orleans, LA (New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club)
Event: World Championship (Game 10)
White: Steinitz,W
Black: Zukertort,JH
Opening: [C67] Spanish
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Nf6 4.0-0 Nxe4 5.Re1 Nd6 6.Nxe5 Be7 7.Bd3 0-0 8.Nc3
Monthly: In the eighth game White continued with 8.Qh5, which turned out slightly in Black's favour.
International: An improvement on the line of attack adopted by White at this juncture in the eighth game of the match by 8.Qh5.
8...Nxe5 9.Rxe5 c6 10.b3
Mackenzie: The opening is managed by Mr. Steinitz in very much the same fashion as in the sixth and eighth games of the match, but, although he retains all through the game the advantage of the move, it does not appear that the legitimate outcome should be anything more than a draw.
International: In a very similar position in the sixth game Black (Zukertort) had played ...Bf6 before opposing room at e8; the move in the text enables him eventually to withdraw ...Bf8.
Monthly: If 11.Bb2, then 11...Bf6.
International: Threatening 12.Rxe7 which must be retaken by the queen, whereupon White wins a piece by 13.Ne4.
11...Bf8 12.Re3
International: White had much better prospects of maintaining the attack by 12.Qe2, to which Black apparently had no better reply than 12...Re6. If for instance 12.Qe2 f6 13.Bc4+ Kh8 (or if 13...Nxc4, then of course 14.Rxe8 and wins) 14.Rxe8 winning a piece.
12...Rxe3 13.fxe3 [1:00-?:??] 13...Ne4
Mackenzie: A clever device, by which Black frees his somewhat cramped position, and succeeds in exchanging two of his comparatively inactive pieces against the more aggressive knight and bishop of the adversary.
Monthly: Which frees Black's game from all pressure, and leads to complete equality.
International: By the clever move in the text Black simplifies the position which otherwise, we believe, would have turned out unfavorably for him.
Monthly: After 14.Nxe4 Bxa3 15.Qh5 g6 16.Qe5, Black would continue 16...Be7 17.Rf1 d6, etc.
International: There is hardly anything better, if 14.Nxe4 Bxa3 15.Qh5 g6 16.Qe5 Be7 17.Nd6 (or 17.Rf1 d6) 17...Qf8, etc.
14...Nxc3 15.Qh5 g6 16.Qe5 Qxf8 17.Qxc3
International: White has escaped the doubling of his pawns, but he can do no more than equalize the position, if Black, as he actually did, forces the exchange of queens.
Mackenzie: Compelling the exchange of queens, and thereby rendering the draw almost a certainty.
18.Qxg7+ Kxg7 19.e4 d6 20.Re1 Bd7 21.Kf2 Re8 ½-½ [0:58-0:23]
Mackenzie: The position is so even that the players were perfectly justified in agreeing to call it a drawn game. It is, however, in our opinion the dullest and most uninteresting game played in the match so far.
International: And the game was given up as drawn. If White could now cross with his king to d4 by way of e3, he would have some good prospects of utilizing his centre pawns, but his plan was not feasible, as his e-pawn would be subjected in the meanwhile to attacks by ...f5 or ...d5, which at least would equalize the game for Black. Again, if White attempted to bring Ke1 after making room for it by Re3, Black would in the meantime threaten to gain entrance for his king on the strong post at e5 by playing ...Kf6.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n7, March 1886, p204
International Chess Magazine, v1 n4/5, May 1886, pp119-120

Game 11: Monday, March 1, 1886.

The Chess Match.
The Second Game of the Series—First Blood for Steinitz.

The second game for the championship of the world between the strongest living chess players, Messrs. Wm. Steinitz and J. H. Zukertort, was played at the rooms of the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club on Monday. A number of chess-players, members of the club and invited guests from other parts of the country, were present and took much interest in the game as it progressed.

The general arrangements were under the direction of the Governing Committee, composed of Col. E. J. Hamilton, Prof. J. L. Cross, Messrs. J. G. Blanchard, J. D. Seguin and H. F. Warner. As it was impossible for any number of the spectators to see the moves made on the board by the champions, who were inclosed by the barrier which surrounded them as they sat at their special table, each move was repeated on a large wall board in full view of the entire company. This board was so prepared that the men could be displayed on it, and thus all were enabled to follow the progress of the game as each move was made. This excellent arrangement was exceedingly satisfactory and was appreciated by all.

At 1 o'clock the two masters of the celebrated game took their places at the table. This time Dr. Zukertort had the white pieces and the move. This caused a change of positions from those occupied at the first game on Friday. This time Zukertort sat with his back to the Baronne street front of the room, while Steinitz had his face toward it.

Zukertort moved out his king's pawn to the fourth square, and Steinitz responded with a like move.

Zukertort next led out his knight to king's bishop's third. Steinitz replied with a knight to queen's bishop's third.

Zukertort now brought out his other knight to queen's bishop's third, while Steinitz met this with a knight to king's bishop's third. Thus was developed the double Ruy Lopez opening. At the last game the simple Ruy Lopez opened the battle.

The game then went on pretty evenly until the seventeenth move, when Steinitz captured a bishop from his adversary. Up to this time each player had lost both his knights and two pawns, and were about the same as to position, but the odds of a bishop, other things being equal, was a series matter between two such players. It appeared that from the moment Zukertort lost his bishop he thought of a drawn game as a desirable result, and he at once attacked his adversary's king with great persistence, giving check for fifteen consecutive moves.

Steinitz had under the circumstances to defend his king, which he did by repeating the same round of moves for a long time, aften [sic] taking a good while to consider a move and ending by repeating the one he had made for half a dozen times previously.

At the thirty-third move Steinitz succeeded in interposing a bishop between the attacking queen and his much pestered king and then the situation changed entirely. Zukertort was placed upon the defensive and after his forty-second move he resigned.

Zukertort consumed one hour and twenty-five minutes in making his moves, while Steinitz occupied two hours and thirty-nine minutes. The game consumed four hours and four minutes from beginning to end.

Steinitz Wins.
Second Game Here Of The Great Chess Match.
The Game Decided After Forty-Two Moves—Four Hours Devoted to It—A Large Gathering of Chess Players and a Hard Contest.

The great Steinitz-Zukertort world championship chess match was resumed yesterday morning at the rooms of the Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, the game being the eleventh of the series, but counting only as the ninth, in consequence of two draws. Of the eight that preceded yesterday's game each of the distinguished combatants had secured four.

The hour of opening was 1 p.m., but an hour or two earlier than that the handsome rooms of the popular club began to wear an unusually animated appearance. Chess players of local note and chess players not of local note almost filled the large room in rear of that in which the match game was to be played.

About 12:30 Mr. Steinitz entered the room, and in response to the inquiries of those who greeted him said he had passed a good night's rest, and felt in good shape for the contest. It was noticed that Mr. Steinitz had abandoned the light gray suit that he wore the other day, adopting in its stead a neat black coat and vest, striped brown pantaloons and a brown Derby hat, a change that certainly was not for the worse. He sat down at a table and entered into conversation with those around him.

At about 12:50 o'clock Dr. Zukertort quietly and unobtrusively made his way into the inner room, where he sat reading until his friends found him.

Both parties stepped into the arena of war at two or three minutes before 1, Dr. Zukertort taking the white and Mr. Steinitz the black, the doctor sitting with his back to the window overlooking Baronne street.

The pretty little double-dial arrangement, by means of which each contestant told what amount of time he had individually used up in the game, was taken out of its box and placed in position, the hands of each dial pointing to noon. White had the lead, and Dr. Zukertort's dial was first set going accordingly.

The first five moves on each side were over in less than as many minutes, and there was little time or occasion for either of the players to betray any emotional characteristics. The opening was the double Ruy Lopez on each side, so that at the end of the fifth move White and Black stood in precisely similar positions, the first move of each being Pawn to King's 4th, the fifth of each being to Castle.

Then Zukertort played Knight to Queen's 5th and Steinitz called a halt. It was brief, however, and was finished by Steinitz Knight taking Zukertort's. The latter responded instantaneously by taking Steinitz' Knight with a Pawn. Then there was a pause of five minutes. Steinitz seemed nervous and constantly changed his position. Now he sat with his feet on the bars of his chair, his hands grasping either side of the table and his eyes wandering over the board, and the next moment his legs were crossed, his head was on his fist and his elbow on the table, while his eyes were fixed steadfastly on a certain piece. His mobile face expressed the feelings that flitted through his mind. The grave and serious face of the doctor, on the other hand, showed nothing of the feelings in his mind, and his features were unmoved throughout the hopes and fears and doubts and disappointments of the game.

Six minutes elapsed, and then Steinitz slowly pushed a P to K 5. The lines about the doctor's face—lines that have grown harder since Friday last—grew a trifle harder. Resting his chin upon his hand, he fixed a gaze of nervous intentness on the board, and varying his attitude but slightly, silently cudgeled his brain for full seven minutes. Then he took Steinitz's Knight with a Pawn. Then Steinitz blew his nose, spread his elbows on the table and pondered, while the doctor, while the doctor leaned back in his chair and strove to catch sight through the window of a band that was playing "Hail Columbia" down on Canal street. After four minutes Steinitz did exactly as Zukertort had done and captured his Knight with a Pawn. The ninth move passed off quickly, and Zukertort opened the tenth as quickly.

Then Steinitz called for iced water, which was brought immediately, and a glass handed to each. Zukertort placed his on the table at his elbow without tasting it. Steinitz sipped his many times and then turned and took a taste of hot coffee that had also been brought in. After about three minutes he moved his Bishop to Queen's 3d.

Another halt of four minutes and Zukertort played P to Q Kt 3. Steinitz then bent himself over the table and laid his elbows upon it. Then he drank some iced water. Next he placed his chin on his fist and leaned one elbow on the table. Then he drank some coffee. Then he crossed his legs, threw himself back in his chair to contemplate the board, and drank first iced water and then coffee. About twelve minutes elapsed, and then Steinitz sent his Q to Kt 4. After a brief interval, Zukertort sent his B to Kt 2, and then Steinitz took some more iced water. He gazed upon the board a moment or two, and then nervously extended his hand for the coffee. His hands shook terribly at this moment, and half the contents of the cup were spilled over the table. Several minutes were wasted while the porter made the necessary cleansing. Then Steinitz moved again.

The game ran on thus tolerably evenly until the seventeenth move, when Zukertort's Bishop took a pawn from Steinitz and placed the latter in check. Steinitz replied bp [sic] capturing the threatening Bishop. Then Zukertort checked him with this Queen, and Steinitz defended himself by removing his King into Knight's square. At the twentieth move the Doctor sent his Q to R 7, and again in a sharp incisive tone cried "check," as he set his man down with a click.

This was the first of twelve moves in each of which Zukertort placed Steinitz in check. The Doctor varied his checks from Q to R 7 to Q to R 5, and Steinitz see-sawed from K to B 2 to K to B sq. The latter half of these twelve moves were made rapidly, the players wishing possibly to score the required thirty moves in the first two hours. This was accomplished, and it was not until the thirty-first move that the see-saw was stopped. The rules of the match, however, prohibited its being continued longer, without the game being ended as a draw.

At this point occurred the longest of the deliberation made by Steinitz. He was thought by many to have decidedly the worst of it, having now been under a continual state of pressure for half an hour. It was necessary for him to play with great care, and he felt inclined to do so. Three hours had elapsed since the game began, and it was not 4 o'clock. The doctor had been very quick in the majority of his plays and had consumed little more than half the time spent by Steinitz. The latter now proceeded to increase his time record by devoting half an hour to the consideration of the problem as to how to extricate himself from his apparently dangerous position with greatest disadvantage to his opponent.

A noise in the next room—too loud conversation by the members and guests present regarding the position of the game—made Mr. Blanchard request silence, and shortly afterwards brought from Dr. Zukertort, who sat silently watching Steinitz, a short sharp, "Gentlemen, please!"

Mr. Steinitz glanced up with a look of annoyance as though a train of thought had been broken. The doctor said again: "Excuse me," and again Steinitz resumed his contemplations of the board; meantime the doctor left his chair and walked to and fro in the room, then left it for a few minutes, returned again and resumed his walk.

At last Steinitz moved his K to K 2 and the spirit of the game was changed. Twice more immediately and once more at the thirty-seventh move, Zukertort placed Steinitz in check. Several pieces were taken off the board by each contestant, the doctor evidently being worsted in the struggle. There were no more reng plays and nothing of particular interest occurred that is not shown in the score appended. At the end of the forty-second move, it being now 5 o'clock, four hours from the commencement of the game, after a brief survey of the board, White struck his colors. Dr. Zukertort resigned and the game was at an end, with Steinitz as the victor.

The two left the table and immediately there was a congregation of onlookers aroand [sic] them, and many suggestions were made as to how the doctor could have extricated himself and retrieved his fortunes, to all of which the doctor replied that it was impossible. He bore his defeat good-naturedly and was immediately engaged in amicable conversation with his victorious opponent.

Mr. Charles F. Buck, Mr. James McConnell, and other well known adepts in the game followed it right through with the deepest interest.

The next game will be played at 1 p.m. on Wednesday. The game lasted 4 hours and 4 minutes, of which time Steinitz consumed 2 hours and 39 minutes, and Zukertort 1 hour and 25 minutes.

Zukertort Defeated In New-Orleans.
Mr. Steinitz Wins At The Double Ruy Lopez Knight's Game.

New-Orleans, March 1.—The chess championship contest between Dr. Zukertort and Mr. Steinitz was resumed at the rooms of the Chess, Checker and Whist Club at 1 o'clock this afternoon. Dr. Zukertort, having the first move, used the white men, and Mr. Steinitz the blacks. The opening was the double Ruy Lopez Knight. Dr. Zukertort's sixteenth move seemed to discompose Steinitz, who became restless in his chair. Zukertort suffered from insomnia last night and complained of not feeling well to-day in consequence. The contest will be resumed on Wednesday at 1 p.m.

Date: 1886.03.01
Site: USA New Orleans, LA (New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club)
Event: World Championship (Game 11)
White: Zukertort,JH
Black: Steinitz,W
Opening: [C49] Four Knights
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Nc3 Nf6
International: 3...g6 is also a favorite defense of the Editor in this opening and ought, we believe, to lead to an even game with the best continuation on each side, which, we think, is comprised in the following variation: 3...g6 4.d4 exd4 5.Nxd4 Bg7 6.Be3 Nf6 7.Be2 0-0 8.0-0, etc.
4.Bb5 Bb4
Mackenzie: This opening, known as the "Double Ruy Lopez," first came into prominence during the famous Paris International Chess Tournament of 1878.
International: 5.Nd5 for the attack is much in vogue with some first-class practitioners before castling. The principle of the defense adopted in this game later on may, we believe, also be applied in that cast in modified form, e.g. 5.Nd5 Nxd5 6.exd5 e4 7.dxc6 dxc6 and whether White now play 8.Bxc6+ or 8.Be2 Black ought to obtain at least an even game.
5...0-0 6.Nd5 Nxd5
Mackenzie: The "book" move, we believe is 6...Be7, but Mr. Steinitz, whose theories (as is well known), differ very often and very materially from those of the recognized chess authorities, here introduces a new line of play, which possibly, after being thoroughly analyzed, may turn out to be superior to the usual continuation.
International: Quite good enough, we believe, in conjunction with the novelty which follows, but otherwise it generally leaves the defense with a slightly inferior position.
7.exd5 e4
Monthly: Played the first time by Mr. Gunsberg in the Vizayanagaram Tournament, 1883. The move is of considerable merit, and appears to provide Black with at least an even game.
International: A novel departure from the usual practice which prevailed among the best masters in matches and tournaments for a great many years and either 7...Nd4 or 7...Ne7 were the authorized moves at this juncture.
Mackenzie: There seems to be nothing better; 8.Ne1, the only other plausible move, would hamper his game too much.
International: This seems to be best. If 8.Ne1 Ne7 9.Bc4 c6 10.dxc6 bxc6, followed by 11...d5 with an excellent game.
8...exf3 9.Qxf3
International: If 9.cxd7 then Black obviously answers 9...fxg2 threatening to take the rook with a check, and if 9.cxb7 Bxb7 with a powerful attack, for White can not get rid of the f-pawn as he would lose the bishop by 10...Qg5+, should he play 10.gxf3.
9...dxc6 10.Bd3
Monthly: White's best course would be 10.Be2, followed up by 11.c3.
International: Though he now threatens to win a piece by 11.Qe4, the retreat of 10...Bd6 was unadvisable in this position, and 10...Be7 appears preferable.
10...Bd6 11.b3
International: Black's reply proves the futility of this move. It was much better to advance 11.c3 with the object of retreating 12.Bc2, followed by 13.d4.
Mackenzie: The queen occupies a very threatening position here, and we doubt whether White had any better resource than the reply of 12.Bb2, although it does give up a pawn.
International: Stronger in our opinion than 11...Qh4, in which case White would have answered 12.h3.
Monthly: Black threatens 12...Qe5. There is hardly any quite satisfactory continuation.
International: Otherwise his development would have been too much delayed. black threatened to win a rook by 12...Qe4, and 12.c3 was almost the only other feasible reply, whereupon Black could proceed with the attack by 12...f5 or 12...Bd7.
12...Qxd2 13.Bc1
Mackenzie: At first blush, it would seem that the bishop was excellently posted at b2, but White evidently did not wish to permit Black's queen to go to h6, threatening mate, and successfully parrying any attack that White might institute against the black king.
Monthly: To avoid an early exchange of queens. If 13.Qh5, then 13...g6 14.Qh4 Qf4(!).
International: He could gain nothing by 13.Qh5 g6 14.Qh4 Qf4, etc., and there was hardly any other more promising line of attack, while Black, if not driven from that diagonal, would mostly retreat ...Qh6, into a more commanding position than she obtained at the post she is driven to by the move in the text.
Mackenzie: Of course, not 13...Qc3, on account of 14.Bxh7+, etc.
14.Bf4 Be6 15.Rae1 Rfe8
International: It would have been dangerous to play 15...Qxa2, on account of 16.Bd2 threatening 17.Ra1, followed by 18.Bc3, winning the queen, since, if 18...Qxc3, her loss is effected by 19.Bxh7+. Therefore Black would have no better replay than either 16...Qa3 or 16...Kh8. In the former case White would still keep the queen confined by 17.b4, followed mostly by 18.Qe4 and then 19.Qd4, and against the latter move he would obtain a powerful attack by 17.Qh5.
16.Re3 Bd5
International: This involves some trouble for Black, and though he emerges therefrom with a winning superiority, the simpler and therefore the better reply would have been, we think, to capture the a-pawn now, which seems to us quite safe, e.g., 16...Qxa2 17.Bxd6 (we see nothing better, if 17.Rfe1 Qb2, etc.) 17...cxd6 18.Qe4 g6 19.Qd4 Qa3 20.b4 a5 and we think Black ought to win.
Mackenzie: In an off-hand game a sacrifice like this might be pardoned, but occurring in a match game for the championship of the world, it is altogether inexcusable, more especially, as when White has the chance of winning back the piece, he neglects to avail himself of it.
Monthly: It is obvious that White can recover the piece.
International: Black would otherwise have obtained a plainly superior position by a series of exchanges, and the sacrifice afforded the best chance of perhaps complicating matters in White's favor.
17...Kxh7 18.Qh5+ Kg8 [?:??-1:00] 19.Rh3 f6 20.Qh7+
Monthly: Unsound. White should continue with 20.Bxd6 cxd6 21.c4.
International: He could have recovered his piece now by 20.Bxd6 cxd6 21.c4, but Black could then simplify the game with the superior position by 21...Qd2 22.cxd5 Re1, threatening to place the other rook to e8, and of course, White dare not check 23.Qh8+ and take 24.Qxa8, as he would afterward be mated by 24...Rxf1+, followed by 25...Qd1#.
Monthly: Overlooking the straight-forward road to victory with: 20...Kf8 21.Qh8+ (or 21.Rg3) 21...Bg8 22.Rg3 Re7 23.Rxg7 Rxg7 24.Bh6 Ke7(!).
21.Qh5+ Kf8
Monthly: Five full repetitions: gaining 10(!) moves. Keeping the letter but not the spirit of the law.
Mackenzie: 22.Bxd6+, followed by 23.c4, wins the bishop, and certainly was preferable to the course actually adopted.
22...Kf7 23.Qh5+ Kf8 24.Qh8+ Kf7 25.Qh5+ Kf8 26.Qh8+ Kf7 27.Qh5+ Kf8 28.Qh8+ Kf7 29.Qh5+
Mackenzie: Another wearisome succession of checks, for the purpose of gaining time. In the tournaments of the German Chess Association, the rule is, that whenever a player gives the same check three times in succession, the adversary may claim a draw. It is a pity that such a rule was not adopted in the present contest.
29...Kf8 30.Qh8+ Kf7 [?:??-2:00] 31.Qh5+ Ke7
Monthly: Of course he still had an easy win with 31...Kf8, etc.
International: He could, of course, also recover the piece here by 32.Bxd6+ Kxd6 33.c4, but his position would have become still inferior to the one he might have obtained before, on account of 33...Rh8, followed by 34...Rxh3.
32...Kf8 33.Qh8+
Monthly: The last chance to recover the sacrificed piece with 33.Bxd6+ and 34.c4.
33...Bg8 34.Bh6
International: Ingenious, but unavailing against best play. 34.Rg3 would have led to exactly the same position as was brought about by the play in the text, e.g., 34.Rg3 Re7 35.Rxg7 Rxg7 36.Bh6 Ke7, etc.
Mackenzie: If 34...gxh6, White can at least draw the game by 35.Qxf6+, etc.
International: The only move and good enough to win. But had he taken the bishop, he would have been two pieces ahead. Supposing 34...gxh6 35.Qxf6+ Bf7 36.Qxh6+ Kg8 37.Rh3, and now if 37...Be6 or 37...Bd5, White checks with the queen twice at g6 and f6, followed by 40.Rh8#, and if 37...Qe5, the of course 38.Rg3+ wins the queen. Again, if 37...Be5, then follows 38.Qg5+ Kf8 39.Rh8+ Bxh8 40.Qxa5, and wins.
35.Rxe7 [1:00-?:??] 35...Kxe7 36.Bxg7
International: If 36.Qxg7+, then of course the bishop would have interposed, threatening 37...Rg1.
Mackenzie: The coup de grace. Black now forces the exchange of queens, and with a piece plus must win easily.
International: Protecting the f-pawn effectually and preparing for an exchange of queens, which cannot be avoided.
37.Re1+ Kf7 38.Bh6 Qh7 39.Qxh7+ Bxh7 40.c4 a5
International: The straight road to victory, for if he break open the a-file, or compel the adverse a-pawn to advance, he wins easily, in the latter case by ...Bc2, winning the b-pawn, whereupon all the other pawns on the queen's side will speedily fall.
41.Be3 c5 42.Rd1 a4 0-1 [1:25-2:39]
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n7, March 1886, pp204-205
International Chess Magazine, v1 n4/5, May 1886, pp122-124

Game 12: Wednesday, March 3, 1886.

The Steinitz-Zukertort Match—The Third Game and Second Victory for Steinitz.

The third game in New Orleans of the match for the championship of the world in chess between the Russian, Dr. J. H. Zukertort, and the Austrian, Mr. William Steinitz, took place yesterday in the northeast corner parlor of the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club. This time Mr. Steinitz had the white pieces and the move. He was seated with his back to the Baronne street front, while Dr. Zukertort faced Baronne street. The day was gloomy, the sky being overcast with clouds and a chill, damp northeast wind blowing. Dr. Zukertort did not seem to be in perfect condition being probably unfavorably influenced by the weather. He is evidently a man of delicate sensibilities and highstrung nervous system, and much more apt to be affected by the electric conditions of the atmosphere than would be his phlegmatic opponent. In fact Mr. Steinitz declared himself to be in excellent plight after more than a dozen hours of refreshing sleep.

At 1 o'clock in the afternoon the great contestants took their places and business commenced. The Ruy Lopez, or Knight's opening seemed to be a favorite with these players, and as in their previous two games here the third was commenced with the knight's opening. The preliminary moves were made rapidly and then Mr. Steinitz began his usual proceeding of taking much time to consider each move before he made it. During one of these long pauses near the beginning of the game, the writer took a mental sketch of the scene in the main chess parlor as framed by the archway which opens into the room where the champions were playing.

In several rows of chairs close up to the front of the rope barrier, which separated the public from the distinguished players, were seated a number of spectators, all chess players of local note, and behind them others were standing. There could be seen the faces of Mr. James McConnell, Mr. D. C. Labatt, Hon. Charles H [sic]. Buck, President of the Club; Mr. J. D. Seguin, Capt. J. L. Lyons, Capt. O. M. Tennison, Mr. E. Claudel and others. They were watching the contestants, and following the progress of the game, as each move was repeated on a large wall board, presided over by Messrs. J. J. Blanchard and J. L. Cross.

Soon after the game opened two ladies accompanied by a gentleman were admitted and given places in the apartment devoted to members of the press. The ladies were quite attractive in appearance, and the younger was exceedingly pretty. Both wore simple street dresses, the elder lady, by no means elderly however, but quite fresh and blooming, was dressed in black cashmere or something of the sort, while the younger wore a dress of some rough brown stuff. They proved to be Mrs. R. Friedlander and Miss F. Friedlander, of New York, friends of Dr. Zukertort and in the city on a visit. They were accompanied by Mr. Moses Meyer, of this city, and they demonstrated the fact that the fair ones, with all their reputation for being unable to keep silent, were far more observant of the requirements of the rule, which enjoins perfect silence, than the male spectators, for the ladies sat through the greater part of this game for quite three hours, and save an occasional smile which beamed on Dr. Zukertort, or telegraphic glances from one lady to the other, they did not give the least sign that they were not wholly absorbed in the game.

At the fourth move move [sic] Mr. Steinitz lost a pawn, and at the seventh he lost a bishop. At the sixth Dr. Zukertort lost a pawn, and at the seventh he lost a knight. The game went on with exceedingly slowness until the eighteenth move, when Dr. Zukertort forced an exchange of queens. By that time Mr. Steinitz, by the slowness of his movements, had made great encroachments upon the time allowed him by the regulations which require that not more than two hours shall be consumed in making thirty moves, and Mr. Steinitz had only about half an hour to make twelve moves, which if he made at the speed of those preceding, would require sixty minutes.

Mr. Steinitz was thus forced to hurry his playing, and he barely got through with not a minute to spare. After saving his score in the way of time, Mr. Steinitz relapsed into his slow and deliberate style until the thirty-third move when both parties commenced an extremely rapid play, clearing the board right and left, and arousing the interest of all the spectators to a high degree. At the forty-fourth move, Dr. Zukertort overturned his king, which was an announcement that he resigned the game.

As was stated above, Dr. Zukertort did not appear to be in perfect condition when the game was commenced; but under any conditions a player who makes his combinations quickly and plays rapidly is liable to be worried and wearied by a slow and deliberate opponent who takes a long time to study his moves. It is related of the first American Chess Congress in New York in 1857, that Morphy, who was a rapid player, had his patience exhausted by Paulsen, who seldom moved under an hour's consideration, and Morphy was far more in danger of being worn out by his adversary's delay than of being beaten by his skill. Morphy came out triumphant, nevertheless he suffered no little discomfort from Paulsen's slowness.

Following is the text of the game played yesterday. Steinitz consuming 2 hours and 39 minutes in making his moves, while Zukertort occupied one hour and 35 minutes. The total time was 4 hours and 14 minutes:

Steinitz Wins Again.
The Twelfth Game Of The International Match.
The German Again Comes Out Ahead—The Finest Game Yet Played in the Tournament.

The third of the New Orleans games, and the twelfth of the series in the Steinitz-Zukertort world championship chess match, came off yesterday in the rooms of the Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, commencing punctually at 1 p.m.

A large number of local lovers of the beautiful game were present at the commencement, including Mr. C. F. Buck, president of the club and referee in the game, and Mr. Jas. McConnell.

Both the distinguished antagonists were on hand half an hour before 1 o'clock, and punctually at the hour named they took their seats at the playing table, Mr. Steinitz taking the Whites. Both players appeared to b in fairly good form and had rested well on the preceding night.

The first few moves were soon over. Steinitz selected the Ruy Lopez opening, and the doctor adopted the Berlin defense by sending on the third move his Knight to B 3. Then Steinitz castled.

The doctor captured a Pawn on the fourth move and lost one on the sixth. In the seventh move Zukertort was compelled to lose a Knight for a Bishop, and Steinitz naturally pressed the slight advantage this gave him for all it was worth.

There was a rapid shifting of men in the first nine moves, the whole of them occupying only some sixteen minutes. Subsequent moves required a longer deliberation. It was noticeable that Zukertort appeared to have acquired the nervousness that Mr. Steinitz was oppressed with on the occasion of the last game, while the latter gentleman, on the other hand, was much calmer. He appeared during the early part of the game to have some well concocted plan of action for his attack, but seemingly lost his hold of it in the first fifteen moves.

Zukertort castled at the tenth move, and at the fourteenth both took coffee. Mr. Steinitz a large cup and the doctor a small one.

The longest halt made by Zukertort during the day was made over the fourteenth move, something like thirty minutes being spent here, an extraordinarily long time for as quick a player. Finally he sent his Knight to Q 3, a move which in great part retrieved the disadvantage he had been laboring under.

Steinitz seemed now to be thrown on the defensive to some extent, and from this time onward took his full time for deliberation. His fifteenth move was a particularly long one, and gave him time to go through all his favorite postures and to evidence most of his peculiarities at the chess table. In the eighteenth move Steinitz's Queen took the doctor's and lost his own to the doctor's Knight.

The game grew very interesting at this point and not a player of the many in the adjoining room who were intently watching every move would venture to guess the winner.

They all agreed that it was the prettiest game of the whole series so far, and infinitely superior to the first two New Orleans games.

At the twenty-second move the doctor got even with Steinitz in the Knight-Bishop matter by giving him a Bishop for a Knight instead of taking it, still keeping an apparent slight advantage in position.

At the twenty-sixth move the spectators began to get excited over the fact that Steinitz had only nine minutes left of the two hours in which the rules of the match required thirty moves to be made, while he had give moves yet to make. "Would he do it?" That began to be the general inquiry, and a good many said he would not. Certainly he could not without playing at a faster rate than was usual with him.

At the twenty-eighth move he had but two minutes left and three moves still to make. He took over a minute and had but some fifty second left him for two moves. He took his last second, but made the thirtieth move in the requisite time capturing a Pawn from the doctor as he did so. They were now even in point of number and value of men, each having lost two Pawns, the Queen, a Bishop and a Knight, but Zukertort, in the next move, captured a Pawn, for which Steinitz got nothing in return. True, he immediately took the doctor's second Knight, but sacrificed his own to get it.

But from this point on the doctor began to weaken visibly. In the thirty-second move Steinitz cried "Check" with is Rook, capturing a Pawn and making the men even again as he did so.

Now Black and White had each remaining five Pawns, both Rooks and a Bishop. It was 5 o'clock, the last few moves having been very lone ones, and it was thought by many the game would be a draw.

Suddenly Steinitz commenced a furious onslaught. Zukertort eagerly joined him, and they appeared almost to be hurling pieces indiscriminately off the board. Each man made five moves considerably inside the space of a minute, and the score-keeper was entirely unable to follow them. The clatter of the falling pieces caused an excitement, and the spectators, failing to see the results posted immediately on the score board, crowded around the doorway as closely as the barrier of rope would permit them, and mounted on chairs to gaze upon the battlefield.

The skirmish had been disastrous to both sides, with a little the worst of it to Dr. Zukertort. He had lost his two Rooks, his Bishop, and two Pawns, while Steinitz had lost his Bishop, both Rooks and one Pawn. The board now looked very bare, there being but nine Pawns upon it, in addition to the Kings, five of which belonged to Mr. Steinitz.

In a few minutes the correct moves made were ascertained from Mr. F. Claiborne, who is acting as umpire for Mr. Steinitz, and duly posted on the score boards.

An eager discussion in subdued whispers followed among those who had been awaiting it, and the chances of Zukertort getting out of the case he was now in were admitted to be very slim. Steinitz had not only the advantage of numbers, but of position, and there was really little difficulty in his sending up his Pawn and getting a Queen once more. One or two moves were made after the affray, and then black threw up the sponge, leaving the match score six to Steinitz, four to Zukertort and two draws.

The game lasted 4 hours and 14 minutes, of which time Mr. Steinitz consumed 2 hours 39 minutes and Dr. Zukertort 1 hour 35 minutes.

The game was ten minutes longer than that of Monday, with two extra moves, and it is noticeable that the figure of Mr. Steinitz's time is precisely that of Monday's game.

Mrs. R. and Miss Friedlander, of New York, sat out the last half of the game in company with Mr. Moses Meyer, of this city.

The next game will be played on Friday, at 1 p.m.

Mr. Steinitz Again A Winner.
Dr. Zukertort Defeated In New-Orleans In The Ruy Lopez Knight's Game.

New-Orleans, March 3.—The chess tournament between Mr. Steinitz and Dr. Zukertort was resumed this afternoon at the rooms at the rooms of the Chess, Checker and Whist Club, Mr. Steinitz playing with the whites and Dr. Zukertort with the blacks. The opening was the Ruy Lopez.

Date: 1886.03.03
Site: USA New Orleans, LA (New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club)
Event: World Championship (Game 12)
White: Steinitz,W
Black: Zukertort,JH
Opening: [C67] Spanish
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Nf6 4.0-0 Nxe4 5.Re1 Nd6 6.Nxe5 Be7 7.Bxc6
Mackenzie: In accordance with the theory that two bishops are stronger than two knights, Mr. Steinitz, as a rule, is generally averse to exchanging a bishop for a knight, especially so early in the game. His next move, however, which prevents Black from castling, may perhaps account in this instance for the capture of the knight.
Monthly: A deviation from Mr. Steinitz's innovation of 7.Bd3, invariably played in the previous Lopez, during this match.
International: The ordinary continuation in this form of the opening. It gives Black a doubled pawn for which disadvantage he is compensated by the strong combination of two bishops.
7...dxc6 8.Qe2
Monthly: This does not strike one as very formidable either.
International: Which prevents Black's castling at once on pain of his losing a pawn by 9.Nxc6 and 10.Qxe7.
Mackenzie: Had black now castled, White by playing 9.Nxc6 would not only have won a valuable pawn, but would have completely broken up the pawns on the adversary's queen's side.
International: White's plan is to delay the advance of pawn to d4, in order not to give the opponent too early an opportunity of dissolving his doubled pawn by ...c5 after removing his knight, in which case he would have the best of the game with his two bishops.
Mackenzie: Had he castled on this move, White would have replied with 10.Nxf7.
Monthly: The text move not being followed by 10...Nd4, it seems an unnecessary manœuvre, except perhaps to allow a sortie for the queen, which, however, proves a delicate task in the midst of the white forces.
International: He still could not venture to castle, on account of the reply 10.Nxf7.
Mackenzie: 10.Nc3 seems a more natural development, but possibly White wished to retain the power of playing pawn to c3, in the event of Black's planting his knight at d4.
Mackenzie: If 10...Nd4, White retires 11.Qd1, and when the opportunity arrives, drives the knight back by pawn to c3.
11.c3 Re8
International: A good move. Though its effectiveness is masked by two pieces at present, it exercises a strong influence on Black's future development.
12.Ne4 Qd5 13.Bf4 Rad8 14.d4
International: The advance of this pawn is now advantageous, and Black in reply can not attempt to get rid of his doubled pawn by 14...c5 on account of the rejoinder 15.dxc5, followed if Black retake, by 16.Red1, winning.
Mackenzie: He cannot try to get rid of his doubled pawn by playing 14...c5, for White would simply take 15.dxc5, and Black cannot retake with 15...Bxc5 on account of White's reply, 16.Red1.
Monthly: By a transposition of the moves Black could have brought about at least a perfectly even position and a favourable development, without exchanging queens, thus: 14...f6 15.Nd3 Nd6 16.Nec5 Bc8 17.Nb4 Qf7, etc. If 16.Nb4, then 16...Qc4, etc.
International: It was best for him to block the action of the hostile bishop, in order not to be threatened by the removal of the e5-knight, and he could not as well play 14...Bd6, on account of the reply 15.Ng4, threatening knight to f6 check.
15.Nc5 Bc8
International: Best.
16.Ncd3 [1:00-?:??]
International: At first sight it would seem that White could have made more out of the confined position of the opponent's queen. But on examination, we believe, it will be found that Zukertort's judgment was very fine, when he placed his queen in the centre and that in reality the grouping of his forces is an aggressive one and compels White's retreat. Had the latter, for instance, attempted an attack by 16.Be3 then might have followed 16...Nf5 17.c4 Nxd4 18.cxd5 Nxe2+ 19.Rxe2 Bxc5 20.Bxc5 Rxd5 21.Rae1 f6, etc. In fact, Black's reply 16...Nf5, threatening 17...Bxc5, was so menacing against almost any other line of play which White could adopt, that we think the retreat of 16.Ncd3, as in the text, was the best plan.
16...f6 17.Nb4 Qb5 18.Qxb5 Nxb5 19.Ned3 Bf5 [?:??-1:00]
Monthly: 19...a5, followed by the text move, might be considered here.
International: We should have preferred first 19...a5 driving the knight to c2, whereupon the attack by 20...Bf5 became stronger, for White's best answer was then 21.Red1.
20.a4 Nd6
International: After this, we think, White obtains some advantage. Black could, we believe, have forced a draw at this juncture by 20...a5 21.axb5 axb4 and White has nothing better than to retake 22.Nxb4. The two parties, by the answer 22...Bxb4, would remain with bishops of opposite colors, and a draw would be most probable. We may remark that, should White attempt to sacrifice a piece for two pawns instead of retaking 22.Nxb4, he would fail in the venture, e.g.: 22.bxc6 Bxd3 23.cxb7 Rb8 24.Ra8 Kf7, and wins.
Mackenzie: An excellent move, preventing the adversary from driving the knight by 21...a5, and also threatening to break up the adverse pawns by pawn to 22.a6.
International: The mutual support of the two knights is now established, and especially the knight at b4 is well posted for the attack.
Monthly: Perhaps the pawn should have been stopped from advancing, because afterwards the pawn at c6 became weak, as well as the pawn at c7, which latter gave Black a great deal of trouble to defend. If 21.Nc5, then 21...Bc8, etc.
International: If 21...a6, White would have obtained a powerful attack by 22.Nc5.
22.a6 Bxd3 23.Nxd3 b6 24.Re3
Mackenzie: An effectual bar to Black's intended advance of 24...c5.
24...Kf7 25.Rae1 Rd7
Mackenzie: To this move, in our opinion, may be ascribed the loss of the game. It keeps the black bishop "pinned," and permits the white knight to occupy the important square at b4.
Monthly: It appears that the obvious move would have been 25...Bf8, so as to keep the adverse knight from advancing to b4. With the text move Black presents his opponent with the game, which might after all have resulted in a draw.
International: His game was a little inferior anyway, but this makes matters much worse. 25...Bd6 would have given him much better prospects of fighting for a draw.
26.Nb4 g5
Monthly: A lesser evil might have been to abandon the exchange, and to try for a draw, viz.: 26...Bxb4 27.Rxe8 Be7 28.Ra8 Rd8 29.Rxd8 Bxd8, and there is a fair amount of resistance left in Black's game.
27.Bg3 f5
Mackenzie: The tempestuous onslaught of these pawns does not appear to have disturbed White's equanimity in the slightest degree. On the contrary, he probably regarded it as a last expiring effort of the enemy.
International: White was here laboring under pressure of time limit, and had to select the simplest move to retain his advantage. But on examination we find that he could have won in a more elegant and forcible manner by 28.Nxc6 f4 29.Ne5+ Ke6 30.Bxf4 (not 30.Nxd7+, as Black would answer 30...Kxd7) 30...gxf4 31.Rh3, with an irresistible attack, as he is sure to recover the exchange and is already three pawns to the good.
28...c5 29.Nc6 cxd4 30.cxd4 Kf8
Mackenzie: If 30...Nxd4 then comes 31.Ne5+, etc.
31.Re5 Nxd4 32.Nxd4
International: Much better than 32.Rxe7 Rdxe7 33.Rxe7 Rxe7 (best) 34.Nxd4 gxf4 35.Bxf4 Re4 36.Bh6+ Ke7 37.Nb5 Ra4 38.Nxc7 Kd7, etc.
32...Rxd4 33.Rxf5+ Kg7
International: 33...Kg8 was no better, for White could then take 34.Rxg5+, and if 34...Bxg5, then White would capture 35.Rxe8+, followed by 36.Rc8 or 36.Ra8; whereas now, if White play 34.Rxg5+ Bxg5 and, in reply to 35.Rxe8, would gain time for 35...Bxf4, which though in White's favor would make a long and tedious affair of it.
34.fxg5 Bc5
Mackenzie: The ingenuity of despair. Should White incautiously seize the proffered rook, then follows 35...Rd1#.
International: This looks well, for evidently White can not take the rook without being mated by a double check, but it accelerates defeat. He had, however, hardly a good defense. If 34...Rd2 35.h4 Kg6 (35...Bc5+ 36.Rxc5, etc.) 36.Rfe5 Kf7 37.h5 Bc5+ 38.Rxc5 bxc5 39.g6+ hxg6 40.hxg6+ Kf8 41.g7+, followed by 42.Rxe8, and wins.
35.Rxc5 Rxe1+ 36.Bxe1 bxc5 37.Bc3 Kg6 38.Bxd4 cxd4 39.h4 Kf5 40.Kf2 Ke4
International: If now or later 40...Kg4, White simply defends by 41.g3, and Black can not capture the pawn, on account of pawn to h5 and pawn to g6.
41.Ke2 c5 42.b3 Ke5 43.Kd3 Kf4 44.b4 1-0 [2:39-1:35]
Mackenzie: Because if 35...cxb4, White replies with 45.Kxd4, and afterward captures the b-pawn winning easily. It may be remarked that Black cannot take any of White's pawns on the king's side without losing immediately, for if he play 44...Kg4, White replies with 45.g3, and should king take 45...Kxg3, White will queen one of his pawns by advancing 46.h5.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n7, March 1886, pp206-207
International Chess Magazine, v1 n4/5, May 1886, pp125-127

Game 13: Friday, March 5, 1886.

The Steinitz-Zukertort Match—Fourth Game—Zukertort Wins in Eighty-six Moves.

The thirteenth game of the whole series, and the fourth played here in the great chess match for the championship of the world, between William Steinitz and J. H. Zukertort, was finished last evening shortly after 11 o'clock.

Dr. Zukertort had the white pieces and the move. He appeared to be in better condition than on Wednesday last. He had a bright and sprightly manner, and during the extremely long game manifested no signs of nervousness.

Mr. Steinitz looked well as usual. He never appears to be nervous, nor does he ever seem to be tired. His constitutional phlegm is an important element in his favor and it must always count several points against an antagonist not entirely like him in temperament.

The ladies, Mrs. and Miss Friedlander, of New York, who witnessed the game on Wednesday were again on hand yesterday giving close attention to the game. They are acquainted with chess, and without doubt the elder lady is a player of ability. She was provided with a board and pieces, and followed all the moves of the game which she repeated on her board and analysed with the readiness of an expert.

Mr. B. G. Barton, the eminent composter of problems, and a member of the club, acted as Dr. Zukertort's second, in place of Mr. Maurian, who was unavoidably absent.

The great wall board on which the moves were repeated for the benefit of the spectators was correctly and rapidly manipulated by Mr. H. E. Barton to the satisfaction of all.

The game was opened with the queen's gambit declined, developing the principal action on the queen's side. The first nine moves were made in nineteen minutes, developing the game. By the time the twenty-fourth move had been made Dr. Zukertort had organized a bold attack with his men well advanced and strongly posted in threatening positions. It was the most interesting game yet played here between the champions and was carefully followed by a large number of the best local players.

The game now progressed with great deliberation, Dr. Zukertort developing his attack with much strength and vigor. At the thirty-seventh move white broke through black's defense with a formidable advance of a knight, and all the spectators were at once on the qui vive for results. It was then half-past 5 o'clock, and Mr. Steinitz postponed making his move until after dinner, when the game was suspended until half-past 7 o'clock.

On the resumption of the game after dinner Mr. Steinitz had the move and he began to play with great ability.

Dr. Zukertort, however, had impressed himself so profoundly on his adversary's game, that Mr. Steinitz was driven to use the utmost circumspection in his defense. He was finally forced to submit to a series of exchanges that left him at a disadvantage in number of pieces, and although he fought with great persistence he was unable to recover from his reverses. At the close of the eighty-six more Steinitz was reduced to his king a bishop, while Zukertort had besides his king, two pawns and a rook. He saw he could not prevent his adversary from queening a pawn and he reluctantly resigned. So great are his persistence and stubbornness that Mr. Steinitz will never surrender while he had the most remote hope of winning or making a draw.

The time consumed by Dr. Zukertort in making his moves was 3 hours and 10 minutes, while Mr. Steinitz occupied 4 hours and 55 minutes. The total time of the game was 8 hours and 5 minutes, and did not close until after 11 o'clock at night.

One For Zukertort.
A Long And Exciting Game Played Yesterday.
Steinitz Succumbs After Eighty-five Moves—The Games Lasts Eight Hours and Five Minutes—Large Gathering of Chess Players Watch the Battle Throughout.

The thirteenth game of the great match was played yesterday, being the fourth played in New Orleans. The usual crowd of lookers-on gathered in the Chess, Checkers and Whist Club an hour or two prior to the commencement of the game, and eagerly awaited the hour of 1.

There was a general feeling that Zukertort ought to win this game, he being now two behind Steinitz, the latter having won six games in succession, as against four won by Zukertort.

Both gentlemen appeared to be in fair spirits, but the doctor suffers all the time from restlessness and insomnia.

Mr. B. G. Barton, the eminent problemist, acted yesterday as umpire for the doctor, this being the first game in New Orleans in which such services have been rendered to him, although Mr. F. Claiborne has acted for Mr. Steinitz from the beginning.

At two minutes after 1 o'clock the first move was made by Dr. Zukertort, who had the White. The opening was that known as Queen's Gambit declined, a pleasing variation from the Ruy Lopez.

The first few moves were made rapidly, as usual, and thirteen minutes covered the first nine, during which each man had lost two Pawns. At the ninth move both had castled. After this Mr. Steinitz began to take longer deliberations, and the situation began to get more complicated. Steinitz took five minutes over his tenth move, and the doctor was longer still in replying. Just as he had done so by sending his Q to K 2, the two ladies who graced the room on Monday afternoon—Mrs. and Miss Friedlander again entered and took seats immediately outside the portion of the chamber sacred to the great antagonists and their umpires. A smile lit up the doctor's care-marked features, as he stepped forward to welcome them. The ladies were evidently intense lovers of the game, for the younger one handed Dr. Zukertort a pocket chess-board in which he set up the men as they stood at that point. Each subsequent move was faithfuly followed on the lady's board by the agency of Mr. Claiborne.

The doctor had made a vigorous attack, but at about the thirteenth move he was thrown upon his defense and compelled to retreat. He retreated in so skillful a manner, though, that in a few moves there was again no apparent advantage on either side. Each man seemed to be playing with unusual caution, thought Steinitz, as always, deliberated at much greater length than Dr. Zukertort.

At the nineteenth move the doctor again assumed the offensive, and threatened Steinitz's Knight with is Queen. After some twelve minutes' deliberation, the Knight was sent to Queen's third. Then the doctor's Knight threatened Steinitz's Bishop. Zukertort deliberating but a few seconds. Almost as promptly Steinitz sent his Bishop to King's square, and was out of danger.

At the twenty-sixth move the doctor lost a pawn, taking one in return from Steinitz in the next move.

The thirtieth move was reached and three hours and twenty minutes spent before any big game was hunted down. Up to then each player had lost three pawns only, but at this point the doctor compelled the exchange of a Bishop for a Knight.

Having made his move with extreme promptness Dr. Zukertort jumped down and quietly walked to and fro in the room. Meantime Mr. Steinitz was deliberating, but Dr. Zukertort's clock was running. It had run fully five minutes before some one in the back room remarked it and called Mr. Barton's attention to it. Mr. Barton pointed it out to the doctor, who sprang with remarkable alacrity to the table and tipped the dial the other way, having lost five minutes on the error.

Fifteen minutes longer did Mr. Steinitz deliberate over this move, and then sent his R to R 4, and at this part of the game every move was watched with the keenest of interest, and any amount of guessing was done. The noises in the rear room seemed to aggravate and disturb the players somewhat, and they frequently glanced up with looks of annoyance and vexation. Those most indiscreet in this respect are the gentlemen who follow the tournament by playing it upon a chess table, or else play games of their own while the tournament is progressing. In either case, the load click of a man as it touches the board falls sharply on the ear, and is very apt to interrupt a current of thought. There was some talk yesterday of a possible necessity of removing the chess tables from the room, during the progress of the tournament. But the wonder was, after all, not that there was so much noise, but that there was so little, for the audience kept changing and changing all through the afternoon, and frequently fifty or sixty were there at a time.

At last it was 5 o'clock and the spectators expected either a speedy termination of an adjournment. Probably the players themselves thought the game would soon end. But it still ran on, and at 5:30 appeared no nearer a finish than at 5. The doctor made his thirty-seventh move, and then, without awaiting Mr. Steinitz's reply, an adjournment was made until 7:30 o'clock. Four hours and thirty-three minutes had been consumed in the game already, of which to Mr. Steinitz 2:40, to Dr. Zukertort 1:53.

Punctually at 7:30 in the evening the combatants met again in the presence of a largely increased crowd of spectators, the two ladies also determining evidently to see the game to a finish.

The game progressed slowly and there seemed no decisive advantage on either side. At last, at about the fifty-sixth move, Zukertort owned a Rook and a Bishsp [sic] and five Pawns, against a Knight, two Bishops and three Pawns for Steinitz.

After a few moves the doctor sacrificed his Bishop against one of Steinitz's Bishops. Then game the tug of war—a Rook against a Bishop, and a Knight and five Pawns against three. The game from now on was watched with the most intense interest. The room was crowded with spectators. Zukertort's comparatively quick play excited general admiration, but the long deliberations of Steinitz wearied the spectators somewhat. The doctor sent up a Pawn to get another Queen. After a hard struggle the Pawn was captured in the sixth row, but Steinitz lost a Pawn to the doctor as compensation. In time Zukertort lost two more Pawns, forcing Steinitz to do the same.

Then the board held for Steinitz King, Bishop and Knight; for Zukertort King, Rook and two pawns. The doctor did some brilliant playing with his pieces, and manipulated his Rook with marvelous skill. Steinitz suggested a draw at about the eightieth move, the time being then about 8 o'clock, but Zukertort would not hear of it. He sent up his last two Pawns, carefully guarded by the King, until they were both in the sixth row, and the prospect of one of them becoming a Queen was decidedly good. Mr. Steinitz gave him great trouble with the Knight and Bishop, but appeared determined to fight now to a finish. At last, at the eighty-sixth move, the doctor's Rook captured Steinitz's Knight, and Steinitz resigned at seven minutes past 11 o'clock.

Both the players seemed very fatigued at the finish.

The game lasted eight hours and five minutes, of which time Zukertort consumed three hours and ten minutes and Steinitz four hours and fifty-five minutes.

The Chess Game At New-Orleans.

New-Orleans, March 5.—The chess championship contest was resumed this afternoon at the rooms of the Chess, Checker and Whist Club, about thirty members being present. It was the thirteenth game of the series. Dr. Zukertort played with the white men, and Mr. Steinitz with the black. The opening was the Queen's gambit declined. The first nine moves were made in about fifteen minutes.

Date: 1886.03.05
Site: USA New Orleans, LA (New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club)
Event: World Championship (Game 13)
White: Zukertort,JH
Black: Steinitz,W
Opening: [D35] Queen's Gambit Declined
1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bf4
Monthly: Now we are going back nearly thirty years. 4.Bf4 was played by Harrwitz in his match with Morphy, Paris, 1858.
International: Morphy, in his match with Harrwitz, here played 4...a6, which precaution against the entrance of the queen's knight is not alone unnecessary, as will be seen, but gave him such an inferior game that, as stated by Löwenthal, he decided to avoid this form of the Queen's Gambit, by playing 1...f5, in reply to 1.d4.
International: If now 5.Nb5 cxd4 and White dare not answer 6.Nc7+, on account of 6...Qxc7 7.Bxc7 Bb4+, recovering the queen with a pawn ahead. Nor does White improve his game by 6.Qa4, on account of the rejoinder 6...Bd7 which would also enable him to take knight with queen, in reply to 7.Nc7+, and if 6.Qxd4 Nc6 followed by 7...Bb4+, with the superior game.
Monthly: Morphy played here 5...a6 to prevent the knight from advancing. The text move is "the isolated pawn theory" tacked on to the old style. Zukertort is of opinion lately, that the disadvantage of the isolated pawn is compensated by more freedom of action obtained by White.
6.exd4 dxc4 7.Bxc4 Nc6
International: 7...Nbd7 is, we believe, the proper post for that knight, and should, by correct continuation, give Black the superior position, similar to the one which Steinitz obtained in the ninth game of the match, played at St. Louis. Any attempt on White's part to press the attack, by 8.Nb5, would then be worse than premature, e.g., 7...Nbd7 8.Nb5 Bb4+ 9.Kf1 0-0 10.Nc7 Nb6 11.Nxa8 (if 11.Bb3, then 11...Nbd5 and evidently, if White then takes the rook, he will lose his bishop, and his knight will not be able to get out) 11...Nxc4 12.Nc7 e5 13.Bxe5 (if 13.dxe5, then 13...Qxc7) 13...Ng4, threatening 14...Nce3+, with a vehement attack.
8.Nf3 Be7 9.0-0 0-0 10.Re1 Bd7 11.Qe2 Qa5 12.Nb5 a6 13.Bc7
International: Beyond slightly disarranging the position of pawns on Black's queen's wing, he gains nothing by the combined attack of bishop and knight, and further bearing out the remarks in our note on Black's 4th move, it will be seen that 13.Nc7 now would have been bad, on account of the reply 13...Ra7, winning two minor pieces for the rook finally
Monthly: The only move to prevent the loss of the queen.
International: Of course the only answer to save the queen which, if removed, would be harassed to death by the adverse pawns.
14.Nc3 Rfc8 15.Bf4 b5 16.Bb3 Qb6 17.Red1
International: This rook has now moved twice, and has afterwards to return again to the post he now leaves. But, of course, it was of importance to him to defend the d-pawn once more, for the purpose of releasing his king's knight, and he would not employ the other rook on the queen's file for this post, probably because he had in view an eventual attack by pawn to a4, or posting that rook at c1.
17...Na5 18.Bc2 Nc4 [?:??-1:00] 19.Bd3 Nd6 20.Ne5 Be8 21.Bg5
Monthly: Threatening 22.d5. If 22...Nxd5, then 23.Nxd5, winning a piece; if 22...exd5, then 23.Nxf7 Kxf7 24.Qxe7+ Kxe7 25.Nxd5+, etc.
International: Black could not well enter on his plan of doubling the rooks on the c-file at once, for if 21...Ra7, then White would gain valuable time by the answer 22.Be3, and if 21...Rc7 22.Qf3 Rac8 23.Qh3 h6 (or 23...g6 24.Qh4, etc.) 24.Bxh6, with a strong attack.
22.Qf3 Ra7 23.Qh3 h6 24.Be3 [1:00-?:??]
International: The object of Black's 21st move will be clear now. For it will be perceived that White can not very well now sacrifice the bishop for the two pawns, since Black, after retaking, would immediately play 25...Bf8, and his king's knight would remain defended by the queen.
24...Rac7 25.d5
Monthly: Threatening 26.Bb6, etc., thereby exchanging the isolated d-pawn for the more valuable adverse a-pawn.
International: His attack against the king's side being repelled, he now gives up his isolated d-pawn, in order to gain the adverse a-pawn for it, which gives him the advantage on the extreme queen's wing for the ending. But this plan gives the opponent the initiative for a strong attack.
25...b4 26.Ne2 Nxd5 27.Bxa6 Ra8 28.Bd3 Bf6 29.Bd4 Nb5 30.Nf3 Nxd4 31.Nfxd4 Ra5
International: Threatening 32...Bxd4, followed by 33...Nf4, and after exchanging knight for bishop, to continue the attack, by 35...Rd5, followed by playing the other rook to d7.
32.Qf3 Ba4 33.Re1
International: He delays the advance of pawn to b3 which he afterwards reluctantly adopts as it opens too long an attacking range for the adverse king's bishop, and leaves also both pawns on his left wing very weak.
33...Ne7 34.Qe4 g6
Monthly: If, instead of the text move, which weakens the pawns, 34...Nf5 35.Nxe6 fxe6 36.Qxe6+, followed by 37.Bxf5, etc.
International: It is difficult to suggest anything better.
35...Be8 36.Bc4 Nf5
International: This is the turning point, and the move in the text ought to have assured the game for Black.
Monthly: It is doubtful whether the sacrifice is sound. White obtains a good attack in addition to two pawns for the piece.
International: The sacrifice, or more correctly speaking, the loss of the piece was compulsory. Obviously, if the knight moved elsewhere, White would lose the exchange without the faintest vestige of compensation in position, and if 37.Rad1 Rd7 38.Nxe6 Rxd1, winning off-hand.
International: At this juncture the game was adjourned, and the clock of Steinitz marked 2 hours, 40 minutes, while his opponent had consumed 1 hour and 54 minutes.
38.Bxe6+ Kg7 39.Rad1 Qe7
International: This hasty and ill-considered move compromises his advantage seriously. 39...Qb8 instead would have left White practically without resource, for, supposing 39...Qb8 40.Nf4 Re5 41.Qb1 Re7, winning easily.
40.Nf4 Re5 41.Qb1 Rxe1+
Monthly: 41...Bc6 would have saved the exchange.
International: If 41...Bc6 instead, then White could win at least another pawn by 42.Nxg6, followed by 43.Bxf5+.
42.Rxe1 Bc3 43.Nd5 Qc5 44.Nxc7 Qxc7
Monthly: Obviously compulsory. If 44...Bxe1, then 45.Nxe8+, etc.
Monthly: If 45.Bxf5, then 45...Bxe1 46.Qxe1 gxf5, and White cannot capture the bishop on account of Black threatening mate.
45...Nd4 46.Bc4 [2:00-?:??] 46...Bc6 [?:??-3:00] 47.Qd3 Ba8
Monthly: Loss of time. It would appear that Black had a valid defence here with 47...Qf4, which might have made White's victory extremely doubtful.
International: A grossly misconceived plan which only loses valuable time. The proper play was 47...Qf4, followed by 48...Qf6, if White opposed his queen at e3.
48.Qe3 Qd6
International: He had no time for instituting the contemplated attack by 48...Qb7, against the king's flank, for White, after simply defending by 49.f3, would threaten 50.Qe8, besides 50.Rxd4, or 50.a3.
International: A splendid coup, which relieves him of all trouble on the queen's side.
International: Of course, if 49...Nf3+, then White would simply take 50.Qxf3.
50.axb4 Qf6
Monthly: An ingenious way of guarding the bishop. If 51.Qxc3, then 51...Ne2+, etc.
International: This protects the bishop indirectly, for White dare not take on account of 51...Ne2+. A comparison of this position, with the one indicated in our note on Black's 47th move will show that Black has lost several important moves, for he might have then arrived at the present position of his minor pieces, and the queen, with a strong pawn at b4, which White could not have got rid of by 49.a3.
51.Kf1 Nb5 52.Qe6 Qxe6 53.Bxe6 Bxb4
International: It would probably have been better to return with 53...Nd4, followed by 54...Kf6, in reply to 54.Bc4.
International: The two minor pieces, when alone on the board and in an open position, can only with difficulty make a stand against a rook and passed pawn if cut off from the support of their king, more especially are bishop and knight helpless in such contingencies, as compared to two bishops. White exercises very fine judgment in thus forcing the exchange of one of the adverse bishops.
International: 54...Na7 was still worse, for then followed: 55.Ra1 Bc5 56.Bxc6 Nxc6 57.Rc1, and wins.
55.Rd4 Bxd7 56.Rxd7+ Kf6 57.Rd4 Be7 58.b4 Ke5 59.Rc4 Nb5 60.Rc6 Bd6 61.Rb6 Nd4 [?:??-4:00] 62.Rb7 g5 63.b5 Kd5 64.b6 Kc6 65.Rh7
International: White has most cleverly drawn off the adverse king from the support of the pawns on the other wing, and his passed b-pawn having served its purpose, he abandons it in right time, in order to get rid of all the pawns on the other side and to remain with two combined passed pawns which win easily with the help of the king.
65...Kxb6 66.Rxh6 Kc7 67.h4
Monthly: Decisive. The two passed pawns are now unimpeded.
International: Which clears the road to victory.
67...gxh4 68.Rxh4 Nf5 69.Rh7+ Kd8 70.g4 [3:00-?:??] 70...Ne7 71.Kg2 Ke8
International: 71...Ng6, with the object of fixing himself at f4 with the knight, was also of no use, for White would enter with his king at e4 via f3, and then he could easily manœuvre to attack the adverse bishop in a loose position or else to reach f5 with his rook.
72.Kf3 Bc5 73.Rh5 Bd4 74.Kg3 Kf7 75.f4 Bc3
Monthly: Mr. Steinitz gave here notice that the remainder of the game should proceed under "the fifty-move rule."
76.Rb5 Be1+ 77.Kf3 Bc3 78.g5 Ba1 79.Kg4 Bc3 80.f5 Bd4 81.Rb7 Bc3 82.Kh5 Bd4 83.Kh6
International: The whole conduct of the game after the exchange of queens, is a model of fine ending play by Mr. Zukertort.
83...Bg7+ 84.Kh7 Be5 85.g6+ Kf8 86.Rxe7 1-0 [3:10-4:55]
International: The final crushing blow. After this, there is nothing to be done, for White will advance the g-pawn which Black must take, and then the other pawn queens without hindrance.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n7, March 1886, pp207-209
International Chess Magazine, v1 n4/5, May 1886, pp129-131

Sunday, March 7, 1886.

By mutual agreement between the players and the authorities of the New Orleans Chess, Checker and Whist Club, it had been decided after the thirteenth game that the match should be adjourned for one week during the festivities of the Mardi Gras, as the carnival of New Orleans is called.
International Chess Magazine, v1 n4/5, May 1886, p132

During the game of Friday, Mr. B. G. Barton, the well-known problem-composer, acted as umpire for Dr. Zukertort and will continue so to serve during the rest of the match. Mr. Maurian who was at first expected to act having been prevented to family matters.

We understand that owing to the impending Mardi Gras festivities, including, of course, the usual receptions to lady guests of the club, both masters have agreed to postpone their next game to Thursday, the 11th instant, at 1 o'clock p.m.

Thursday, March 11, 1886.

The Chess Match.

On account of Louisiana Day at the Exposition the Steinitz-Zukertort chess match arranged for to-day is postponed until to-morrow at 1 p.m.

Game 14: Friday, March 12, 1886.

Steinitz-Zukertort Chess Match.
Fifth Game of the New Orleans Series Ending in a Draw.

The fourteenth game in the total series, and the fifth game in the New Orleans group, in the match for the championship of the world, between Mr. William Steinitz of New York and Dr. J. H. Zukertort of London, was played on Friday at the rooms of the New Orleans Chess, Checker and Whist Club.

The day was wet and gloomy and seemed to have a depressing effect on the players and the spectators. Dr. Zukertort seemed serene, but Mr. Steinitz was not in good condition. This gentleman, it appears, is a sufferer from his own great powers of concentration. He can become so much interested in a combination of chess movements that his mind will dwell upon it to a degree that renders him sleepless. He has lately been suffering from insomnia, and although he is a quiet and imperturbable man, he nevertheless feels the effects of this sort of involuntary overwork.

Among the distinguished visitors present at the clubhouse during the progress of the game was Mr. George T. Green, President of Manhattan Chess Club of New York. Mrs. and Miss Friedlander, of the same city, who have been present during the playing of previous games, were in their accustomed places yesterday, following the moves with great interest and a thorough understanding of the game.

The champions sat down to the table, and the game was opened precisely at 1 o'clock by Mr. Steinitz, who had the white pieces and the move. A knight's opening in the manner of Ruy Lopez was soon developed, and White castled at the fourth move, while Black captured a pawn with his knight and castled at the seventh move.

The game went on steadily for twenty moves on each side, Mr. Steinitz consuming one hour in making his dispositions. Up to that time White had lost a pawn, a rook and both knights, and Black had likewise lost both knights and a pawn and a rook.

Mr. Steinitz pondered over his 22d and 23d moves for half an hour in the aggregate, and was forced by the regulations to make his next seven moves in thirty minutes, in the course of which White lost a pawn and bishop, while Black lost a pawn, bishop and queen; White's queen, however, was taken at the next move and an equality in the number of men on both sides was restored.

At the 31st move Mr. Steinitz proposed to draw the game, but Dr. Zukertort rejected the suggestion when it went on to the 48th move. At this stage the forces on each side were reduced to a bishop and three pawns with the pawns so placed that the chance of queening one on either side was extremely remote with the vigilant and careful playing of these two champions. They therefore agreed to declare the game drawn.

Mr. Steinitz occupied 2 hours and 55 minutes, and Dr. Zukertort made his moves in 1 hour and 20 minutes. The total time occupied in the playing was 4 hours and 15 minutes.

The Chess Match.
Neither Player Successful In A Four Hour Game.
The Players Fall Back on Their Old Tactics and the Game Proves a Little Tame—Next Game on Monday—Other Sporting Matters.

The fourteenth game of the Steinitz and Zukertort world championship chess match came off yesterday at the rooms of the Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, the meeting being the fifth of the New Orleans series.

Both players seemed refreshed by their several days' abstention from the brainracking match, and were on the scene a few minutes before 1 o'clock. Punctually at the hour named the game commenced, Steinitz taking White. The early part of the game was identical with the tenth of the match, and the first of the New Orleans series, which again, up to the eighth move, was identical with the eighth game of the series.

The opening movement was the Ruy Lopez again, and a little disappointment was experienced by the watchers as they saw Mr. Steinitz make the first few well-known moves. The defense of Dr. Zukertort was similar to that previously used by him—Anderssen's, until the tenth move, when he deviated by replying to Steinitz's P to Q Kt 3 with Kt to K sq., instead of R to K sq. as on the occasion of the tenth game. Both had castled before this—Steinitz at the fourth move, Zukertort at the seventh. The play of the tenth game was then abandoned also by Steinitz, and at the twelfth move the latter deliberated for some twenty-five minutes, finally sending his Q to B 3, and at the fourteenth move Mr. Steinitz again deliberated for fifteen minutes before sending his B to R 3.

Dr. Zukertort was remarkably quick in his play, averaging much less than half the time used by his opponent. The play dragged slowly along, with no particularly brilliant moves, and without any decided advantage on either side. A Knight on each side had been lost in the eighth and ninth moves, Rooks were exchanged in the eighteenth move, the second Knight immediately followed, a Bishop on each side left the board at twenty-ninth moves. Queens were exchanged at the thirtieth and thirty-first moves, and the board began to look bare.

A draw was expected by the majority of chess players present and the expectation grew stronger and stronger as the game lengthened without giving either player an advantage.

Mr. Steinitz's last long deliberation occurred at the thirty-third move, when he waited twenty minutes before sending his P to K Kt 3, a move which was probably expected by Zukertort, for instantly he sent in reply P to Q R 4. The second Rook was exchanged at the forty-first and forty-second moves, forced by Zukertort.

The game lasted until 5:15 o'clock, and then, at the forty-ninth move, Mr. Steinitz suggested, the doctor acquiesced, and the game ended, having lasted 4 hours and 15 minutes, of which time Steinitz consumed 2 hours and 55 minutes and Zukertort 1 hour and 20 minutes.

Mrs. and Miss Friedlander, the two lady friends of Dr. Zukertort previously mentioned, were again close observers of the game. It is a curious fact that since the Doctor has had the encouragement of the smiles of these ladies he has not lost a game.

There was a large attendance yesterday of local admirers of the beautiful game.

The next game will be played on Monday.

Steinitz And Zukertort At Chess.
The Fourteenth Game In Their Match Given Up As Drawn.

New-Orleans, March 12.—The fourteenth game in the match between Mr. Steinitz and Dr. Zukertort was played this afternoon. The opening was the Ruy Lopez. The game is regarded as a dull one. The next game will take place on Monday.

Date: 1886.03.12
Site: USA New Orleans, LA (New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club)
Event: World Championship (Game 14)
White: Steinitz,W
Black: Zukertort,JH
Opening: [C67] Spanish
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Nf6 4.0-0 Nxe4 5.Re1 Nd6 6.Nxe5 Be7 7.Bd3 0-0 8.Nc3 Nxe5 9.Rxe5 c6 10.b3 Ne8
Mackenzie: With the exception of the transposition of one or two moves, both players have conducted the opening very much on the same plan as in the sixth and eighth games of the match.
Monthly: A deviation from the previous games, in which Black played 10...Re8.
International: This, we believe, is the correct play against the form of attack adopted by White, for it seems to equalize the game very soon and allows the defense more freedom of development, than in any other variation hitherto adopted by Black.
11.Bb2 d5 12.Qf3 Bf6 13.Re2 Nc7
International: A well-selected development for the knight whence he intends to fix himself at e6, or eventually afterward to attack at d4.
Mackenzie: This looks to us like a loss of time, and merely drives the adverse rook to a square, where he would probably have gone in any event.
Monthly: The obvious effect of this move is forcible exchange of pieces a few moves later for no ostensible purpose.
14...Re8 15.Rae1
Mackenzie: White's development is now complete, but the adverse forces are so well disposed for defensive purposes, that the prospects of any successful attack are not very promising. The game in fact, even at this early stage, begins to look very much as though it would end in a draw.
15...Ne6 16.Na4 Bd7
Mackenzie: 16...b6 would lead to more complications than the text move, which permits the knight to occupy the c5 square, and simply results in an exchange of a rook and a knight on each side.
International: Better than 16...b6, in which case White could obtain an attack by 17.c4.
17.Nc5 Nxc5 18.Rxe8+ Bxe8 19.Bxc5 b6
Mackenzie: But the Doctor here gains a move, which may possibly have been the reason why he did not object to White's planting his knight at c5 on move 17.
20.Ba3 [1:00-?:??] 20...Bd7 21.Qg3
International: Not as good as 21.c3 at once, with the object of retreating, the bishop advancing pawn to d4, as done later one.
21...c5 22.c3
International: It was no use attempting an attack by 22.Qd6, on account of 22...Be6, and, if White then sacrifice rook for bishop, Black would ultimately obtain absolute security by ...Qg8, after removing ...Kh8.
22...Be6 23.Bb2
Mackenzie: The bishop has not played a particularly formidable part in White's plan of attack, and the subsequent proceedings—at all events up to move 41—have no more interest for him.
23...Qd7 24.Bc2 Re8 [?:??-1:0] 25.h3
Mackenzie: It was necessary to make an outlet for the white king on account of Black's threatening to play 25...Bf5, winning a piece.
25...b5 26.d4 cxd4 27.cxd4
Mackenzie: The possession of the open file gives Black the better position, but the advantage is too slight to enable him to win the game.
27...Rc8 28.Bd3 Bf5 29.Bxf5 Qxf5 30.Qg4
Mackenzie: One would almost infer from the alacrity with which the champions exchange off the pieces whenever an opportunity offers, that a draw was the highest object of their ambition.
International: 30.Qc7 would have been worse than useless, for Black would reply 30...h6, followed by 31...Rc2.
Monthly: This forces the exchange of queens, which Black cannot avoid by 30...Qc2, because of 31.Rc1, etc.
Monthly: Steinitz offered a draw here, which Zukertort declined.
International: It was at this point, that Black offered a draw which White would not accept. The offer was a fair one, and it would at least have saved labor to accept it at this juncture.
32.Re2 [2:00-?:??] 32...b4 33.g3 a5
International: The advance of this pawn with the object, of course, of its being pushed one step further, threatens to become very harassing, and a study of the position will show, that it was extremely difficult to find the right defense for White.
34.Kf1 a4
Mackenzie: Black succeeds in breaking through on this wing, but in doing so only hastens the inevitable draw.
35.bxa4 Ra8 36.Re1 Rxa4 37.Ra1
International: The combination of White's four last moves was, we believe, the only one to save the game. It was especially necessary on White's 34th move to play Kf1, for the purpose of crossing toward the centre in support of the d-pawn.
37...Kf8 38.Ke2 Ke7 39.Kd3 Ra6
Monthly: Intending 40...Re6, followed by 41...Re2 should White attempt an attack with his king on the b-pawn.
International: There was probably nothing better than to dissolve the pawns in this manner. White could not hope to obtain any attack by 40.Kc2, on account of 40...Rc6+, followed by 41...Rc4, in case White moved 41.Kb3. 40...Re6 would also be a good contingent reply.
40...bxa3 41.Rxa3 Rxa3+ 42.Bxa3+ Kd7 43.Bf8 Ke8 44.Bd6 g6 45.Be5 Bd8 46.Bg7
International: A hasty move, which endangers the game.
Monthly: The following instructive variation, demonstrated by Mr. McConnell, we copy from the Times Democrat: 46...f6 47.Bxh6 g5 48.f4 Kf7 49.f5 (If 49.fxg5, then 49...fxg5, followed by 50...Be7, and 51...Kg6, etc.) 49...Kg8 50.Kc3 Be7 51.Kb3 Kh7 52.Bxg5 fxg5 53.Ka4 Bf6 54.Kb5 Bxd4 55.Kc6 Kg7 56.Kxd5 Bc3 57.Ke6 Bf6 58.Kd6 Kf7 59.Kd5 Ke7 60.Kc6, and draws; because if 60...Be5, then 61.Kd5 Bxg3 62.Kc6 Bd6 63.Kd5 Kd7 64.Ke4, drawing, for if 64...Kc6, then 65.f6, etc.
International: Instead of which, as Mr. James McConnell, of New-Orleans, pointed out, Black might have imprisoned the bishop by 46...f6. Mr. McConnell's ingenious suggestion had been overlooked by both players. Had it been adopted, the game might have proceeded thus: 46...f6 47.Bxh6 g5 48.f4 Kf7 49.f5 (best) 49...Kg8 50.Kc3 Be7 51.Kb3 Kh7 52.Bxg5 fxg5 53.Ka4 Bf6 54.Kb5 Bxd4 55.Kc6 Kg7 56.Kxd5 Bf2 57.Ke6 Bxg3 58.Ke7 (best) 58...Bc7 59.Ke6 Bd8 60.Kd6 Kf7. And after a careful study of this and similar positions arising therefrom, Mr. McConnell proved, that White, though he might be driven back as far as e4, could by proper play draw the game by advancing the f-pawn at the right time, namely, when the adverse king would be some distance off, and then to enter with the king at f5. But the process indicated above would have been difficult to discover in actual play, and the chances were therefore greatly in favor of Black's victory if he had adopted the line of play proposed by Mr. McConnell.
47.gxh5 gxh5 48.Be5 Kd7 ½-½ [2:55-1:20]
International: And the game was declared drawn by mutual consent.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n7, March 1886, pp209-210
International Chess Magazine, v1 n4/5, May 1886, pp133-134

Game 15: Monday, March 15, 1886.

Steinitz-Zukertort Match—Fifteenth Game of the Whole Series, and Sixth of the New Orleans Group, Ending in a Draw.

The fifteenth game in the Steinitz-Zukertort chess match for the championship of the world, and the sixth played in New Orleans, was commenced yesterday at 1 o'clock in the cosy front parlor of the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club.

Those who at the first games of the match came to witness the playing from motives of mere curiosity have had their desire satisfied, and have given place to the genuine lovers of the game. As a consequence, while there is no diminution in the average attendance there is less talking and more attention to the playing, every move of which is repeated with the rapidity and accuracy on the large wall board, by Mr. H. E. Barton. The lady friends of Dr. Zukertort, who have manifested so much interest in the knowledge of the games as they have been played, were in attendance as heretofore.

Dr. Zukertort had the white pieces and the move. He led out with his queen's pawn and followed in his next two moves with the queen's bishop's pawn and the queen's knight. Mr. Steinitz replied with queen's pawn, king's pawn and king's bishop, thus developing the "queen's gambit declined," a variation of an opening much commended by Philip Stamma, the celebrated Arabian player, and practiced by the best players of all times.

A peculiarity of the game was that White did not challenge at all, moving his king out of check to bishop's square at the seventeenth move, while Black castled at the tenth move.

When the twentieth move had been made Black had lost three pawns, both knights, queen and bishop, while White had lost four pawns, two bishops, a knight and queen. Black thus had evidently an advantage of force, which, however, white subsequently neutralized by capturing at the thirty-fifth and thirty-sixth moves two pawns. At White's forty-sixth move both contestants had been reduced to a rook and two pawns. After White's forty-ninth move they agreed to draw the game, Dr. Zukertort having occupied 1 hour 12 minutes in making his moves and Mr. Steinitz consuming 2 hours 14 minutes in making his play. The game was ended in 3 hours 26 minutes from the time of commencing.

The Chess Champions Play Their Fifteenth Game.
It Results in Another Draw, Leaving Steinitz Still Ahead—A Comparatively Short Game, but Interesting—[..]

The fifteenth game in the great world championship chess match between Steinitz and Zukertort was played yesterday afternoon, it being the sixth of the New Orleans series.

To the spectators the game was one of the most interesting played here, and it was finished before it began to get tiresome.

It was Zukertort's turn at the Whites, and he offered the Queen's Gambit, as on the occasion of the thirteenth game, and Steinitz, as also on that occasion, declined it. At the fourth move the doctor abandoned the tactics of the thirteenth game, and instead of sending his B to B 4, as then, made the new and comparatively unanalyzed move of B to Kt 5.

At the fifth move each side lost a Pawn, and at the sixth the doctor compelled his opponent to give a Knight for a Bishop. Then Zukertort made a violent attack upon a Pawn of Steinitz. The latter defended it vigorously, and in a few minutes nearly all the officers on the board had been drawn into the skirmish. The play on both sides during these few moves was very deliberate, without being tediously slow.

For the first time during the match Steinitz castled on the Queen's side, in order to bring his Queen's Rook to the aid of the other officers during the impending fray. This was at the 10th move. The doctor had not touched his Rooks, and they were useless to him at this point, one of them being locked up behind the King, but he made the attack at the next move, and with his K P took the Pawn around which all those officers had collected. The next few moves were rapid and almost inevitable. Steinitz replied promptly by taking Zukertort's invading Pawn with his Bishop. Then Knight took Bishop, Queen took Knight, Queen took Queen, Rook took Queen, Bishop took Knight, Pawn took Bishop, Pawn took Pawn, and Bishop took Pawn. This was great slaughter, and commenced and finished in almost less time than it takes to write the words, all the moves having been, of course, foreseen on both sides.

At the sixteenth move, by moving his R to K sq., Steinitz checked Zukertort, and the latter was compelled to retreat his King to B sq. This prevented his castling, and the doctor had to spend two or three moves in getting his King's Rook out of the corner. To do this he broke the body guard of Pawns around the King and sent P to K Kt 3. Then he sent his King into Knight's second, and left the Rook free to come out. Meantime Steinitz, who had both Rooks in full play, had brought one of them to K 7 and was threatening Zukertort's Q Kt P. The doctor got his Rook from the corner to K B sq., but in the next move he lost a Pawn to Steinitz, for which he got nothing in exchange. Steinitz had decidedly the best of it at this point, having the advantage of position and possessing also an extra Pawn.

Both players still retained their Rooks, Steinitz had a Bishop against Zukertort's Knight, and Zukertort had four Pawns against Steinitz's five.

The doctor had just made his 21st move, P to Q R 4, when the clock struck 2, only one hour having elapsed since the players took their seats, although the board looked almost bare. The game ran along then without any exciting episode until the 36th move, by which time Steinitz had taken one Pawn and lost two, the players being thus again even, although Steinitz still apparently had the advantage of position.

Zukertort took coffee at this juncture, and then at the 37th move began to move his K R P up to be queened. Steinitz threw his Rook, defended by the King, in the way of the Pawn. Zukertort deliberated very carefully and at some length over his next move, and finally determined to give Rook for Rook and possibly increase the chances of his Pawn being Queened. He captured Steinitz's Rook, therefore, and surrendered his own to the opposing King. Zukertort then advanced his Pawn in successive moves to R 7. Steinitz pursuing him with his King. Zukertort checked his opponent at the 42d move by moving Kt to K 6, but Steinitz extricated himself and captured the ambitious Pawn. Zukertort's Knight and Steinitz's Bishop went in the next move, then Steinitz lost a Pawn to Zukertort, and they were left each with a Rook and two Pawns. Steinitz attempted queening a Pawn now, and succeeded in getting it as far as R 7, when Zukertort's Rook blocked it. Leaving his Rook to protect the Pawn, Steinitz set about blocking Zukertort in the attempt of the latter to send up another Pawn. Everything signified an early draw, and nobody was surprised when at the 47th move the players agreed that the game should be declared a draw.

This is the sixth of the New Orleans series of the games, and the third draw made here.

The game lasted 3 hours and 26 minutes, of which time Dr. Zukertort consumed 1 hour and 12 minutes and Mr. Steinitz 2 hours and 14 minutes.

Mrs. and Miss Friedlander were again interested and watchful followers of the game. So also were Mr. C. H. Buck, Mr. Jas. McConnell and other distinguished frequenters of the Chess, Checkers and Whist Club rooms.

Another Drawn Game At Chess.
Zukertort Does Some Capital Playing—Steinitz's Lack Of Energy.

New-Orleans, March 15.—The fifteenth game of chess for the world's championship between Zukertort and Steinitz, and the sixth game of the series in this city, came off this afternoon at the rooms of the Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, and ended in a draw after forty-nine moves by Zukertort, who played with the white men, and forty-eight by Steinitz with the black.

Date: 1886.03.15
Site: USA New Orleans, LA (New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club)
Event: World Championship (Game 15)
White: Zukertort,JH
Black: Steinitz,W
Opening: [D50] Queen's Gambit Declined
1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5
Mackenzie: With this move, the Doctor varies from his management of the opening in the previous games of the match, and it is probably as good a continuation as he has at his command.
Monthly: An acknowledged theoretical move. Steinitz adopted it against Anderssen in the Vienna Tournament, 1873.
International: A mode of attack which was first essayed by Steinitz against Anderssen in the Vienna Tournament of 1873. In the second Vienna Tournament of 1882, Steinitz also played it against Captain Mackenzie, but, as far as we are aware, this is the first time that this form of opening was adopted by Mr. Zukertort, or any other expert.
Mackenzie: The practice of this advance in the present position, is, to say the least, of doubtful merit, for as the sequel shows, it seriously weakens Black's pawns on the king's side.
Monthly: 4...Be7, followed by 5...0-0, is a sound defence, and preferable to the move in the text. The queen's bishop may be developed at b7.
International: Black tried this experiment, being apprehensive of White's advancing 5.c5 which, as will be seen from the 19th game, was not much to be feared. But the venture appears to be of a doubtful character, and will have to be further tested in theory and practice before it can be absolutely commended.
5.cxd5 exd5 6.Bxf6 gxf6
Mackenzie: According to the doctrines of the modern school in chess, these doubled and isolated pawns ought, by their intrinsic weakness, to suffice to cause the loss of the game. It is obvious that Black could not take 6...Qxf6 without losing a pawn.
Monthly: Forced in order not to lose a pawn. Black clearly has the inferior game now.
Mackenzie: If 7.dxc5 Black plays 7...d4, and should 8.Ne4 Black can take 8...Bxc5, regaining the piece by 9...Qa5+, should the bishop be captured.
International: Whether or not the pawn can be taken and maintained is a subject worthy of further analytical research. The variations which we have examined do not lead us to any positive conclusions in reference to the value of the attack which Black obtains for the pawn given up. We can only briefly indicate the following principal lines of play arising from the capture of the pawn: 7.dxc5 d4 (7...Be6 is also worthy of consideration) 8.Ne4 Bf5 (best, if 8...f5, then 9.Nd6+ Bxd6 10.Qxd4, and wins, and if 8...Bxc5, with the intention of recovering the piece by 9...Qa5+, then follows 9.Qa4+ Bd7 10.Qc4, etc.) 9.Qa4+ (best, for if 9.Ng3, Black may answer 9...Bxc5 threatening 10...Bb4+) 9...Nc6 10.Ng3 Bd7 and we are not quite clear on the point whether Black has sufficient compensation in development and position for the pawn lost.
International: If 7...c4 8.e4 Bb4 9.Qa4+ (best) 9...Nc6 10.exd5 Qxd5 11.Qxb4 Nxb4 12.Nxd5 Nxd5 (best) 13.Bxc4, with a pawn ahead and the superior game.
8.Qb3 Qd7 9.Bb5 Nc6 10.e4
Mackenzie: An ingenious, but in our opinion, a premature advance. 10.Nge2 or 10.Nf3 gives a more natural development.
Monthly: Tempting, but apparently premature. 10.Nf3 or 10.Nge2 might be played instead.
International: Premature, and 10.Nge2 was preferable. But the attack herewith commenced seemingly was very strong, and there was actually only one answer to it, namely the one adopted, which, however, could not easily be anticipated by the attacking player who thereby effected several exchanges, and remained with knight against bishop, and the better pawn position for the ending. There were also some temptations held out to the opponent by this attack, which, if yielded to, would have gravely compromised Black's game.
Mackenzie: Decidedly the best reply to the oncoming of the e-pawn.
International: Though, in our opinion, the only correct play, it required some resolution to decide on this move, for the exchanges which follow leave Black apparently in a helpless position of pawns on both wings, and with a single bishop against a knight for the ending. But, as will be seen later on, Black speculated on the greater freedom for his rooks, and on confining the adverse king. A skilfully-covered pitfall had also been laid for Black at this point, for apparently the reply 10...cxd4 would have given him a powerful attack, but in reality would have led to his disadvantage, e.g., 10...cxd4 11.exd5 (not 11.Nxd5, as Black would castle, with a winning game) 11...dxc3 12.dxe6 Qd2+ 13.Kf1 c2 (or 13...cxb2 14.exf7+ Ke7 15.Re1+, followed by 16.Rd1 winning) 14.exf7+ Kd8 15.Ne2 Kc7 (we see nothing better) 16.Bd3 Nb4 17.Bxc2 followed by 18.Rc1, with the superior game.
Mackenzie: White, calculating on the weakness of the adverse pawns, now forces a wholesale exchange of pieces, but owing to his own backward state of development, the result is not altogether satisfactory.
Monthly: Leading to wholesale exchanges, which course his undeveloped position does not warrant. White ought to make more of his opportunities. After a few more moves Black, although an inferior pawn position, has full scope for his pieces, whereas White has not a single piece in play.
11...Bxd5 12.Nxd5 Qxd5 13.Qxd5 Rxd5 14.Bxc6 bxc6 15.dxc5 Bxc5
International: Black has apparently much the worse of the game, for all his pawns are isolated, and two of them are doubled, and besides White, if he remain with the advantage of knight against bishop. But Black's rook and king have more freedom of action, and, as will be seen, he is enabled to form a harassing attack.
16.Nf3 Re8+ 17.Kf1 Bb6
Monthly: A precaution in view of White's Rc1, also to give full play to the rook.
Monthly: It is now exceedingly difficult for White to find a satisfactory continuation. If 18.Re1, then 18...Rxe1+ 19.Kxe1 (If 19.Nxe1 then 19...Rd2, etc.) 19...Rc5 20.K-moves Rb5, winning a pawn. If 18.h4, a probable continuation might have been: 18...h5 19.Rh3 Bc7 20.Ng1 (If 20.Re1, then 20...Rxe1+ 21.Kxe1, and Black would also gain a pawn with the combined manœuvre of rook and bishop) 20...Rd2 21.Rb1 Bb6 22.Rf3 Bd4, etc. The most favourable continuation would be 18.g4 Re4 19.Rg1 Rf4 20.Rg3 Rd3 21.Ke2, preserving the pawn without any real inferiority.
International: This loses a pawn which, however, could not well be avoided, for Black threatened anyhow to gain entrance at c2 with his rook, after playing it to 18...Rc5, and if 18.Rc1 Rc5 19.Re1 (evidently, if he exchanges rooks, he will find if difficult to develop his king and rook) 19...Rxe1+ 20.Nxe1 Rc1, followed by 21...Rb1, etc. No better for White would have been 18.Re1 Rxe1+ 19.Nxe1 Ra5 20.a3 Rb5 21.b4 a5, etc.
18...Rf5 19.Kg2
Mackenzie: The only move, and one that loses a valuable pawn.
19...Re2 20.Rhf1 Rxb2 21.a4 Rc5
Mackenzie: Was this necessary? We should have preferred leaving the rook were he was, for as long as he is at f5 neither White's king's rook nor knight can move without disastrous consequences.
International: No great advantage was to be gained by 21...Ra5, as long as the adverse knight stood at f3, mainly on account of the reply 22.Rac1, e.g., 21...Ra5 22.Rac1 c5 (best) 23.Rc4 (threatening 24.Rf4) 23...Rb4 24.Rxb4 cxb4 25.Ra1 Rf5 26.Ra2, and Black will find it difficult to win.
22.Ng1 [1:00-?:??]
Mackenzie: White has now breathing time to bring his knight into play via h3.
Mackenzie: Intending, probably, 23...Rb4 or else prevent White's rook from leaving the a-file.
International: If now 23.Rac1, Black would have proceeded as in the variation given in our last note, but ultimately, in reply to 23.Rac1, would gain most important time for a winning attack by ...Bd4.
23...Kb7 24.Nh3
International: White manœuvres his knight with great skill for defensive purposes at present, but as is shown later on, he has also some attacking objects.
24...Bd4 25.Re1 Re5 26.Rd1 c5 27.Rf3 Ree2 28.Rf1
Monthly: In order to release the knight.
Mackenzie: Some of Mr. Steinitz's moves here seem to lack energy:—what, for example, was the object of this retreat of the rook?
29.Nf4 Ra2 30.Nd5 Re6 31.Nf4 Rd6 32.Rb1+ Kc6
Mackenzie: 32...Kc7 would at all events have prevented the entry of the white rook into Black's camp.
Monthly: 32...Kc7 would be followed by 33.Re1, forcing an entry on the e-file instead of the b-file.
International: 32...Kc7 was vastly superior. He had nothing to fear from White's doubling the rooks, e.g., 32...Kc7 33.Rfb3 Rxf2+ 34.Kh1 (if 34.Kh3 f5 35.Kh4 Bf6+ 36.Kh3 Bg5, and should win) 34...Be5, threatening to double the rooks on the 2nd row with a fine attack.
International: The initiation of an excellently-devised plan which, we believe, was the only one to give him a chance of a draw.
International: If 33...f5, White would answer 34.Nh5.
Mackenzie: The last dozen moves have been capitally played by Dr. Zukertort, who has now extricated himself from his confined position; it must, however, be admitted that Mr. Steinitz failed to take full advantage of the opportunities afforded him.
Monthly: If 34...c4, it is doubtful whether White would have had time to capture the pawns, and the inference is favourable to Black.
International: Instead of this it seems that Black had, perhaps, more winning prospects by 34...c4, which was likely to lead to the following continuation: 34...c4 35.Ne2 Be5 36.Rxh7 Rd3 37.Rxf7 Raa3 38.Ng1 Rxf3, followed by 40...c3, etc.
35.Rxh7 a5 36.Rxf7 a4 37.h4 Rd7
International: This, we think, was his best play; he could never expect to won by 37...c4, and he only ran the risk of losing, for White would systematically advance the h-pawn, and whenever the adverse c-pawn arrived at c2, he would stop its progress by Nd3 which then would also threaten Nb4+.
38.Rxd7 Kxd7 [?:??-2:00] 39.h5 [1:00-?:??] 39...Ke7 40.h6 Kf7 41.h7 Kg7 42.Ne6+ Kxh7 43.Nxd4 cxd4 44.Rd3
International: Mr. Zukertort has played this by no means easy ending with remarkable skill, and now again he selects the only move to secure a draw, for had he taken the other pawn, Black would force the game thus: 44.Rxf6 d3 45.Rd6 (if 45.Kf3 a3 46.Ra6 Ra1 47.Ke3 a2 48.Kd2 Rf1 and wins) 45...d2 46.Kf3 Rb2 47.Ke2 a3 48.Ra6 a2 followed by 49...Rb1, and wins.
Pope: 44...Rb2 is given in the International Chess Magazine, all other sources give 44...Rc2.
45.Rxd4 a3 46.Ra4 a2 47.g4 Kg6 48.Kg3 Kf7 49.f4 ½-½ [1:12-2:14]
Mackenzie: And the game was abandoned as a draw. The legitimate result of a position like the present.
Monthly: White has chosen the only line of play to draw a most difficult ending.
International: And the game was abandoned as drawn. For Black can not attempt to bring his king over to the queen's side in support of his a-pawn, as White would bring up his king and attack the f-pawn, which Black could not afford to give up, as it would allow the opponent two combined passed pawns.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n7, March 1886, pp210-212
International Chess Magazine, v1 n4/5, May 1886, pp135-138

Game 16: Wednesday, March 17, 1886.

The Steinitz-Zukertort Match—Sixteenth Game of the Entire Series, Seventh of the New Orleans Group—Steinitz Wins It.

The seventh game in the match between Mr. William Steinitz, of New York, and Dr. J. H. Zukertort, of London, for the chess championship of the world was played at the rooms of the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club on Wednesday afternoon, ending in a victory for Mr. Steinitz.

The conditions of the match require that the winner of the match must gain ten games. The champions came to this city from New York and St. Louis, in both of which cities they played, coming here after having won four games each. The games played here were scored as follows: Steinitz won the second, third and seventh; Zukertort won the fourth. The first, fifth and sixth were drawn and do not count. In the match Steinitz has won seven and Zukertort five. The winner must gain ten games.

The chess parlors were yesterday graced during the progress of the game by the presence of several ladies, who appear to be and doubtless are expert chess players. They had chess boards before them and repeated the moves as they were made by the champions, often playing the variations, and manifested the keenest interest in the game. They were Mrs. and Miss Friedlander of New York, and Mrs. John A. Morris and Miss Morris of this city, and their guest, Miss Broadwood of London.

The contestants commenced their game at 2 minutes past 1 o'clock, Mr. Steinitz having the white men and the move. The game was opened in the manner of Ruy Lopez with a knight. Both parties seemed to be in fair condition.

White did not castle until his twenty-first move, and then did so on his queen's side, transferring king entirely out of the reach of the attack that had been organized against it. Black had castled at his tenth move.

At the end of White's forty-fifth move, it being about 20 minutes before 6, a recess was taken for dinner.

The playing resumed at half-past 7 o'clock in the evening, and after four moves Black resigned.

When the game closed White had remaining his queen, a bishop and five pawns, while Black had his queen and six pawns.

The time consumed in the game by Mr. Steinitz was 2 hours and 44 minutes, while Dr. Zukertort occupied 2 hours and 13 minutes. For the first time since the commencement of the match, Dr. Zukertort consumed nearly as much time in playing as his antagonist.

The Chess Match.
Steinitz Wins His Seventh Game Of The Series.
A Good Attendance During the Progress of the Game—Dr. Zukertort in Bad Form and His Opponent Fresh.

Steinitz Wins Another Game After a Hard Fight

Yesterday at 1 o'clock, at the rooms of the Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, commenced the sixteenth game of the champion chess match between Messrs. Steinitz and Zukertort. The number of draw games had evidently affected the interest of the general spectators, for the attendance showed a material dropping off at the start, although as the afternoon wore on, the rooms soon became as crowded as ever. When Dr. Zukertort put in an appearance he showed the signs of mental fatigue incident to the preceding games and his face was marked with deepened wrinkles. Steinitz on the other hand appeared as full of stamina as ever and went into the fight with all his bull-dog tenacity.

Steinitz had the whites and opened with his favorite Ruy Lopez. In two hours twenty-five moves had been made, and both sides were about as even as two combatants could be at that stage of the game. Outsiders said it was a toss-up which would win. There had been some slaughter, but both had castled and both were wary.

After this Steinitz drew away somewhat, and although Zukertort had the better of him by a piece, the former's position was excellent, and at 5:30, when they took a recess until 7:30, Zukertort appeared to be playing for a draw.

After The Recess.

After the recess matters were not long in taking shape, and with a steady, irrepressible movement. Mr. Steinitz kept up his attack and at the 49th move Dr. Zukertort resigned.

Up to the thirty-second move, the game was about equal, but at that point, Dr. Zukertort apparently committed an error of position judgment, and the battle grew more and more difficult for him with every movement. At his 39th move, whether from a feeling that his game was gone in any case, or from an erroneous calculation, he ventured upon an unsound sacrifice of a Bishop for a Pawn without seeming to improve his position much thereby. At the hour of adjournment, 5:30 p.m., matters looked very gloomy for the doctor, and the apprehensions of his well-wishers were verified shortly after the resumption of play at 7:30 o'clock, when in a few more moves he tipped over his King in token of resignation.

The game, take it all in all, is only a fairly interesting one. Dr. Zukertort's time consumed was 2 hours 10 minutes, and Mr. Steinitz's 2 hours 45 minutes.

Steinitz Wins Another Game.
Zukertort's Careless Play—Suffering From Loss Of Sleep.

New-Orleans, March 17.—The sixteenth game of the world's chess championship match between Steinitz and Zukertort began at a few minutes after 1 o'clock this afternoon at the rooms of the Chess, Checkers and Whist Club. Only a few members of the club were present. Zukertort's thirty-ninth move is regarded here as wholly unsound. When asked about it he said it resulted from an oversight. He is not looking well and says he did not sleep a minute last night.

Date: 1886.03.17
Site: USA New Orleans, LA (New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club)
Event: World Championship (Game 16)
White: Steinitz,W
Black: Zukertort,JH
Opening: [C65] Spanish
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5 Nf6 4.d3
Mackenzie: Considered by the late Professor Anderssen to be the strongest continuation in the Ruy Lopez attack.
Monthly: Mr. Steinitz abandons now the mode of conducting the Spanish Opening adopted by him in the preceding Ruy Lopez with such persistency during the match, and reverts to Anderssen's move, which certainly presents more scope for action. If the Ruy Lopez which, "on account of its dullness," has been played by Mr. Steinitz for the first time in his match with Blackburne in 1876, is to be resorted to, almost invariably, as happened in the present match, we ought to be grateful if it is divested of the additional "dullness" grafted on to it by Mr. Steinitz's innovation.
International: Anderssen's favorite attack, and one much more retentive than the usual continuations 4.d4 or 4.0-0.
International: First adopted by Paulsen in conjunction with the subsequent king's fianchetto.
Mackenzie: This move is the invention of Mr. Steinitz, and was first played by him in his match with Mr. Blackburne. Its object is to prevent Black from exchanging his queen's knight against White's king's bishop, by 5...a6, followed by 6...b5 and 7...Na5.
International: Anderssen, at this juncture, exchanged the bishop for the knight. The move in the text first occurred in a match game between Steinitz (White) against Blackburne, in 1876.
5...g6 6.d4
International: First played by Rosenthal (White) against Zukertort in their match in 1880.
Mackenzie: 6...Nxe4 would lose a piece by 7.d5, for if Black then plays 7...a6, White replies with 8.Bd3, leaving both knights en prise.
Monthly: Compulsory. Obviously if 6...Nxe4, White would reply 7.Bxc6+ bxc6 8.dxe5, etc.
International: Recommended by Englisch, and approved of by Zukertort in the book of the London Congress of 1883, in his annotations to a game between Steinitz (White) and Zukertort, in which, however, Black had previously played ...a6, and White had retreated Ba4.
International: This mode of development which temporarily obstructs the queen's bishop occurred first between Steinitz and Blackburne, in the game referred to above, and has since come in vogue in other openings, like the Giuoco Pianissimo.
7...Bg7 8.dxe5
International: Novel in this situation, and anyhow stronger than 8.d5. Black is compelled to retake with the knight, and the long diagonal for his king's bishop is thereby blocked, while White has got rid of his king's knight, and his pawns on the king's side are free to operate on that wing.
International: Best; if 8...dxe5 9.Bxc6 Bxc6 10.Nxe5 Bxe4 11.Qa4+, winning.
9.Nxe5 dxe5
Monthly: If 9...Bxb5 10.Nxf7, followed by 11.Qb3+, etc.
International: Nothing better. Had he take the bishop, then White would reply 10.Nxf7, followed by 11.Qb3+.
10.Qe2 0-0 11.Bd3 Qe7 12.f3
Monthly: Preparatory to an advance or the pawns on this side. 12.h3 would seen the plausible move; but White's plan being 0-0-0, to be followed by pawn to h4 would, therefore, be a lost move.
Monthly: 12...Be6 would seem preferable here. Black had to lose a deal of time later on in bringing back ...Bd7, in order to dislodge the adverse knight from c4.
Mackenzie: A very good move; having in view 14.Na5 and gaining time for the development of the queen's bishop.
International: Not as good as 13.Nb1, adopted by White in the eighteenth game of the match.
International: Seeing that his opponent intends to castle on the queen's side, he prepares a flank-attack on that wing.
14.Be3 Nd7 15.h4
Mackenzie: With the intention of forcing an opening on Black's king by pawn to h5, etc.
15...a4 16.Nd2 h6
Mackenzie: So that, if White advances 17.h5, he may reply with 17...g5, which will create a block on the king's side, all events for the time being.
17.h5 g5 18.Nf1 Nc5
Monthly: All this delay is occasioned by the bishop's move pointed out above, so much so, that Black is compelled to obstruct his open queen's file, enabling White to castle peacefully.
19.Bc2 Rfd8 20.Ng3 Bd7
Mackenzie: He could not afford to allow the white knight to plant himself at f5.
21.0-0-0 [1:00-?:??] 21...c6
International: To prevent Qb5 when he removes ...Be6.
Mackenzie: Threatening to double his rooks and then take knight with bishop. Black is now forced to play 22...Be6, whereupon White gains a move by 23.Nf5.
International: An elegant continuation was pointed out by Mr. Zukertort in case White had here ventured on 22.b4, namely, 22...axb3 23.axb3 Ra1+ 24.Kb2 Nd3+ and mates in two more moves.
22...Be6 23.Nf5 Bxf5 24.exf5 Rxd2 25.Qxd2 Nd7
Mackenzie: If 25...Rd8 White takes 26.Bxc5.
26.g4 Nf6 27.Be4
International: White considered that he had the best of the game, and he was therefore reluctant to give up his queen's bishop for the adverse knight which would have left bishops of opposite colors on the board. Black threatened to effect such an exchange now by 27...Nd5, followed, if the White queen's bishop retreated, by 28...a3 and 29...e4. By the move in the text White blocks the adverse e-pawn, and should Black exchange, the white pawns would be undoubled, besides leaving bishops of the same color.
27...Rd8 28.Qc2 Nd5
Monthly: 28...a3 might be considered both there and on the next move a desirable continuation.
International: Quite sound, though he exposes himself to the loss of a pawn.
Mackenzie: Had he played to win a pawn by 29.Bxd5, Black retakes 29...cxd5, and upon White's capturing 30.Qxa4 Black will free his inactive bishop by advancing 30...d4.
International: If 29.Bxd5 cxd5 30.Qxa4 d4 31.Bd2 (best; if 31.cxd4 exd4 32.Bd2 Qe2 33.Qd1 Rc8+ 34.Kb1 Qd3+ 35.Ka1 Rc2 36.Bc1 Qc4, followed by 37...d6, with a fine attack) 31...e4, etc.
29...b5 [?:??-1:00] 30.a3
Mackenzie: Prudently preventing any further advance of the b-pawn.
30...Bf8 31.Rd1 Qb7 32.c4
Mackenzie: An excellent move, as in the event of the principal pieces being exchanged, the weakness of Black's pawns on the queen's side will cost him the game.
Monthly: 32...Rc8 might have offered reasonable chances of resistance, e.g.: 33.Kb1 b4 34.cxd5 cxd5 35.Bxd5 Rxc2 36.Bxb7 Rxf2 37.axb4 Bxb4 38.Rd7, followed by 39.Bd5, and although the bishops are of different colour, White would still have the advantage.
International: In order to form an attack on the open b-file, but 32...Rc8, an ingenious move suggested by Mr. James McConnell, would have given him a much better chance of equalizing the game, though, we believe, that by best play White would have obtained a little the advantage, e.g., 32...Rc8 33.Rd3 Nf4 34.Rd2 b4 35.Qxa4 bxa3 36.bxa3, and if 36...Ra8 then 37.Qxc6 Bxa3+ 38.Kd1, etc.
33.Qxc4 [2:00-?:??] 33...Rb8 34.Rd2 Nb6 35.Qc3
Mackenzie: If 35.Qxc6, she is lost by 35...Rc8.
35...Nd5 36.Qc4
International: He could not take the e-pawn, on account of the reply 36...Bg7.
36...Nb6 37.Qd3 Be7 38.Rc2
International: Black's c-pawn can no longer be as often defended as it may be attacked, and its loss would signalize the breaking up of the queen's side.
38...Nd5 39.Qc4 Bxa3
Mackenzie: The sacrifice is unsound, and, as a telegram informs us, was the result of an oversight on the part of Dr. Zukertort. There is no question, however, that no matter what he played, Mr. Steinitz must have ultimately won the game.
Monthly: Evidently an oversight; but Black's position with two untenable pawns may be considered as lost.
International: A desperate resource in a desperate situation.
40.bxa3 Qb1+ 41.Kd2 Rd8 42.Bxd5 Rxd5+ 43.Ke3 Rb5 44.Qxc6 Rb3+ 45.Ke2
Picayune: Dr. Zukertort proposed an adjournment for dinner, to the surprise of many in the audience, who foresaw a speedy and certain victory for White, Black finally resigning on White's fourth move after recess.
Mackenzie: There is nothing to be done; should he take 45...Rxa3 White wins equally by 46.f6, etc.
Monthly: Obviously if 49...Qb3, then 50.Qf8, etc.
International: White threatened to drive the king about in a mating net, commencing with 46.Qe8+ followed by 47.f6+ (or respectively 47.Qxf7+) and 48.Qh8+, etc.
46.f6 Rb2 47.Rxb2 Qxb2+ 48.Kf1 Qxa3 49.Qe8 1-0 [2:44-2:13]
International: If 49...Qb6, White answers 50.Qf8, and mate is inevitable.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n7, March 1886, pp212-213
International Chess Magazine, v1 n4/5, May 1886, pp139-141

Game 17: Friday, March 19, 1886.

The Steinitz-Zukertort Match—Seventeenth Game of the Series—Eighth Played in New Orleans, Ending in a Draw.

The champions contesting for supremacy in chess over all known living players sat down to the seventeenth game of the series and the eighth played in this city, at 1 o'clock yesterday in the parlor of the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club.

The players came to New Orleans after having won four games each. Eight games have been played in this city, of which 4 were drawn, 3 were won by Mr. Steinitz and 1 by Dr. Zukertort.

Zukertort had the move and the white pieces, and Steinitz had the black men. The "Queen's gambit declined" was the opening which developed the action, White moving out his queen's pawn, queen's bishop's pawn, and the bishop and knight on the queen's side, to which Black responded with queen's pawn and king's pawn, and the bishop and knight on the king's side. White castled at the 8th move, while Black castled at the 5th move, both on the king's side.

At the time the 28th move had been reached White had lost 4 pawns, 2 rooks and 1 bishop. Black had lost 4 pawns, 1 rook and 1 knight. In the 29th move White gained the odds of a pawn, which was maintained to the end. At the 37th move queens were exchanged, and with previous losses on both sides White was reduced to a rook and 3 pawns; while Black had a knight and 4 pawns.

The struggle now narrowed down to an effort to queen a pawn, but after White's 52d move a draw was agreed on.

The time occupied by Dr. Sukertort [sic] was 1 hour and 35 minutes, while Mr. Steinitz consumed 2 hours and 35 minutes. The total time of playing was 4 hours and 10 minutes.

Zukertort And Steinitz.
Another Drawn Game Yesterday.

The seventeenth game of the world's chess championship occurred yesterday, resulting in another draw after most interesting contest of four hours. Promptly at 1 o'clock the contestants appeared in the rooms of the Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, Dr. Zukertort distinguished by a red japonica in his buttonhole.

Quite a number of clubmen and interested chess amateurs were present for the opening, which was made by Zukertort, Queen's Gambit Declined, a variation from his last opening. After the preliminary moves it became evident that the game would be characterized by the same rapidity on the part of Zukertort and slow care by Mr. Steinitz which is habitual with either player. Dr. Zukertort rose frequently and walked around the raised platform upon which the chess table is placed, while Mr. Steinitz remained absorbed over the board, referring frequently as the game progressed to notes of time and record of moves which each player keeps. At the fifteenth move, with the men situated as will be seen by reference to the score below. Mr. Steinitz created some surprised comment among the knowing ones by moving K [sic] to K sq. apparently blocking it in. The game proceeded slowly up to the twenty-second move, when, as far as pieces went, there was no advantage except the difference between a Bishop and a Knight. Some rapid exchanges followed, Zukertort seeming to be the aggressor, until finally the game was reduced to a Rook and three Pawns for White and Knight and four Pawns for Black A draw resulted while Black was endeavoring to push his extra Pawn to the White rampart, defending its progress with Knight and King against Rook and King.

Another Drawn Game At Chess.
A Large Attendance Of Spectators In New-Orleans.

New-Orleans, March 19.—Dr. Zukertort and Mr. Steinitz began playing the seventeenth game in the match at chess at the rooms of the Chess, Checker and Whist Club soon after 1 o'clock this afternoon. The opening was the Queen's gambit declined. At the conclusion of the game there were as many members of the club present as the rooms could accommodate comfortably. Interest in the contest seems to be increasing. The next game will be played on Monday.

Date: 1886.03.19
Site: USA New Orleans, LA (New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club)
Event: World Championship (Game 17)
White: Zukertort,JH
Black: Steinitz,W
Opening: [D50] Queen's Gambit Declined
1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5
International: See our remarks to the 15th game of the match at this point.
Mackenzie: Very much superior to the advance of 4...c5 as played by Mr. Steinitz in the fifteenth game of the match.
International: Doubting the efficacy of 4...c5, as played on the last occasion, Black resorts to the defense adopted by Anderssen against the Editor.
5.Nf3 0-0 6.e3 dxc4
Mackenzie: The prudence of this capture, which assists White's development, is somewhat questionable; it is possible, however, that Mr. Steinitz wished to avoid the block that would have been caused by White's playing the pawn to c5.
Monthly: The queen's fianchetto is preferable here.
7.Bxc4 Nbd7 8.0-0 c5
Mackenzie: A favorite move in this opening with the second player, but in our opinion, under existing circumstances, by no means a good one. 8...Nb6 followed presently by 9...h6 seems a more natural line of play.
9.Qe2 h6
International: To sever communication between the adverse queen's bishop and the centre or queen's side, before exchanging the centre pawns, which it was Black's intention to do immediately. White evidently is bound to retreat, for he would not profit by exchanging bishop for knight.
10.Bh4 Nb6
International: By an extraordinary piece of inattention Black here reverses the order of moves he had planned. For, obviously, 10...cxd4 first gave Steinitz the same sort of development which he had in previous games of that character. If Zukertort then retook with pawn, as he always did before, the entrance of 11...Nb6, followed by 12...Nbd5, and afterward 13...Qa5, would constantly gain time for the defense. The play in the text at once gives Black by far the inferior game.
International: Promptly taking advantage of Black's error.
11...Bxc5 12.Rfd1
Monthly: White has decidedly the better developed game. Black, however, might have lessened this advantage had he played 10...cxd4, and followed it up by 11...Nb6.
International: With excellent judgement White employs the king's rook for this attack, and reserves the other rook for the eventual occupation of the c-file.
Mackenzie: If this be Black's best resource, then the evil effects arising from his eighth move are apparent. He has permitted White to take possession of the open d-file with his rook, and the black knights are compelled to beat an ignominious retreat.
International: Much as these impedes the action of Black's pieces, it was about the best he could do under the circumstances. If 12...Qe7 13.e4, with a powerful attack, or 12...Qe8 13.Nb5, with a winning game, or 12...Bd7 13.Ne5 Qe7 (if 13...Be7 14.Bxf6 Bxf6 15.Nxd7 Nxd7 16.Bb5, and wins) 14.Bxf6 gxf6 15.Nxd7 Nxd7 16.Qh5 (threatening 17.Rxd7, followed by 18.Qxc5) 16...Ne5 17.Qxh6 Nxc4 18.Ne4, and wins.
International: The strongest continuation, no doubt.
Mackenzie: Apparently the only move to parry the threatened advance of pawn to e5.
14.e5 Ne8
International: Again the reasonable retreat, though his game presents a still more depressed appearance in consequence. He had to guard against 15.Bxe7 followed by 16.Nb5, which threatened to fix the knight at d6, and if 14...Nd5 15.Bxe7 Nxc3 16.Bxd8 Nxe2+ 17.Bxe2 Rxd8 18.Rd6 Kf8 19.Rad1 Ke8, or 19...Ke7, 20.Nd4, followed by 21.f4, or 21.Nb5 accordingly, with a fine game, for, obviously, Black dare not venture to capture the e-pawn, on account of 21.Rxd8+, followed by 22.Nc6+, winning a piece.
15.Bg3 Qb6 16.a3
International: A very fine preparation move which virtually compels the opponent's advance to a4, and thus opens an important square at b5 for the attack of White's minor pieces.
Mackenzie: In Black's cramped position it was absolutely necessary to prevent the oncoming of White's pawn to b4.
17.Rac1 Nc5 18.Bf4
International: Simple as this appears after the event, the manner in which this bishop is brought into powerful action on the queen's side presents a fine example of strategic penetration.
18...Bd7 19.Be3 Bc6
International: He had to provide against the attack by 20.Ne4.
20.Nd4 Rd8
International: But there were also grave objections against the only other plausible defense, namely, 20...Qc7, for White could simply answer 21.f4, and his attack would very soon ripen into decisive advantage.
International: We learn that the main variation of the following line of play, proving a clear win for White at this juncture, was first pointed out by the Chess editor of the Boston Post: 21.Nxc6 Rxd1+ 22.Qxd1 Qxc6 (or 22...bxc6 23.Na4 Qa7 24.Be2, and wins) 23.Bb5 Qc7 24.Na4 b6 25.b4 Qxe5 26.bxc5 Nc7 27.Be2, and wins.
Monthly: Obviously to prevent the loss of a piece which White is threatening with 22.b4 or 22.Na4.
22.Rxd1 Bxb5
Mackenzie: Wisely seizing the opportunity of thinning down some of the hostile pieces.
Monthly: If 23.Bxb5, then 23...Nc7 24.Bd7 N7a6, etc.
23...Qc6 24.b4
Mackenzie: From the course the game takes this turns out very well for White, but we are by no means sure that the combination of which it is the initiatory move is a sound one.
24...axb4 25.axb4 Nd7
Mackenzie: Exactly the move that the Doctor desired, and the consequences of which Mr. Steinitz evidently did not foresee, but had he retired 25...Na6 we do not think that White has any particular advantage.
International: There was hardly anything better, though his loses the exchange, if 25...Na4 26.Rc1 threatening 26...Bb3 or 26...Bd3, with a fine attack. Again, if 25...Na6, then the following continuation might have arisen: 25...Na6 26.Na7 Qa4 (we see nothing better) 27.Bb5 Qxb4 28.Bxa6 bxa6 29.Nc6 Qa3 30.Qc4, and should win, for in reply to 30...Bg5, White answers 31.Bc5 at once, and if 30...Nc7 then 31.Nxe7+, followed by 32.Bc5.
Mackenzie: Beautifully played; Black cannot now prevent the capture of the e-pawn with knight and must do the best he can to escape from the predicament in which he has become involved.
Monthly: Black is compelled to lose the exchange, because wherever the queen retires, White replies 27.Nxe6, etc. There is nothing better than the text move.
International: Finely played.
Mackenzie: The rook is so miserably out of play that the sacrifice of the "exchange" for a minor piece and a pawn was doubtless the best thing he could do.
International: The only resource to dispute an easy victory.
28.Nxf8 Nxc4 29.Nd7 Bxb4 30.Qd3
Monthly: Decisive seems to be 30.Rd4, forcing the exchange of queens, when it is more than probable that Black's b-pawn would fall.
30...Qg4 [?:??-2:00]
International: Black's king being confined, it would have been unwise to exchange queens. 30...Qe6 at once was much better, but the move in the text was made under pressure of time limit, and it may be noticed that this was Black's 30th move, and bears the mark of the second hour which, if we remember right, was just expiring when the move was made.
31.h3 Qe6
Mackenzie: All these defensive operations are very skilfully conceived.
32.Rb1 Nxe3 33.Qxe3
Mackenzie: This we take to be an error on White's part; had he taken 33.Rxb4 at once he must, we think, have won the game.
Monthly: The simple course would have been 33.Rxb4 Nd5 34.Rxb7 Qe1+ 35.Qf1, etc. If 34...Qc6, then 35.Qb1, and should win.
International: Though he could have secured the gain of the b-pawn by 33.Rxb4, the actual play was quite plausible, for apparently the pawn was sure to fall very soon, and its preservation may be almost called accidental. It seemed, therefore, to be the best policy to get rid of one more of Black's pieces, especially as White's knight was rather out of play, and the subsequent exchange of queens could not be prevented. We may remark that his winning was by no means clear had he taken the bishop, for neither party then had any pawns on the queen's side, and Black, if he exchanged queens, had then only to protect the king's wing with one knight and the king, while the other knight could be employed to hold the adverse king aloof, or else to attack the hostile pawns. However, even without exchanging queens, only a vague and indefinite position, we believe, would have been arrived at, if he had taken the bishop, e.g., 33.Rxb4 Nd5 34.Rxb7 Qc6 35.Qb1 Nf4 36.f3 Ne2+ 37.Kf2 (best; if 37.Kh1 Ng3+ 38.Kh2 Nf1+, etc.) 37...Nd4, followed by 38...Ne6, with a fair defensive position, on account of White's king being much exposed.
33...Qxd7 34.Rxb4 Qd1+ 35.Kh2 Qd6+ 36.Qf4
Monthly: Obviously the only chance to try for a win is 36.Rf4, followed by 37.g3.
Mackenzie: The time gained by this beautiful king move is just sufficient to neutralize all White's brilliant play, and the result now must be a draw.
International: The saving clause for the defense, for, as White has hardly anything better than to exchange queens, Black's king is in time to protect his knight which, in turn, will guard the b-pawn, and also prevent the rook from cutting off the entrance of Black's king into the centre.
International: If 37.Kg3, then Black would commence a series of checks, starting by 37...Qg6+ which might have been followed by developing his knight for the attack in some contingencies.
37...Nxd6 38.Kg3
Mackenzie: But for the move of the king, who can now support his knight, White would now have won by 38.Rb6.
Monthly: If 38.Rb6, Black would continue as in the text.
38...Ke7 39.Kf4 Ke6 40.h4
International: We can not approve of this advance, and on principle, we think, he had much better winning chances by bringing his king to d3 via e3 as soon as possible, for this would have arrested the subsequent march of Black's king on the c-file.
40...Kd5 41.g4 b5 42.Rb1 Kc5 43.Rc1+ Kd5
International: Best, for if 43...Nc4, White would answer 44.Ke4, and Black's b-pawn could not advance on account of 45.Kd3.
Monthly: It is quite useless to play 44.Rc7, as the knight guards the f-pawn as well as b7, so that the pawn could safely advance. We do not think that White can win any more. Zukertort missed several opportunities.
44...Nc4+ 45.Ke2
International: Of course not 45.Kd3, on account of 45...Ne6+
Mackenzie: This ambitious pawn has now to be attended to.
46.Rb1 Kc5 47.f4 Na3 48.Rc1+ Kd4 49.Rc7
Mackenzie: It is tolerably evident that he won't have time to pick off Black's pawns, as soon as the b-pawn has reached b3.
49...b3 50.Rb7
International: He could not take the f-pawn, for then Black's b-pawn would advance to queen, and after winning the rook for that pawn, Black's king would be in too close proximity to White's pawns, and would either stop all of them by 53...Ke4, or else, for instance, in case White moved 53.Kf3 afterward, Black's knight after checking at d2, would soon enter effectively in the centre. White would then never be able to exchange more than one of Black's two pawns, and the latter would therefore win without difficulty.
50...Kc3 51.Rc7+ Kd4
Mackenzie: Whether Black has now winning chances by 51...Nc4, would require a long analysis to determine.
International: Black can do no more than draw; should he attempt to win by 51...Nc4, he would actually lose, as White could first take the f-pawn, and return in time to the b-file to give up his rook for Black's passed pawn. He could then force one of his own pawns into queen, commencing with pawn to h5, and followed by pawn to g5, as both the adverse king and knight can not reach the king's win in time to intercept their advance.
52.Rb7 ½-½ [1:35-2:35]
International: And the game was abandoned as drawn.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n7, March 1886, pp214-215
International Chess Magazine, v1 n4/5, May 1886, pp142-145 (ends 52...Kc3)

Sunday, March 21, 1886.

It is pleasing to note that interest in the great match seems wholly unabated, if, indeed, it be not on the increase, as the play goes on. Large and appreciative audiences of members and invited non-resident guests have closely and attentively watched the games during the week, and every local play of note has found time to witness, if not the whole, at least a part of every game. Among the many visitors to the club during the play, we note the names of Mr. Geo. Y. Green, the president of the Manhattan Chess Club, of New York; Lieut.-Gov. H. Clay Knoblock, of Louisiana; Dr. J. L. Hale, of Boston, Mass.; Gen. J. C. Breckenridge, U. S. A.; Mr. W. H. Cashman, of Vicksburg, Miss., and the former president of the once flourishing chess club in that city; Mr. Ellies T. Hart, of Centreville, Miss., and his father, Isaac T. Hart, Esq., now of Woodville, Miss., but in the old Morphy days one of our strongest local players, and many others. Mrs. and Miss Friedlander, of London, were also frequently present, and at Wednesday's partie Mrs. John A. Morris, of this city, accompanied by her nieces, the Misses Broadwood, of London, watched the games throughout.

We may add that some surprise has been manifested in the club, owing to the public announcement on the part of both masters that by an additional agreement between themselves, made in St. Louis, it has been determined that if their scores stand at any time 8 to 8, the match shall be considered drawn. Under this stipulation, should Mr. Steinitz win one more game, is is assured of a draw, at least.

Play is to be resumed to-morrow at 1 o'clock p.m., Mr. Steinitz having the move.

Game 18: Monday, March 22, 1886.

Steinitz-Zukertort Match for the Championship of the World—Eighteenth Game of the Total Series, and Ninth Played in New Orleans—Steinitz Gains It.

Mr. Wm. Steinitz and Dr. J. H. Zukertort sat down to the eighteenth game of their match for the chess championship of the world on Monday, at 1 o'clock, in the place appropriated to them in the parlors of the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club.

Mr. Steinitz had the white pieces and the move, and the game was opened with the knights after the usage of Ruy Lopez, a celebrated Spanish player of the sixteenth century. This opening with variations appears to be a favorite with these chess masters, as they have used it oftener than any other in the games played here. Black castled at the tenth move, while White postponed that piece of strategy until the thirty-second move.

Mr. Steinitz developed his game steadily until his men were in a position of strong attack, driving his antagonist to a strict defensive.

Dr. Zukertort's playing was evidently not up to his mark of excellence, for he was unable to make any decisive resistance to the rush of his antagonist's attack. At the thirty-seventh move it was seen that the Doctor was hard beset and at the fortieth move he resigned. The moves of Mr. Steinitz were made in 2 hours 10 minutes, while the Doctor consumed 1 hour 15 minutes.

It will be remembered that the original contract between the players requires that in order to win, the successful player must gain ten games. If they shall score nine games each the match shall be declared drawn. Subsequently, at St. Louis, it appears that the contract was revised and it was determined that if the players should score eight victories each the match shall then be declared drawn. The general score now stands as follows: When they came to New Orleans Steinitz had four games and Zukertort had four games. The playing here as resulted in four victories of Steinitz and one for Zukertort, making up the total score eight for Steinitz and five for Zukertort. Mr. Steinitz will have to win two games to Dr. Zukertort's five, to gain the match.

Steinitz Scores Another Point In The Chess Match.
A Comparatively Short Game—[...]

The eighteenth game of the Steinitz-Zukertort world's championship chess match, and the eighth of the New Orleans series, was played yesterday afternoon at the rooms of the Chess, Checkers and Whist Club.

It detracts nothing from the renown of the distinguished combatants to record the fact that in spite of their name and fame the crowd that waits upon their movements and with eager eyes follows their every action grows smaller rather than larger.

They are the same visitors now that witnessed the first game—only there are fewer of them. The two players look exactly as they did on the first day, and a casual visitor at the initial contest and again at that of yesterday, thought a month has elapsed between the dates, might be tempted almost to believe that players, chessmen, board, table, audience, everything—even the beautiful smile upon the scorer's face and the solemn silence that reigns through the room were merely a stereotype of the scene presented at the first game.

Yesterday's game contained nothing of decided originality or brilliance, and it was not remarkable for its dullness. It was a short game—as world-championship games go—and added one more to the number gained by Steinitz. The latter is now very near the goal of victory, but two more games to win, and he is chess champion of the world. Zukertort has five games to his credit, and appears to be in bad luck, having won but a game since his advent to the Crescent City.

For the eighth time during the match Mr. Steinitz opened with the Ruy Lopez, and for the eighth time Dr. Zukertort followed his Berlin tactics in defending himself. At the fourth move the spectators began to wonder in their minds whether the new departure made by Steinitz at this point in the last game would be repeated by him. He hesitated for a few minutes, and then decided to repeat the move of the ante-penultimate game P to Q 3, the move in question being the favorite with Anderssen. Zukertort answered with his previous reply, P to Q 3, and from this point down to the end of the tenth move there was no variation from the moves of the sixteenth game, with merely a transposition of the eleventh, and twelfth moves on the part of Steinitz, and of the eleventh and thirteenth on the part of Zukertort, the game was in fact, for two moves further, a copy of that named. Then, at the thirteenth move, Steinitz, instead of Kt to K 3, played Kt to B sq., and the moves subsequently made were unlike those of any preceding game. For a few moves Steinitz appeared to have no definite plan of action. The players were equal in the number of their men, and in value, save for Zukertort's very trifling advantage of a Knight over a Bishop, gained in the twenty-first move. A few moves further, however, and Steinitz began to oppress the opposing King. All his forces were centred on the objective point, and then the Doctor's Rook showed signs of obstreperousness Steinitz forced an exchange and the Rook went down at the thirty-second move. Steinitz scored another point by castling, which he had deferred doing until thus late in the game. Zukertort struggled bravely amid the meshes that were being woven about him. All thoughts of victory must have left him by this time, and he could not have hoped for better than a draw. But, luckily perhaps, for the patience of the public, even that was not to be. At the 39th moves Steinitz, after slow and careful deliberation, sent his Q to B 3. His next move—Q x P—had been already made in the minds of the spectators before even the doctor had time to reply, and resignation or checkmate for the latter was writ upon the wall. Zukertort's reply to the 39th move was preceded by full twenty minutes' deliberation; then he played P to K 5; Steinitz replied by capturing a pawn, checkmate was in sight for the doctor, Steinitz's face beamed with the smile induced by impending victory, and the doctor, with a quick, sudden, nervous movement, turned down his king and signified that he had thrown up the sponge. Steinitz had played two hours and ten minutes, and the doctor had one hour and fifteen minutes to his credit.

The next game will be played on Wednesday.

Steinitz Again Winner.
He Contends That He Cannot Lose The Chess Championship—The Score 8 To 5.

New-Orleans, March 22.—The eighteenth game of the chess championship contest was begun at 1 p.m. to-day and was won by Steinitz, making the score: Steinitz, 8; Zukertort, 5. According to the original terms of the contest if the games should stand nine to nine it was to be a draw. In St. Louis the number by agreement was reduced to eight to make a draw. Steinitz therefore, now contends that he cannot lose.

Date: 1886.03.22
Site: USA New Orleans, LA (New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club)
Event: World Championship (Game 18)
White: Steinitz,W
Black: Zukertort,JH
Opening: [C65] Spanish
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bb5
Mackenzie: It is said that Dr. Zukertort, when asked why he did not open with the Ruy Lopez when first player, replied that he did not care about an opening the inevitable result of which ought to be a drawn game. Possibly Mr. Steinitz may have heard of this remark, and holding a different opinion has persistently played the Ruy Lopez to show that the result is not necessarily a draw.
3...Nf6 4.d3 d6 5.c3 g6 6.d4 Bd7 7.Nbd2 Bg7 8.dxe5 Nxe5 9.Nxe5 dxe5 10.Qe2 0-0
Mackenzie: So far, we believe, the moves on both sides are identical with those of the sixteenth game of the match. On his eleventh move, however, if we remember rightly, Mr. Steinitz retired his bishop to d3 before advancing his f-pawn.
Monthly: Up to this point both sides follow the sixteenth game. Here, however, Steinitz transposed the 11th and 12th moves.
International: The position is identical with that of the 16th game of the match up to this point, but this and White's next move are transposed in their order, which makes no particular difference.
Mackenzie: This appears to be loss of time at a very important period of the game.
Monthly: Quite ineffectual at this early stage of the game. Black's object apparently is to prepare a counter attack in case White should castle on the queen's side; but in the sixteenth game, where Zukertort also advanced the a-pawn, there was some reason for it, White's knight having stood at b3, and even then it did not prevent White's castling on the queen's side.
International: With the view of forming a pawn-attack on that wing, should White castle on the queen's side.
12.Bd3 Qe7 13.Nf1
International: Stronger than 13.Nb3 adopted in a similar position in the 16th game. The knight is here more handy for the support of the attack against the king's side, and can be brought into good action from this square via g3 or e3.
13...Be6 14.g4
Mackenzie: White has the great advantage of knowing where the adverse king has castled, and proceeds forth with to open a furious attack on his entrenchments.
14...Rfd8 15.h4 Qd7 16.Bc2 h5
Mackenzie: Necessary, otherwise his position would be all broken up by the advance of White's pawn to h5.
International: An excellent move which neutralizes the attack of White's pawns.
International: Certainly better than 17.gxh5, in which case the knight would have retaken, and Black would have been secure against all attack for a long time, as White could not make much use of the open g-file, and Black's knight could also eventually enter at f4 if found expedient.
17...Ne8 18.Ne3 Qc6
Monthly: Loss of time. It is quite clear that White would advance his knight, in order to develop the queen's bishop; assuming that he would not, without compulsion, resort to the queen's fianchetto as a mark for attack with Black's advanced a-pawn. 18...c6 would therefore suggest itself.
International: The key move to White's future operations in the centre. As will be seen, White can defend this pawn against the attack of the adverse knight without being compelled to advance 20.b3, in which case Black would obtain some counter-attacks by 20...a4.
Monthly: 19...Rd4 may be considered here. If 20.b3, then 20...Bf8 21.a3 (If 21.Bb2, then 21...Bb4+ and 22...Rd2, etc.) 21...a4, to prevent 22.Bb2, for in that case Black would play obviously 22...axb3 23.Bxd4 exd4, winning a piece.
International: If 19...Rd4 20.Bd3 Nd6 21.b3, threatening 22.Nc2, or 22.Bb2.
20.Bd3 Rab8
Mackenzie: Apparently with the intention of playing 20...b5, but White never gives him a chance of doing so.
Monthly: It is hardly credible that the Black forces are commanded by the same Zukertort who made such an unprecedented score in the London International Tournament. Such a nerveless attempt at a resistance produces the impression that he only stands up as a matter of duty, without the slightest moral conviction of being able to do himself justice. We are bound to assume, even without the information, that he was seriously indisposed.
International: Or course with the intention of advancing 21...b5, but this is a futile plan, considering that it can also be prevented by 21.a4.
Mackenzie: Threatening a direful check at e7.
International: The exchange is unfavorable for Black, and we should have preferred 21...Bf8, as White's knight at present could not do much harm.
22.cxd5 [1:00-?:??] 22...Qd7 23.Bd2 Ra8
Monthly: Now the rook must retire to defend the pawn, because if 23...b6, then 24.Rc1, followed by 25.Rc6, etc.
International: The best defense for this pawn; if 23...b6, White would have answered 24.Rc1, threatening 25.Rc6.
Mackenzie: White's energetic conduct of the attack is in marked contrast with the vacillating tactics on the other side.
Mackenzie: A feeble move which, from the excellent form displayed by Mr. Steinitz in the present game, is sufficient to decide the day against the Doctor.
25.Rc5 cxd5 26.Rxd5 Qa4
International: An indifferent move which in no way alters the main course of White's attack, and he gains nothing by compelling the advance of the a-pawn. Practically, however, the line of Black's defense could not have been much changed, for had he played 26...b6 at once, White would have answered 27.Bc3, to which 27...Qe8 or 27...Qe7 were the best replies, and the last-named move would not have made any material difference.
27.a3 b6
Monthly: The text move might have been played instead of 26...Qa5, as the queen is now out of play altogether.
28.Bc3 Qe8 29.Qf2
International: Besides attacking the b-pawn the move in the text prepares a strong onslaught by pawn to f4 eventually.
Monthly: If 29...Rab8, then 30.Qg3, etc.
International: Useless. It would have been better to have taken the rook at once.
30...Qe7 31.Rxd8+ Qxd8 32.0-0
Mackenzie: It is rarely that castling occurs so late and so effectively as in the present instance.
Monthly: Perhaps 32...Qc7, followed by 33...Nd6 would have been better. Anyhow it would have prevented the immediate advance of the adverse f-pawn.
Mackenzie: The two bishops, in conjunction, are ominous of disaster to the black king.
International: 33...Rc8 was much better, for, whether White answered 34.b3 or 34.Bd5, Black could answer 34...Nb5. Of course White would have chosen the last-named course, followed by 35.f4, and his attack would have remained strong, but evidently not as potent as in actual play, for White could not avoid the exchange of his powerfully-posted queen's bishop.
34.Bd5 Rc8 35.f4 [2:00-?:??]
Mackenzie: The beginning of the end.
Monthly: Decisive! There is no satisfactory reply to this powerful move.
International: There is hardly any satisfactory defense against the attack herewith initiated.
35...Qd7 [?:??-1:00]
International: If 35...exf4, 36.Qxf4, etc.
36.f5 Ne7
International: No better was 36...gxf5 37.Qxf5 Qxf5 38.Rxf5 Nd8 (or 38...Ne7 39.Bxf7+ K-moves 40.Rf3, etc.) 39.g6, etc.
Mackenzie: Evidently being of the opinion that his bishop is far too valuable to be exchanged for the adverse knight.
International: 38.f6 was threatened, and if 37...Bf8 38.Bxf7+ Kxf7 39.fxg6+ Ke6 (best) 40.Qf7+ Kd6 41.Rd1+, and wins.
Pope: This note in the International Chess Magazine apparently neglects 40.Qf6#.
38.exf5 Bf8
International: In the hope that White might take the b-pawn, to which Black would answer 39...Nd5, threatening 40...Bc5+.
International: The decisive answer which prevents the entrance of knight at d4, and attacks the indefensible h-pawn.
Mackenzie: Black seems to invite the death blow, and this is about as speedy a way of having it administered as he could possibly have chosen.
40.Qxh5 1-0 [2:10-1:15]
Mackenzie: Mr. Steinitz shows to great advantage in this game, but Dr. Zukertort all through plays much below his usual force.
Monthly: Mr. Steinitz plays this form of the Lopez to perfection, and it is surprising that he should have neglected it in favour of his new hobby.
International: 40...Rxc3 is the only defense, and then might follow: 41.Qxf7+ Kh8 42.Qh5+ and mates next move.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n7, March 1886, pp215-216
International Chess Magazine, v1 n4/5, May 1886, pp146-148

Game 19: Wednesday, March 24, 1886.

The Steinitz-Zukertort Match for the Chess Championship of the World—Nineteenth Game of the Series and Tenth Played in New Orleans—It is Won by Mr. Steinitz.

The shortest games of the match played in New Orleans in the match for the chess championship of the world was played on Wednesday at the rooms of the Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, the 29 moves on both sides being competed in precisely two hours. The two champions played with unusual celerity, Dr. Zukertort completing his moves in 45 minutes, while Mr. Steinitz got through in 1 hour and 15 minutes.

The game was opened at 12:58 o'clock by Dr. Zukertort, who played White queen's pawn to queen's fourth square. Mr. Steinitz replied with a like move, while White followed with knight and bishop from queen's side to which Black responded with knight and bishop from king's sdie developing queens gambit declined. As this situation was quite familiar to the players who had recently had practice in it and its variations, the champions did not hesitate long to study the moves but they made their dispositions rapidly.

Black seemed to have a plan in view which he could afford to make sacrifices to maintain, and his losses seemed very serious compared with those of his antagonist, for Black lost queen, two knights, bishop and three pawns. Despite these odds Black queened a pawn at the 26th move, and forced White to surrender after four moves more. There was a show of brilliance in entire contrast with anything that has been exhibited during the progress of the match, and decidedly refreshing to those who have become somewhat wearied with the slow and painstaking methods heretofore developed by the players.

The winning of this game by Mr. Steinitz gives him 9 to Dr. Zukertort's 5 in this match. One more victory will confer the championship on the German master.

Steinitz Once More Defeats Zukertort At Chess.
The Doctor Seems to Lose His Head—[...]

The nineteenth game in the world championship chess match was played yesterday at the Chess, Checkers and Whist Club. It was the tenth of the New Orleans series, and proved the shortest since the advent of the two great antagonists here, the first game ending in a draw alone excepted. Steinitz won again, and has thus almost annihilated Zukertort's chances of retaining the world championship, for Steinitz has nine games to his credit, and but one more success will give him the much coveted title of world champion, and the by no means insignificant stakes they are playing for. Zukertort is far behind him, having scored but five games in all, and only by linking together of improbabilities can he now overtake his rival.

The doctor was certainly in bad form yesterday. This was demonstrated by his face, which was inclined to be haggard, and by his eyes, which were ringed. Steinitz, on the other hand, wore his customary calm and impassive appearance. Nothing ever seems to disturb Steinitz, unless the pendulum of his clock happens to be swinging during Zukertort's deliberations. But this rarely happens.

It was Zukertort's turn at the Whites yesterday, and he opened once more with is favorite Queen's Gambit. Steinitz once more declined it. An old time ramification of the movement followed. Zukertort got the advantage, lost it through careless play or through impaired mind power, and was left almost hopelessly at the mercy of his opponent.

Steinitz actually Queened a Pawn at the 26th move, and while the doctor at once captured the new Queen he lost a Knight over it, and he surprised nobody by turning over his King at the end of the 29th move. Only two hours and four minutes had been spent over the game, one hour of which goes to the credit of the doctor, this being the largest proportion of time expenditure he has yet borne.

Little Hope For Zukertort.
Steinitz Wins The Nineteenth Game.
The Score In The Chess Championship Contest Now 9 to 5.

New-Orleans, March 24.—The nineteenth game of the series in the world's championship chess contest between Dr. Zukertort and Mr. Steinitz was played to-day at the rooms of the Chess, Checker and Whist Club. Dr. Zukertort resigned after the twenty-ninth move. Mr. Steinitz has now won nine games and Dr. Zukertort five.

Date: 1886.03.24
Site: USA New Orleans, LA (New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club)
Event: World Championship (Game 19)
White: Zukertort,JH
Black: Steinitz,W
Opening: [D53] Queen's Gambit Declined
1.d4 d5 2.c4 e6 3.Nc3 Nf6 4.Bg5 Be7 5.Nf3 0-0 6.c5
Mackenzie: This ill-advised attempt to secure a superiority on the queen's side, turns out badly for Dr. Zukertort. He had much better have proceeded with the quiet development of his forces by 6.e3, etc.
Monthly: Up to here the opening is identical with the seventeenth game. White played 6.e3, which he discards for the inferior text move.
Mackenzie: The correct reply to White's feeble advance of the c-pawn. The attack now changes hands, and is carried on by Black with unflagging energy, until the enemy surrenders.
International: With the view of stopping White's attack on the preceding move Black, in the fifteenth game, had advanced ...c5 already on the 4th move, but, as explained in our notes to that game, Steinitz had some misgivings about the efficiency of that defense.
Mackenzie: A necessary consequence of his 6th move.
7...bxc5 8.dxc5
Mackenzie: Surely 8.bxc5 was better than this, which simply allows Black still further to proceed with the disruption of White's pawns on the queen's side.
Monthly: Why not 8.bxc5?
International: If 8.bxc5 Ba6 9.g3 Nc6 10.Bg2 Ne4 11.Bxe7 Qxe7, with an excellent game.
Mackenzie: Improving his own and weakening the adversary's position.
9.a3 d4
Mackenzie: This fine move completely disorganizes White's forces. If 10.Nxd4 Black replies with 10...axb4, and if 10.Qxd4 Black exchanges queens and then proceeds with 11...axb4.
Monthly: Black takes immediate advantage of his opponent's weak 8th move, and institutes a vigorous counter-attack, which he maintains right through the game.
International: The counter-attack here instituted is, we believe, quite sound.
International: It was probably better to play 10.Na4, at once, for he merely strengthens the adverse centre by the exchange. If, however, 10.Qxd4 instead, Black would obviously have exchanged queens, followed by 11...axb4, winning at least a pawn with a fine game. Again 10.Nxd4, was clearly bad, for Black would reply 10...axb4, which could not be retaken without the loss of a piece by the exchange of rooks, followed by 12...Qxd4.
Mackenzie: Infinitely preferable to 10...Bxf6, for White could in that case release himself in a great measure from his thraldom, by 11.Ne4.
Monthly: As White, though the first player, has no pieces in play for an attack on the king's side, Black can afford to strengthen his centre. The king is perfectly safe. Besides, if 10...Bxf6, then 11.Ne4, gaining a move, whereas now he is obliged to put the knight in an inferior position. Obviously if 11.Nxd4, then 11...axb4, etc.
11.Na4 e5
International: 11...axb4 12.axb4 Nc6 13.b5 (we see nothing more promising) 13...Nb4 was much superior play. For now, White dare not take 14.Nxd4, on account of the reply 14...Qxd4, recovering the queen by 15...Nc2+, with a piece plus. Anyhow, Black threatens 14...Bxc5, which White dare not take on account of 15...Rxa1, followed by 16...Nc2+, and if White protect the c-pawn, Black will obtain an excellent development by 14...e5.
Mackenzie: Having once committed himself to an advance of the pawns on the queen's side, the Doctor seemingly feels bound to carry out his plan.
International: Black carelessly neglects the ordinary precautions due in match play, in failing to simplify his advantage as he could have done by playing here 12...Qd5. Whatever White then did to defend the c-pawn, Black could proceed with 13...Be6, threatening 14...Qb3, with the superior game.
Monthly: 13.c6 appears the right continuation here, judging from the sequel.
International: We believe, that Black here has the best of the game anyhow. But, for that very reason, and though it is mostly dangerous to advance the pawns too far at an early stage, we think his best chance consisted in blocking up the adverse knight and rook by 13.c6. For it would have been very difficult for Black, in actual play, to find the right answer, especially as the reply 13...Qd5 would have been tempting, but not satisfactory, e.g., 13.c6 Qd5 14.e3 dxe3 15.Qxd5 exf2+ 16.Kxf2 Bxd5 17.Nc3, and White is practically a piece ahead for one pawn. The right line of play was, however, the following: 13.c6 Bc4 14.e4 (if 14.e3 Bxf1 15.Kxf1 Qd5 16.Qe2 [or if 16.Qb1, Black answers 16...Qc4+] 16...Qb3 17.Nb2 Bxa3 18.Nd1 Bc5, etc.) 14...d3 15.Nc3 a4 16.Qc1 [if 16.Nd2 instead, Black answers 16...Qd4] 16...Ra5 17.Rb1 Bc5 18.Nd2 Be6, threatening 19...Qd5 or 19...Qd4, and should White answer 19.Nxa4, then Black might either play 19...Ba7 or else 19...Bxf2+, followed by 20...Qd4+.
13...c6 14.bxc6
Mackenzie: All that this unfortunate pawn has accomplished has been to assist in bringing Black's knight into play.
Monthly: Compulsory, as White could not maintain the two pawns were he to advance 14.b6.
14...Nxc6 15.Bg2 Rb8 16.Qc1
Mackenzie: He must provide against ...Bb3, which Black now threatens.
International: As this pawn can not be taken without complete disorganization of White's game, Black is enabled to establish a formidable phalanx of pawns in the centre.
Monthly: Equally forced. If 17.exd3, then 17...Qxd3, and if 18.Qc3 Qe4+ would win a piece; and if 18.Qe3 Rb1+ would result in speedy disaster for White.
Mackenzie: These centre pawns are beginning to assume a portentous aspect.
18.Nd2 f5 19.0-0
Mackenzie: Doubtless a relief to White to get his king into apparently safe quarters, though with his pieces so detestably situated, his position is anything but an enviable one.
International: Had he now attempted the break the centre by 19.g4, the game might have proceeded thus: 19.g4 Nd4 20.exd4 Qxd4 21.Nc3 Bf6 22.Ndb1 and now Black can already recover two minor pieces for the rook by 22...Rxb1 followed by 23...Qxc3+, whereupon he would remain with a strong pawn and an excellent position against the exchange. He may, however, also make a preparation move by 22...Rfc8, which strengthens his attack.
Monthly: In view of White's possible attempt at breaking the formidable phalanx of centre pawns with 20.g4, when Black would have probably replied 20...Bf6, so as to unmask ultimately the rook as an additional defence for the e-pawn.
International: With the object of defending the e-pawn once more, after removing 20...Bf6, should White attempt now 20.g4. The move in the text was, however, also very useful against the line of play actually adopted.
Monthly: White did not carry out the attempt pointed out in the previous note, which, however, would have been better than the text move.
International: His game was much inferior, but this of course loses off hand.
Mackenzie: Mr. Steinitz is playing the "high" game throughout. This offer of the knight, which White is almost compelled to accept, renders his centre pawns irresistible.
Monthly: Nothing more than what should be expected with such an overwhelming superiority of position.
21.exd4 Qxd4+ 22.Kh1 e3
Mackenzie: Far stronger than the capture of the knight at a4.
International: Naturally this is stronger than 22...Qxa4, and though Black is a piece behind, his game from this point almost plays itself.
23.Nc3 Bf6
Mackenzie: Each piece seems to fit in just where it is wanted.
24.Ndb1 d2 25.Qc2
Mackenzie: 25.Nxd2 would involve the loss of both knights for one pawn.
25...Bb3 26.Qxf5 d1Q 27.Nxd1 Bxd1 28.Nc3 e2
International: The following continuation would have been more elegant: 28...Qxc3 29.Rfxd1 (or 29.Raxd1 e2, bringing about the same position as in the text) 29...e2 30.Re1 Qxa1 31.Rxa1 Bxa1, and wins.
29.Raxd1 Qxc3 0-1 [0:45-1:15]
Mackenzie: Mr. Steinitz's play in this game has been of a high order, but his antagonist, both in this and in the preceding game, does not do himself justice by any means. Possibly the mental strain is beginning to tell upon him.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n7, March 1886, pp217-218
International Chess Magazine, v1 n4/5, May 1886, pp149-151

Saturday, March 27, 1886.


In consequence of the illness of Dr. Zukertort there was no playing on Friday in the international chess match for the championship of the world. The next game will be played on Monday. The score of the players is Steinitz 9, Zukertort 5. The winner of the match must game ten victories.

The Chess Match.

The chess match was postponed yesterday afternoon on account of the duly certified illness of Dr. Zukertort.

This game was due to be played on March the 26th. Mr. Zukertort, however, on that date claimed a day's rest on the ground of general indisposition, attested by medical certificate, but which did not state the exact nature of Mr. Zukertort's malady, as, we believe, would have been required according to the spirit of the laws of the match. Undoubtedly, however, Mr. Zukertort was not in good condition to continue the contest on that day, for the state of his score was not calculated to relieve him from the distressing effects which the severe mental strain imposes on the nervous system of players engaged in heavy Chess contests, and which, we may assure our readers, did not spare his opponent. Mr. Steinitz, therefore, considered Mr. Zukertort's demand to be perfectly fair for once, but he intimated to some of his friends that he would object to any further delay of the contest, except on such grounds as would be fully warranted by a strict interpretation of the rules. We think it right to make this statement as various reports, differing from the above, have been published in the journals.
International Chess Magazine, v1 n4/5, May 1886, p151

Sunday, March 28, 1886.

That a physical cause underlay so marked a deterioration in mental effort was evidenced by the postponement of the game fixed for the 26th instant, under the seventh clause of the contract of play, providing that "in case of real illness, proved by medical certificate, either player may claim a rest for three play days during the match, either in succession or on separate occasions." The physician's certificate was, we understand, that Dr. Zukertort is suffering from intermittent fever.

Game 20: Monday, March 29, 1886.

Conclusion of the Chess Match for the Championship of the World. Between W. Steinitz, of New York, and J. H. Zukertort, of London—Steinitz Wins the 20th Game and the Match—An Incident of Morphy's Career.

On the 15th of January there was commenced in New York, under the supervision of the Manhattan Chess Club, a match for the chess championship of the world, between Mr. William Steinitz, editor of the International Chess Magazine of New York, and Dr. J. H. Zukertort, editor of the London Chess Monthly. The stakes were for $2000 a side, and were deposited in the hands of Hon. Charles F. Buck, President of the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, and it was arranged that the winner must gain ten games. The playing was to commence in New York, and be carried on there until one of the players should have gained four games. The scene of operations was then to be transferred to St. Louis, where one or the other of the players was required to win three games. After that the playing was to be conducted in New Orleans, where one or the other champion was required to complete a score of ten games won.

The playing in New York resulted in 4 games for Zukertort and 1 for Steinitz. In St. Louis Steinitz won 3 games to none for his antagonist, and they came here tied, with 4 games each. On Friday, the 26th of February, the playing commenced in this city, at the rooms of the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, at 1 o'clock in the afternoon. It resulted in a drawn game at the 21st move. The second game of this series was played on Monday, March 1, and was won by Mr. Steinitz in 42 moves. The third game was played on Wednesday, March 3, and was won by Steinitz in 44 moves. The fourth game was played on Friday, March 5, and was won by Zukertort in 86 moves. The fifth game was played on Friday, March 12, and was drawn in 48 moves. The sixth game was played on Monday, March 15, and was drawn in 49 moves. The seventh game was played on Wednesday, March 17, and was gained by Steinitz in 49 moves. The eighth game was played on Friday, March 19, and was drawn in 52 moves. The ninth game was played on Monday, March 22, and was won by Steinitz in 40 moves. The tenth games was played on Wednesday, March 24, and was gained by Steinitz at the thirtieth move. On the whole series Steinitz stood 9 to 5 for his antagonist.

The concluding game of the match was played yesterday, March 29 commencing at 3 minutes before 1 o'clock. Mr. Steinitz had the white pieces and the move, and he led off with the king's pawn to his fourth square. Dr. Zukertort responded with a like move. Steinitz moved queen's knight to her bishop's third square, to which his antagonist replied with a like move.

Steinitz then played king's bishop's pawn to his fourth when Black's king's pawn captured White's bishop's pawn.

White next moved up his queen's pawn to her fourth, to which Black responded by a like move.

This opening, which is apparently a weak one, is known as the "Steinitz Gambit," and has been played by him before, but not always with success. It, however, proved entirely available in this instance, moves on both sides being made with rapidity and decision. White lost rook, bishop and three pawns, while Black lost two knights and three pawns.

At the eighteenth move Dr. Zukertort resigned, giving the match to Mr. Steinitz, the first score of the game standing: Steinitz, 10; Zukertort, 5.

The moves on each side were made in thirty minutes, both notwithstanding the rapidity with which the game was played it developed nothing brilliant or distinguished, save the novelty of the opening.

After witnessing the progress of the eleven games played by the great champions it does not appear that there has been developed any great strategic playing, no profound combinations which astonished all spectators and gradually enveloped the antagonist inextricably in the toils of unexpected disaster. The prevailing feature in most of the playing has been intense painstaking, which has not always been successful.

The Great Chess Match.
Steinitz Victorious In The Final Game.
And Captures the Four-Thousand Dollar Stakes—[...]

The eleventh game of the series in New Orleans, and the twentieth of the great match, between the champion players, Steinitz and Zukertort, opened at 1 o'clock yesterday in the parlors of the Chess, Checkers and Whist Club. They were in their seats on time, Steinitz facing Dryades street and Zukertort facing Baronne street.

Steinitz played first, moving the white. Zukertort, who was still suffering from the effects of his recent illness, appeared nervously weak, his slim delicate fingers running through his moustache, and pulling at his whiskers. He sat with his legs crossed, frequently clasped his hands together, cast furtive glances around the room, seemed unable to comprehend the combinations of the complex game that he was in vain endeavoring to study out to a conclusion, would get up, and, after pacing the floor for awhile, return to his chair, press his hands to his brow, sip of ice water, and strive to gather up the threads of the labyrinth of moves spread before him.

Steinitz sat with his feet wide apart, his arms, for the greater portion of the time, in front of him, resting on the table, his eyes constantly fixed on the board, the intensity of his thoughts concentrated on the game that was in progress.

They played for a half hour each, when Steinitz won at the nineteenth move, Dr. Zukertort losing his Queen and resigning. He said that he was wholly unable to play, being in the same condition as he was after the London tourney of 1883, where he lost three games in succession after having won twenty-two out of twenty-three previously played. He could not yesterday see any of his moves ahead, and was easily vanquished.

The match thus ended was for $2000 a side and the championship of the world, and the money and honor both go to Steinitz, who won the ten games necessary to the victory.

Both these wonderful players will remain in the city for several days, and will play a few exhibition games at the Harmony Club.

The Steinitz-Zukertort Match.

The postponement of the game fixed for the 26th ultimo between the two champions, on account of Dr. Zukertort's illness, led most of the local amateurs to anticipate a similar deferment on Monday last, and there was some surprise when it was learned that the partie was actually to take place, Dr. Zukertort announcing that he was prepared to play at all events. But it was easily evident to those who were present, even prior to the opening of the game, that he was still suffering from the effects of his fever attack, and the result clearly enough demonstrated that he overrated the degree of his recovery, both of physical and mental "form."

Steinitz The Champion.
Final Struggle In The Chess Match.
Dr. Zukertort Badly Beaten—A Review Of The Contest.

New-Orleans, March 29.—The twentieth game in the world's championship chess contest was begun promptly at 1 p.m. to-day and was concluded in sixty minutes by the resignation of Dr. Zukertort. This ends the contest and makes Mr. Steinitz the champion player of the world. The match thus concluded was begun in New-York at Cartier's Hall, on January 11. Dr. Zukertort opened with the Queen's gambit, which Mr. Steinitz declined and won the game. The next game Mr. Steinitz opened with the Scotch gambit; his opponent accepted it and won the game. This was the only variation made by Mr. Steinitz, who since that time rigidly adhered to the Ruy Lopez opening, except in one instance when he opened with the double Ruy Lopez. Dr. Zukertort throughout confined himself strictly to the Queen's gambit, which his opponent as strictly declined. The Doctor won four successive games in New-York, and after a rest of two weeks the contestants continued playing in St. Louis. Here Dr. Zukertort's luck forsook him, and it was here that Mr. Steinitz's star began to ascend. In St. Louis Mr. Steinitz added three games to his score, and one was drawn, making the games won even at four. From St. Louis they came to New Orleans, and this city was strictly the battleground. It was here that the long mental strain began to tell, and it was the one who could last the longer who would win. Mr. Steinitz won three straight games, lost one, drew four, and then won three more. At various times Dr. Zukertort was compelled to have the game postponed on account of ill-health and insomnia.

Date: 1886.03.29
Site: USA New Orleans, LA (New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club)
Event: World Championship (Game 20)
White: Steinitz,W
Black: Zukertort,JH
Opening: [C25] Vienna
1.e4 e5 2.Nc3 Nc6 3.f4 exf4 4.d4
Mackenzie: An invention of Mr. Steinitz, and first introduced by him in the Chess Congress held at Dundee, Scotland, in 1867. Its object is, should Black check 4...Qh4+, to move 5.Ke2, so that when the end game comes he may be able to utilize the king, either on the king's or queen's side of the board, according to the necessities of the position.
Mackenzie: A departure from the recognized line of play which is 4...Qh4+.
International: Usually 4...Qh4+ is here played at once and then, followed by 5...d5, which is a mere transposition of the two moves.
Mackenzie: He might also have taken 5.Bxf4, but as the next move leads into the usual variations of the gambit, with which Mr. Steinitz is thoroughly conversant, he no doubt exercised sound judgment in preferring it.
5...Qh4+ 6.Ke2 Qe7+
International: In our first volume, January number, p. 19, will be found an excellent example of the attacks and counter-attacks, with some analysis, by 6...Bg4+, at this point, in a game between Messrs. R. Steel and R. M. Ross, of Calcutta. The move in the text was first suggested by the Rev. G. A. McDonnell, of London, and is made with the view of checking alternately at h4 and e7, and to draw by perpetual check.
7.Kf2 Qh4+ 8.g3
Mackenzie: In one of a series of games played between Messrs. Steinitz and Mackenzie, in New-York, in February, 1883, the former was content to accept the draw brought about by 7...Qh4+ and 8...Qe7+.
8...fxg3+ 9.Kg2
Mackenzie: But since then, we believe, he has analyzed the opening more carefully, and is now of the opinion that the interposition of the pawn can be ventured upon not only with safety but with advantage. The position is a remarkable one, full of interesting possibilities, and it will be regretted by the chess-playing public that Mr. Steinitz did not give his pet opening a trial somewhat earlier in the match.
Mackenzie: We look upon this as an error, and the primary cause of Black's losing the game. 9...Bd6 was successfully played against Mr. Steinitz by both Messrs. Englisch and Chigorin in the great London Tournament of 1883, and appears to be the only move by which Black can hold his own against the attack with which he is menaced. It in answer to 9...Bd6 White captures 10.dxc6 Black replies with 10...gxh2 threatening mate winning back his piece.
Monthly: The text move was recommended in the Chess-Monthly, Vol. IV., p. 243, in the notes to a game between Steinitz v. Mackenzie. In the late London International Tournament both Englisch and Chigorin played successfully against Steinitz 9...Bd6. Whether the text move is superior remains an open question at present. The balance of favour seems to rest with 9...Bd6, and as a matter of fact Steinitz never played his gambit again in the tournament mentioned. However, Mr. R. Steel, of Calcutta, no mean authority on the subject, believes the gambit do be sound, and illustrates it as follows (Book of the Tournament, p. 61): 9...Bd6 10.Qe1+ Nce7 11.hxg3 Qxd4 12.Nf3 Qb6 13.Be3 Qxb2 14.Bd3 Bb4 15.Bd4 f6 16.Rb1 Bxc3 17.Bxc3 Qxa2 18.Rb5, with a strong attack.
International: In the London Tournament of 1883, Chigorin played here against the Editor, 9...Bd6, and the game proceeded with 10.Qe1+ Nce7 11.hxg3 Qxd4 12.Rh4, and White ultimately lost the game, which, however, he could have drawn easily at an intermediate stage. Mr. R. Steel, of Calcutta, has, however, pointed out a much stronger line of attack in lieu of 12.Rh4, which according to the analysis of that gentleman, would lead to the following continuation: 12.Nf3 Qb6 13.Be3 Qxb2 14.Bd3 Bb4 15.Bd4 f6 16.Rb1 Bxc3 17.Bxc3 Qxa2 18.Rb5, with a strong attack.
International: It would be bad now to check with queen at e1 for, if afterward White proceed by 11.hxg3, Black might reply 11...Nxc2, attacking the queen.
10...Qg4 11.Qe1+ Be7 12.Bd3
Monthly: Preparatory to 13.Rh4, which cannot be played at the present juncture because of 12...Nxc2 13.Qf2 Qg6, etc.
International: A necessary precaution. If 12.Rh4 Nxc2 13.Qe5 Qg6 14.Rb1 (there seems nothing better) 14...Qf6 15.Bb5+ (or 15.Qxc7 Ne1+, followed by 16...Qxf1) 15...Kd8, etc.
Mackenzie: Something of this sort had to be done in order to avoid the fatal advance of White's rook to h4.
Monthly: The text move hopelessly compromises Black's game. Zukertort plays here 12...Kd8, but strange as it may appear "he completely overlooked it," so he stated after the conclusion of the game.
International: He had to guard against the loss of a piece by 13.Rh4, and if 12...Kd8, White would continue the attack by 13.Ne4.
13.Nf3 Bd7
Monthly: With the intention of 14...0-0-0, and also to prevent 14.Nb5. But clearly White would not allow such a peaceful retreat, with the adverse queen in such an embarrassing position. The question, however, is whether Black has a saving move.
International: To induce White to the attack by 14.Ne5, in which case he would proceed by 14...Qxg3+ 15.Qxg3 Nxg3 16.Nxd7 (if 16.Kxg3 Bd6 17.Bf4 g5, recovering his piece with a pawn ahead) 16...Nxh1 17.Ne5 f6 18.Bb5+ Kf8, and Black has three passed pawns on the king's side, and altogether six pawns against four, which is more than a sufficient compensation for the eventual loss of two minor pieces for the rook.
Mackenzie: Contrast the freedom of the white forces with the miserable development on the other side.
Monthly: Threatening with 15.Ne4 to win the queen.
Mackenzie: A pitiable resource to be driven to, but 15.Ne5 had to be prevented at all hazards.
International: This was forced now, for he was bound to provide against 15.Ne5.
Monthly: Intending 16.Nf2 Qg6 17.g4 h5 18.Bxf5 Bxf5 19.Nh4, winning a piece.
International: Threatening to win a piece in the following manner by 16.Nf2 Qg6 17.g4 h5 (pr 17...Ngh6 18.Bxh6, etc.) 18.Bxf5 Bxf5 19.Nh4, and wins.
Mackenzie: Losing a clear piece and as a matter of course, the game, but his position is so deplorable, that we doubt whether any skill could avert his ultimate defeat.
Monthly: And the game and the match are over. Comment is needless. Whatever the reason may be, Zukertort did not see a combination two moves deep in the whole game. 15...h5 would have secured a retreat for the queen.
International: Fatal at once; but we don't think there was any salvation for his game. If 15...0-0-0, the reply 16.Qa5 would in a few moves, and if 15...h5, for the purpose of avoiding the loss of a piece, as indicated in our last note, then 16.Nh4 (threatening to win the queen by 17.Nf2) 16...Bc8 (if 16...Nd6 17.Nxd6+ cxd6 18.Ng6, threatening 19.Rh4, winning) 17.d6 Nxd6 (or 17...cxd6 18.Nxf5, and wins) 18.Bxd6 cxd6 19.Nxd6+ Kd8 (best; for if 19...Kf8 20.Ng6+ follows, and if 19...Kd7, he also loses his queen by 20.Bf5+) 20.Nf7+, and wins.
16.Bxh6 Nxh6 17.Rxh6 gxh6
International: Certainly superfluous, but it will be found that he could only save the queen at the expense of another piece. 18.Rh4, followed by 19.Nd6+, was threatened and there seems no better defense than 17...Bc8; whereupon might follow 18.Rh4 Qd7 19.d6 cxd6 20.Bb5 Qxb5 21.Nxd6+, winning the queen. If, however, 17...Kd8; at least a piece is lost by 18.Nf2 Qa4 (the only move) 19.Rh4 Bb4 (the only move) 20.Rxb4, etc.
18.Nxf6+ Kf7 19.Nxg4 1-0 [0:30-0:30]
Mackenzie: Because White now wins the queen.
Chess Monthly,1886, v7 n7, March 1886, pp218-219
International Chess Magazine, v1 n4/5, May 1886, pp152-154

The last game is the shortest and worst-played in the whole match, and shows conclusively, in our opinion, that Dr. Zukertort has broken down under the mental strain and worry attendant on a match of such importance as was the present.

Friday, April 2, 1886.

The Chess Champions.

Since the close of the great chess match last Monday, the champions have remained quietly in the city, where they are comfortably quartered and have many friends. They have played no chess since they concluded their engagement, but, as both are fond of the game, they can frequently be found on an evening in the cosy whist parlors of the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, contesting a rubber of whist.

It has been proposed to get up an exhibition of chess playing between Messrs. Steinitz and Zukertort, to which the public are to be admitted on the payment of a small entrance fee, so that the general curiosity to see the world's greatest chess players may be gratified. It is to be hoped that the enterprise will be successful as there are doubtless many persons who would readily take advantage of such an opportunity. Some public hall will be secured if the partie can be made up.

Sunday, April 4, 1886.

Mr. Steinitz, we understand, will leave for New York to-morrow afternoon. Dr. Zukertort departs the same evening for San Francisco, taking the transcontinental trip in the hope that his health will be benefited thereby. That the expectation will be thoroughly fulfilled and that bon voyage may be the history of his journeyings till safely home again, is the wish of the many friends whom he has made in our city.

The result is very gratifying to Herr Steinitz and his friends and particularly so to his Philadelphia friends who contributed one-fourth of Herr Steinitz's stake money of $2,000. Of course, according to the agreement Herr Steinitz takes one-half of the entire winnings, while the stake money, together with the other half of the winnings, will be returned pro rata to his backers. In contradiction to a report raised by Dr. Zukertort we may say that over three-fourths of Herr Steinitz's backers came from America.

In the time consumed, so far as has been reported, Steinitz has averaged about three and a half minutes per move, while Zukertort has averaged a little more than two minutes on each move.

Herr Steinitz will be glad to learn that the sympathies of the fickle frog-pond were with him throughout, even during the "lighting the cigarette" period, when it left Steinitz in a corner and clustered around the Doctor and invited him to dinner.

Monday, April 5, 1886.

After the conclusion of the Championship match, Messrs. Steinitz and Zukertort stayed in New Orleans for one week. The Referee and stakeholder, the Hon. Chas. F. Buck, after having received authority from Mr. Zukertort to hand of the stakes to the winner, very kindly relieved Mr. Steinitz of a great deal of trouble by undertaking the task of distributing the amount of the stakes among the different subscribers pro rata. Both players let New Orleans on the 5th of April in different directions; for Mr. Zukertort travelled with a party of friends to San Francisco where, we understand, he was to give some public Chess performances, while Mr. Steinitz returned to New York, where he arrived after some delay of the train, caused by the recent inundations.
International Chess Magazine, v1 n4/5, May 1886, p111

Tuesday, April 6, 1886.

Last evening the chess champions, Messrs. William Steinitz and J. H. Zukertort, left the city, where they had been staying since the latter part of February. Mr. Steinitz departed for New York, while Dr. Zukertort wended his way westward by the Morgan Line and Southern Pacific Railway.

Thursday, April 8, 1886.

The Chess Championship.
How Steinitz Views The Great Match.
Explaining The Defeat Of Zukertort—His Opinion Of The Game In General.

William Steinitz, who is now the chess champion of the world, since he defeated Dr. Zukertort, arrived in New-York on Thursday, April 7, from New-Orleans, where the match was closed on March 29. A Tribune reporter called upon him at his home in Brooklyn on the following day. He is not looking so well as when in New-York previous to the change to St. Louis, and his head is becoming somewhat bald, a fact immediately noticed by his wife when he greeted her on his arrival. The strain has been a severe one upon him, and it will be some weeks before he comes entirely recovered. His competitor, Dr. Zukertort, is now in San Francisco, where he has made arrangements to play with a number of local players in tournaments and blindfolded contests. There was some talk of the champions playing a series of exhibition games in New-Orleans for prizes with a time allowance of twenty moves to the hour instead of fifteen, which was the case in the championship contest. This would have been undoubtedly an advantage to Dr. Zukertort, as he is a much more rapid player than Mr. Steinitz, and only expert chess players can appreciate the terrible strain on one's nervous system occasioned while waiting for a move to be made. But Dr. Zukertort had made other engagements, and Mr. Steinitz was considerably behind in his work on his magazine, The International Chess Monthly [sic].

Mr. Steinitz was in excellent spirits and he discussed the match in its various phases cheerfully and fully. He said: "I did not begin to feel any certainty of winning the match until after I had drawn a game with Zukertort in St. Louis. Previous to that time I had not been able to get any sleep, and my nerves were badly shaken. The first game that I won in New-York was conceded by all to be brilliant and well-played, but between that and the second game I worked steadily for seventeen hours on my magazine, doing literary and analytical work when I should have been resting and taking outdoor exercise. After drawing the first game in St. Louis I experienced a change in my nervous condition and began to feel assured of victory. Considerable has been said by people about there not being any variety or originality in the play, of it the echo of persons who were thoroughly incompetent to judge. Now Morphy is held up to be the greatest chess player that has ever existed and his games are preserved and warmly commented upon on account of their apparent depth and brilliancy. I do not say that I could have beaten him, but I do say that the lines of attack adhered to by him are at the present time out of use. Twenty-seven years have passed since he withdrew from the world as a chess player, during which time the chess experts of the entire world have analyzed his playing, and if it was not found defective do you suppose that it would have fallen into disuse? In playing with inferiors it was usual for him to make some great sacrifice, but when opposed to one nearly or quite his equal he never deviated from the book form of defence and attack.

"Now in my play in all the twenty games with Zukertort no two games have been played alike after the third or fourth move. I do not believe in making sacrifices in play, it is not the theory of military scientists to do that, but to develop your play slowly and surely and when opportunity affords destroy the balance of force. I do not think that the double Ruy Lopez gambit will ever be used in a chess tournament among experts again. I have so effectually broken it down that it will sink out of existence as an opening. It has been in use now for many years, and I am the first to unfold a line of defence by which it could be beaten, and it was considered a specially strong opening when handled by a player like Zukertort, and I believe him to be the second best player in the world. So that in itself is sufficient proof to a candid thinker that there was nothing wanting in originality. It also proves conclusively that the game in place of having degenerated or stood still during the last thirty years has in fact taken a contrary course, and the game played now is superior to that ever played before. I do not wish to see the game run down and lose popularity, for I consider it the most healthy one in existence. Unlike poker and other gambling games those who play it can not indulge to any great extent in intoxicating liquors or tobacco while the former game on account of its excitement is conducive to the use of stimulants.

"The claim which Zukertort made to sickness while in New-Orleans was an unfair one, and he was no more entitled to delay on that account than I was when suffering from insomnia in New-York. On the very afternoon on which he presented his physician's certificate stating that he was unable to play, be became my partner in a rubber of whist. I let him know that such things could be carried no further or I should appeal to the referee. Now as regards the blunders he is credited with making, which are said to have cost him the game at various times, Dr. Zukertort did not make a single blundering move when he was playing a winning game; they were all made after the game was to him irretrievably lost. On the contrary it is well known to those who followed the playing in New York that my blunders were made when I was playing a winning game. Why those blunders were made by Zukertort is plainly seen on its face, to detract from the glory of winning the game from his opponent. I do not say now that I can beat Zukertort, and would not say so in case we played again, because I do not know how severe a mental strain I am capable of standing now. My health is not good and I am troubled greatly with my limb. I do not know whether Zukertort and I will ever meet again in a championship contest. There was some little talk of our meeting in London in case I defeated him, but I do not know what will be done. My adoption of the Steinitz gambit at the last game we played has been severely criticised by some of Zukertort's friends, who say that I did it to show my opponent my superiority and to crush him completely. It is not so. I had been anxious to use my opening but did not wish to do until after the games had reached such a stage that my backers could not lose anything. Although Zukertort continued playing up to the eighteenth move the game was virtually mine at the twelfth. I should like to have you add that I shall take out my naturalization papers and become a citizen of this country as soon as possible, and although I lived twenty years in London I could never think of becoming a citizen of England."

Saturday, April 10, 1886.

A Chess Necromancer.
Arrival of Dr. Zukertort, the Rival of Steinitz.

The Southern Pacific overland train was three hours late yesterday, and brought to this city 500 passengers. Among them was Dr. Zukertort, the most celebrated chess-player in the world, and until recently the acknowledged champion of the game, a title which it is very probable he may yet reconquer. He has already visited San Francisco and given an exhibition here of his wonderful science. The blindfolded tournament which he played in Irving Hall two years ago was one of the most remarkable entertainments ever witnessed. While he was here he also conducted a score or more of games simultaneously, and challenged all comers to attack him on the checkered field at once and the same time. He vanquished, or course, the best players of San Francisco, and such was the impression which he left behind him that there was very general surprise when the telegraph apprised his admirers here that Steinitz was beating him in the great championship match for $4000 [sic] a side, which came to an end in March.

A reporter of the Chronicle found Dr. Zukertort at the Palace Hotel about 3 o'clock yesterday afternoon. He said to his visitor:

"You no doubt wonder that with so hopeful an opening in New York the match with Steinitz went so much against me at St. Louis and New Orleans. But the fact is susceptible of some explanation. The first four games were mine. The fifth was won by Steinitz. In St. Louis I lost three, and succeeded in drawing one. In New Orleans Steinitz was the victor in six games, myself in one, and four were drawn. This match was very far from being a thorough test of my best science. You know that in London in 1883, in the International Tournament, I made the highest record in the world. I beat Steinitz in twenty-two straight games out of twenty-three. The intense rivalry between us dates from that time. In St. Louis in the last match I confess that he got ahead of me simply by superior play. I was not in good form, it is true, and when this is the case it is always more or less due to ill health. I am never wholly sure of myself in that respect, as I have heart disease. At New Orleans, however, I was utterly unfit to go on with the match, suffering as I was with a very severe form of malaria. The same trouble occurred to me in 1884, when I gave an exhibition there. I had the privilege, under the agreement between Steinitz and myself, to postpone the continuation of the match for a week, but I knew full well that that would be unavailing, as I would certainly grow worse instead of better. So we stopped playing for one day only. I have come now to California chiefly for my health—the same reason that brought me here before. I must declare, however, that I like this city better than any other in America. It has fewer drawbacks and a great many attractions.

"Do you think you will play in public here?"

"I have no idea. It will depend largely upon others. I have played more than 200 blindfold games in the United States, the majority of which I have won, and I will play simultaneously against all comers."

An informal committee was constituted to welcome Dr. Zukertort upon his arrival at Oakland. It was composed of Henry Heyneman, Joseph Redding and Dr. Marshall, but all of these gentlemen were unfortunately prevented by unexpected causes from fulfilling their design. The advent of Dr. Zukertort is awaited with feverish interest by the inveterate chess-players of the Mechanics' Institute, whose chessrooms he formerly frequented. When asked concerning the merits of the leading San Francisco chess-players, he replied: "Heyneman and Redding are undoubtedly the two who stand at the head; but it would be somewhat rash to say which of them is the better."

Dr. Zukertort is of small stature and light complexion. His appearance is delicate. Of the art of playing chess upon a board and with pieces that are invisible to the player, he remarked: "It is principally a task of the imagination. One must see the game in one's mind. It is a peculiar faculty and virtually distinct from that of the general memory. In a lecture which I delivered before the Psychological Society in Berlin many years ago I called it the 'plastic memory.' I think no other term fits it so well."

By birth Dr. Zukertort is a Russian. He was educated, however, at Heidelberg in Germany, and having resided in London since 1873, became an English citizen by naturalization in 1878.

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