Chess Archaeology HomeChess is a scientific game and its literature ought to be placed on the basis of the strictest truthfulness, which is the foundation of all scientific research.W. Steinitz

Preliminaries to Steinitz-Zukertort
1886 World Championship Match
Researched by Nick Pope

The 1886 Match

1883

By the result of the International Chess Tournament which was brought to a close on Saturday the title of Chess Champion of the World, which has been connected in times past with such names as Philidor and Labourdonnais, and more recently with those of Staunton, Morphy, Anderssen, Blackburne, and Steinitz, has passed on to Zukertort. The brilliant and masterly games which secured for him the victory will be handed down to posterity with the finest examples of his predecessors, and will be examined with the greatest interest by chess players in all parts of the world.

From the first number of "Ashore or Afloat" we extract the following correspondence which has passed between Mr. R. Steel, of Calcutta, who acted for Mr. Steinitz, and Mr. J. I. Minchin, as the representative of Mr. Zukertort, in reference to a match between these gentlemen is not an easy matter to arrange, and this latest proposal seems likely to share the fate of hits predecessors and end in a wrangle.

[Copy]
Oriental Club, June 24th, 1883.

Dear Sir,—Referring to our recent conversation on the subject of a match at chess between Messrs. Steinitz and Zukertort, I have now the pleasure to inform you that Mr. Steinitz has authorished [sic] me to propose such a match. I trust you will use your influence to promote a contest, which will be of extreme interest to the public, and will form a fitting sequel to the late successful tournament. The following are the conditions for the match suggested by Mr. Steinitz. If they be approved by Mr. Zukertort, any minor conditions may be easily arranged.

1. That the winner of the first eight or ten games be the victor.

2. That the games be played under a time limit of fifteen moves per hour.

3. That play shall be carried on either three days or four days per week, as Mr. Zukertort prefers.

4. That Mr. Steinitz will accept any suggestion of Mr. Zukertort's, as to the hour of the day when play shall commence.

5. That the time for commencement of the match shall be fixed for any date between 1st October and 1st January, which may best suit Mr. Zukertort.

6. That the stakes be for any sum not less than £200 aside, which Mr. Zukertort prefers.

7. That the games shall be the property of both players.

Mr. Steinitz is of opinion that the contest should, in the interest of both parties, take place in a private room, and that admission should be allowed to friends of both parties.

Mr. Steinitz is prepared to make an immediate deposit of £50, to bind a match on the basis herein suggested.
Yours faithfully,       
R. Steel.
James Innes Minchin, Esq.

[Copy]
St. George's Chess Club, 47 Albemarle Street, Piccadilly, W., June 27th, 1883.

Dear Mr. Steel,—I duly received your letter of the 24th regarding Mr. Steinitz's challenge to Dr. Zukertort, about which I had the opportunity of speaking of the latter yesterday. He begs me to point out to you that owing to his health and avocations, he has always, as Mr. Steinitz is aware, refused to bind himself down to play a match of chess at any future period. He cannot, therefore, now accept the conditions offered of binding himself to play at any time between October and January next. As a fact, I fear that Dr. Zukertort will not be in England at that period, as I believe he purports starting almost immediately on a protracted tour round the world.

I have no doubt that on his return from this tour, Dr. Zukertort will be quite ready to make a match with Mr. Steinitz on reasonable conditions, such as those offered, to promote which, when the time arrives, I shall be happy to use my good offices.
Believe me yours very truly,       
James Innes Minchin.
R. Steel, Esq.


Now that the London affair is well over attention is drawn to the probable match between Zukertort and Steinitz. Rumor has it that the Hungarian has actually challenged "the Doctor" to a contest of seven games for a stake of $2,000. As well as we can learn, however, there is nothing definite.


The following has been received from Mr. A. G. Sellman, the Baltimore Chess Association's representative at the International Chess Congress at London:

"One of the probably outcomes of the present tournament will be a collision between the two great masters, Steinitz and Zukertort. Steinitz has already issued his challenge to Zukertort. Herr Steinitz gave me for publication in The American the following as a copy of the condition: '1. That the winner of the first eight or ten games be the victor. 2. That the games be played under a time limit of fifteen moves per hour. 3. That play shall be carried on either three days or four days per week, as Mr. Zukertort prefers. 4. That Mr. Steinitz will accept any suggestion of Mr. Zukertort as to the hour of the day when play shall commence. 5. That the time fo the commencement of the match shall be fixed for any date between the 1st of October and the 1st of January, whichever may best suit Mr. Zukertort. 6. That the stakes be for any sum not less than £200 which Mr. Zukertort prefers. 7. That the games shall be the property of both players.' Mr. Steinitz is of the opinion that the contest should, in the interests of both players, take place in a private room, and that admission should be allowed to friends of both parties. Mr. Steinitz is prepared to make an immediate deposit of £50 to bind a match on the basis suggested. The challenge is dated June 24, and has been sent by Mr. Steel to Mr. J. I. Minchin, those two gentlemen acting in behalf of the principles"


The Chess Championship of the World is a subject which will form a topic of discussion in the Chess press for some time to come. The last issue of "The Bradford Observer" contains some remarks on it. The writer argues that Zukertort may hold the title and yet be "quite right in refusing to enter into so hard an engagement" (the match recently proposed is referred to) "after the trial he had to go through in the International." We disagree. It is very certain that Steinitz was, at one time, fairly entitled to the position of champion, and under such circumstances would hold it so long as he could defend himself against all comers. He has just taken an inferior place to Zukertort, in a Tournament, and for the time being Zukertort, in the opinion of some, becomes champion, but if he desires to hold that title he must defend himself against all comers; so soon as he declines to play a match, unless under very exceptional circumstances, he loses his position, and this is more particularly the case when his would-be opponent happens to be the man who for years past has been recognised as the champion. A tournamental advantage is not considered of such moment as regards the Chess Championship, and unless it can be maintained by after play we should be inclined to dismiss it as one of the freaks of fortune. Steinitz has challenged the only man who has beaten him since he has been Chess Champion; if he will not play, then Steinitz will be right in resuming his old title.


Steinitz has formally challenged Zukertort to play a match for not less than £200 a side. His letter will be published next week.


Dr. Zukertort Declines

On the 24th ult. Mr. R. Steel, in behalf of Herr Steinitz, challenged Dr. Zukertort to a match for a minimum amount of £200, the winner of the first eight or ten games to be the victor under a time limit of fifteen moves an hour; play to commence at any time between 1st October and 1st January next. This challenge the Doctor has peremptorily declined, assigning as a reason his contemplated world's tour, which will occupy a twelvemonth of his time. Truly "history repeats itself," and comments are hardly worth the while, especially from this latitude.


The length of Steinitz's letter in which he challenges Zukertort to play a match of eight to ten games for winner prevents its publication. Zukertort has refused to accept the defi, giving as his reason that it is his intention to visit foreign countries, which will consume about twelve months. He is evidently wary of his glory.


We really feel sorry for Steinitz.
[...]
Steinitz is devising all sorts of arguments in order to show that he is a better player than Zukertort. It is indeed laughable.


Steinitz is evidently regretting that he ever entered the London Congress.
[...]
Steinitz has begun a chess column in the London sporting journal Ashore or Afloat, and his first editorial consists of a fusilade against Zukertort.


Turf says the British Chess press does not sustain Zukertort in his cavalier treatment of Mr. Steinitz's challenge. The British Chess editors seem very generally to realize that Mr. Zukertort's reasons for declining the challenge are flimsy in the extreme.


Poor Steinitz! Thy name is changed to Ichabod.
[...]
Steinitz is rendering himself odious by blaming the Governing Committee for his defeat in the London Chess Congress. What can be more amusing?

When the refusal of Zukertort to play Steinitz is considered, there comes up in the mind of every true American chess player the contemptuous indifference of Steinitz to the challenge which James Mason sent to him immediately after the Vienna congress. His royal chess highness is now being paid back in his own base coin.


It is now reported that Zukertort is on his way to this country, and all sorts of rumors are afloat about a prospective chess match between Messrs. Steinitz and Zukertort at New York or Philadelphia this fall or winter.


It is almost certain that both Steinitz and Zukertort will come to America in the near future. Maybe the battle-ground of these two giants will be laid out in this country.


The situation of the world's Chess affairs has somewhat changed since Mr. Steinitz was here last. At that time Steinitz stood as the undisputed champion of Chess, but since then the London Tournament of the masters has taken place and Zukertort has secured the leading position by his majority of three games over all competitors, including Mr. Steinitz. Now, we do not think that Zukertort is equal to Steinitz, and Zukertort, if we may judge from his evasion of Steinitz's challenge, does not think so himself, but the facts of his recent splendid Chess achievement will sustain him, for a time at least, against the theoretical objections that may be urged against his claim. Therefore, the glamour is around Zukertort as champion of Chess de facto, and Steinitz must bide his time for revenge. They are both coming to America, and it is in America, yes, in Philadelphia that this great contest for the world's Chess championship must be fought out.


Some Aspects Of The Two Tournaments.
[...]
A concluding point to be noticed, in connection with the Tournament, is Steinitz's challenge to Zukertort which has naturally arisen out of it. We are sure it will not be Dr. Zukertort's fault if this match does not come off next year. Bet we regret to see attempts made in certain quarters, and even by Mr. Steinitz himself, to deprive Zukertort of his well-earned pleasure trip by insisting that he is to be at Steinitz's beck and call until the match has been played. Dr. Zukertort has been ordered by his physicians to abstain for some time from the labour of match play; but this need not prevent his enjoying his Trans-Atlantic holiday among the Chess Clubs of Canada and the States. Steinitz himself does not want to play at once, but in six months time; let him wait, therefore, the few additional months which the globe-trotting expedition demands, and let the match be made up immediately on Zukertort's return. Two months' notice is quite sufficient fo such a match: in a month the stakes would be covered in London, where neither player will want backers, and another month might be allowed for the necessary training.
W. W.


The Chess Champion.

Mr. J. H. Zukertort, a small, lean man of middle age, with a reddish beard and an immensely high forehead, arrived from London on the Alaska yesterday. He is a newspaper publisher by profession and he mingles that business with the pleasures of chess playing, in which game he takes position in the front rank. Recently he won the great tournament at London and gained the title of champion of the world. He comes to this country partly for pleasure and partly for chess. He expects to arrange a chess playing route and to give all the notable players in America a chance to try their skill with him. There is but one man whom he will not play with, except for high stakes, and that is the winner of the second place in the London tournament, who is now in Philadelphia. Mr. Zukertort will make the Belvedere Hotel his home while in New York. During the voyage he played blindfold against four antagonists simultaneously, winning all games.


Herr Steinitz challenges Mr. Zukertort to play for $1,000 or more.


With respect to the concluding paragraph of "Some aspects of the two tournaments" Mr. Steinitz writes to us as follows:—

"I know I shall not ask you in vain for a correction of a misstatement in W. W.'s article in your last number referring to my proposed match with Zukertort. He is utterly in error in asserting that I 'did not wish to play at once but in six months time.' The facts are as follows: A few days after the conclusion of the tournament I challenged Zukertort, through the kind offices of Mr. Steel of Calcutta, for a match to commence any time from three to six months from the date of my challenge. Obviously I was bound to give him some time for preparation, but when Mr. Minchin replied on his behalf that he would not engage himself at such 'a future period,' Mr. Steel informed Zukertort that I was ready to play at once which practically meant at any time."


Steinitz And Zukertort.

Philadelphia, Pa., Oct. 30, 1883.

To the Editor of the Herald:—

Sir—Being the second prize winner of the recent London tournament referred to in your notice of Mr. Zukertort's arrival in this country of yesterday's date, I beg your kind permission to state that Mr. Zukertort has according to old established precedents not the least title to the championship assigned to him in your report. The single handed match test has always been held by far superior to that of all round contests, which is proved by the reputation which the name of Paul Morphy enjoys, though that gentleman never entered a single great international tournament. Now, I have beaten Mr. Zukertort in a match played in 1872 by the score of 7 to 1 and 4 draws, and I have also defeated him in the general tournament score twice before—namely, in the London tournament of 1872, in which I came out first and Mr. Zukertort third, and last year at Vienna, where I tied for first and second place, while Mr. Zukertort tied for fourth and fifth place. Moreover, I challenged Mr. Zukertort in London immediately after the late tournament, to play a match for £200 a side at least, up to any maximum he might name, and he declined the challenge. This refusal alone would be sufficient to deprive him of any claim to the championship; but if, as is stated in your report, he is willing to play me for a large stake, I beg to declare that I am ready to play him at once for $1,000 a side, or for more at reasonable notice.
I am, sir, your obedient servant,       
W. Steinitz.


His Reply To Steinitz.

In answer to the letter from Mr. Steinitz in yesterday's Herald, challenging Dr. Zukertort to play him for $1,000 a side, the Doctor said last night:—

"After the London tournament Mr. Steinitz challenged me to play a match, but I declined because I wanted to make a tour of the world for rest and recreation. I will not play him in American for any sum, but after my tour I will play him in London for any stake he chooses to name. I will play him for a nominal stake or for £50 or £500. My reason for not playing him now and here is this:—I have some friends in London who have been my backers, but," smiling, "they have not lost anything by it. I am the captain and umpire of the first club there—the St. George's—and I owe it to my friends to play such an important match as this would be in their midst."


Steinitz has again challenged Zukertort to play a match for $1,000 or more. Although we would like very much to see a match between these chess giants, there is no reason why Zukertort should not enjoy for a while his well-earned championship of the world.


The Chess Monthly states that Zukertort, just prior to his departure for America, announced his intention of taking up Mr. Steinitz's challenge immediately on his return to England.


Mr. Steinitz sailed for Philadelphia last month, and apparently intends to locate himself for a considerable period on the American Continent, as he has resigned his honorary membership of the St. George's Club. It is not improbable that his match with Mr. Zukertort, who has also gone to America, will take place ere long in the United States.


In a speech at the annual dinner of the North London Chess Club, just previous to his departure for America, Dr. Zukertort expressed his willingess, nay, eager desire, to encounter Mr. Steinitz immediately after his return to Europe in the spring.


Steinitz has challenged Zukertort again to play a match, this time in Paris, at the Paris Chess Club, of which they are both honorary members, and of which President Grevy is also a member, the match to be played on the return of Zukertort and Steinitz to Europe. Steinitz will at once deposit $250 as a guarantee of good faith on his part.

Zukertort replies to Steinitz's challenge that he will not play him a match outside of London, but that it is a mistake to suppose he will play only in the St. George's Chess Club. He will play them on their return a match at any respectable chess club in London, and states they are, neither of them, members of the Paris Chess Club.—[Baltimore News.


"Not long since I received a challenge from Steinitz to play him again, which I accepted on the condition that the contest shall take place in London upon my return to that city, for the international championship and a purse of from £5 to £500 aside."


Steinitz and Zukertort will probably visit Havana, Cuba, at the same time. A Havana paper, it is stated, proposes to raise $1,000 to bring on an encounter between these two players. It is not likely the match will take place, however, as Zukertort has stated finally he will not play outside of London.


1884

Our American Exchanges announce that Steinitz has challenged Zukertort again to play a match, this time in Paris, at the Paris Chess Club, the match to be played on the return of Zukertort and Steinitz to Europe. Steinitz will at once deposit 250 dollars as a guarantee of good faith on his part. Zukertort replies to Steinitz's challenge that he will not play him a match outside London, but that is a mistake to suppose that he will play only in the St. George's Chess Club. He will play him on their return a match in any respectable chess club in London, and states that they are, neither of them, members of the Paris Chess Club.


Steinitz now wants to play Zukertort "for no stakes at all excepting the championship."


Dinner and Prizes for Chess Players.

The annual dinner of the Manhattan Chess Club took place last night at Martinelli's. Forty-five members of the club partook of it, as did also a number of invited guests, including a representative from the Baltimore Chess Club, several members of teh Stock Exchange, Capt. Mackenzie, Dr. Zukertort, William Steinitz, Mr. Thompson of Philadelphia, and other prominent chess players. Informal toasts were made and prizes were awarded to successful contestants in a recent private tournament. Capt. Mackenzie taking first prize, consisting of a cup and $50 in money; John Beard [sic], $35; Mr. Glipschultz [sic], $35; Eugene Delmar, $15, and J. S. Ryan, $10.

Delmar's Joke.

A little incident happened at the recent Manhattan Chess Club dinner which is too good to be lost. I was noticed that Mr. Eugene Delmar, was was present at that feast, was constantly endeavoring to get off a toast that he had on his mind, but that his friends—who evidently knew the subject-matter of what he was about to say—were as constantly endeavoring to keep him quiet. About every five minutes Mr. Delmar would rise with, "Gentlemen, I'm about to off—" "Come, come, Delmar," his friends would whisper, "let up." and they would pull him down to his seat and smother the thing over. This happened several times and each time the company paused in wonder—Steinitz would cease for a minute in relating his "wrongs" to a neighbor and even Zukertort would forget what a genius he was, in the excitement of the moment.

Finally, however, Delmar could no longer be restrained and he shouted, "Here's to the champion chess player of the world! let him respond." The company immediately "caught on" and the highest king of hilarity was exhibited by all but two. Zukertort got red and Steinitz began portentously clearing his throat, but no one responded to the toast.

What Thompson Proposed.

The situation began to grow a little embarrassing for at least two of the gentlemen, when Mr. D. S. Thompson, of Philadelphia, rose to his feet, saying: "Gentlemen, I think I can see a way out of this difficulty. Let Messrs. Steinitz and Zukertort sing a duet in response."

They Wouldn't Sing A Duet.

But, alas, they wouldn't sing a duet, and as we were about leaving Mr. Steinitz was resuming the thread of his discourse with "You see how I'm treated and receive no recogni—" and Mr. Zukertort was again leading off with "Yes, sir, even when I was a boy I was a great mathematical geni—" and then we left.

Dr. Zukertort is on a weeks visit to Pittsburg, before leaving for New Orleans. He has played 25 simultaneous games during his visit winning 22.

"I shall remain in this city about one week," he said to a Dispatch reporter, "when I leave for the South, going as far as New Orleans. I will then return to New York, from which point I will start on my third American tour, with San Francisco as a western terminus. From there I will sail to China and Japan, merely for the purpose of visiting those countries, after which I will visit India and give a series of exhibition games from Calcutta to Bombay. I will then return to my home in London, and be ready to accept the challenge of Steinitz for the world's championship, the games to be played probably in that city.

"I claim the title of champion of the world from the fact that I am the only living man who has ever won two international contests. I won first honors at Paris in 1878 and again at London in 1883. Steinitz won second place in the latter tournament; Blackburne, the British born champion of England, third. Mackenzie, the American champion, won fourth place in the Paris tournament, and tied for fifth, sixth and seventh places at London with Mr. Mason, also, an American, and Mr. English, of Vienna. Rosenthal, the champion of France, won eighth place."


Dr. Zukertort, chess champion of the world, arrived in the city from Cincinnati on last Thursday, being on his way to New Orleans to fill a two weeks' engagement with the Chess, Checker and Whist Club at that place.


The Philadelphia Times reports that Dr. Zukertort will enter a tourney (even for a $5 prize only) provided Mr. Steinitz will likewise enter. Cannot Herr S., who has been clamorous for so long, arrange for his révanche? The Doctor is expected in New Orleans on the 9th inst., where he expects to remain tow weeks or more, and a grand contest could be inaugurated there with all ease.


Times-Democrat: [...] We very much regret to learn that, in a letter recently received in this city, Mr. Steinitz expresses the decided conviction that, if the match between Dr. Zukertort and himself does not take place while the former is now in America, and is postponed until Dr. Zukertort's return to London, obstacles will arise that will wholly prevent its occurrence. Such an outcome would be regarded by the whole chess world as an actual misfortune, and we hope the distinguished player is in error in his forecastings. At all events, we feel assured that the chess-players of this city would do not a little to secure the occurrence of so notable a contest in New Orleans, and that neither master could choose a fairer or more appropriate field.


Mr. Steinitz writes to the Times-Democrat to to [sic] correct a statement made by that paper in reference to his unwillingness to play Mr. Zukertort should the latter return to London without making arrangements for a match to take place in America:

"The notice in last Sunday's Times-Democrat, referring to the proposed match between me and Mr. Zukertort, has given me much surprise. It must have been written on imperfect information, * * * for I in no way denied the possibility of a match here in America, or especially in New Orleans. I should only be too glad if the affair could be arranged yet, and I should bind myself for an reasonable time toward that object — say, for a twelve-month. I shall take no further initiative in reference to the match, but shall respond to any positive offer on Mr. Zukertort's behalf, if made direct or duly authorized and distinctly directed to me at his own request. But, * * * at any rate, I trust you will do me the just to contradict most emphatically the statement in your last number, which, without any foundation, would lead to believe that any obstacle against playing here in America could arise on my side. I must also say that it would be only fair to state that I have done everything in my power to bring about a match at New Orleans during the present season, or to fix it for next year."


The Chess Monthly settles the question whether Zukertort and Steinitz will play a match in America before the champion's return to England by saying, "We may state here once for all that there is no foundation for the constantly recurring rumor of a match between Messrs. Steinitz and Zukertort coming off in the United States. Mr. Zukertort having declared his readiness to meet Mr. Steinitz, after the termination of his (Mr. Zukertort's) tour, in London, we have no reason whatever to believe that he has changed his mind."


Zukertortiana.

During his late visit, Dr. Zukertort freely gave out his opinions of various celebrities of the chess world, past and present, and some of these will surely appear heterdox to many. Philidor, he considers to have been inferior to his famous Italian contemporary, Ercole del Rio; in fact, he thinks he was no better than a Pawn and two player of to-day. Deschappelles [sic] may have been a fine player, but too little is known of him, and he was probably a humbug. La Bourdonnais, he thinks, was really a great master, but the McDonnell he considers not worthy of the reputation he enjoyed. Staunton was a first-rate player when at his best, but never was, he is sure, equal to Anderssen. Of St. Amant he has a very poor opinion, rating him as a Pawn and two player. He considers Szen to have been a great player. Of the German masters, he thinks that Hanstein and Heydebrandt von der Lasa were the greatest before Anderssen appeared, the first named, however, being decidedly the superior. Anderssen, of course, he rates very highly, and he thinks that Steinitz was not really equal to him when they played their match in 1866; but, he adds, Anderssen, in his best day, was certainly not equal to Steinitz in his best. Bilguer, Bledow and especially Mayet were, in his opinion greatly overrated.—Considering the combined mental and physical effort that Dr. Zukertort undergoes in chess play, and more particularly in match games or in simultaneous exhibitions, it is wonderful how he bears up so successfully under the strain with so weak a physique as he has. When a lad he had a fall of twenty feet or more, striking his side upon an upright post, fracturing three ribs and remaining insensible for hours. The fractures seem never to have been perfectly reduced, and, in addition, he suffers from disease of the mitral valves of the heart!—There had been going on an animated discussion of the play of various chess masters, with a genial running accompaniment in the musical clinking of champagne glasses, when, "Gentlemen," said the doctor, "shall I tell you very frankly my opinion of Mr. Shteinitz's [sic] play and mine? Well" (setting down his glass), "I shall tell you. Mr. Shteinitz is a very great player; he is the strongest match player I ever met. Mr. Shteinitz's average play is better than mine; he is steadier than I, but" (pausing a moment), "I am vain enough to say that my best chess is better than Mr. Shteinitz's best."

"'If Dryden flies higher, Pope continues long on the wing,' eh, doctor?" observed a bystander; whereupon the doctor bowed.
[...]
"All this talk about my playing here with Shteninitz—so much talk about a very simple matter. Now, really it is very simple—a matter of word of honor. How can a man play a match now in this country, when he has given his word to his friends at home not to play it until after his return?" So the doctor put it to us very shortly after his arrival. And apropos of this important question for the chess world, it is worthy of note that Dr. Zukertort states positively that when the time comes he will not consent to make it a contest of so many games up, or of the winner of the first seven games, as so many matches have been played of late years. It must be, he says, the winner of the best of, say, twenty-one games, draws included, but not to count as half games.

"All this talk about my playing here with Mr. Steinitz—so much talk about a very simple matter. Now, really, it is very simple—a matter of word of honor. How can a man play the match now in this country, when he has given his word to his friends at home not to play it until after his return?" So the doctor put it to us very shortly after his arrival. And apropos of this important question for the chess world, it is worthy of note that Dr. Zukertort states positively that when the time comes he will not consent to make it a contest of so many games up, or the winner of the first seven games, as so many matches have been played of late years. It must be, he says, the winner of the best of, say, twenty-one games, draws included, but not to count as half games.


Denver Tribune, June 10: Dr. J. D [sic]. Zukertort, of London, England, the champion chess player of the world, is stopping in Denver. The Doctor, a short man with a large head, his face is protected by a reddish beard, is a jovial gentleman and pleasing conversationalist.

The renowned chessman, Zukertort, is veritably making a tour of the world. At last accounts he had left Leadville, Col., touched at Salt Lake City, and was expected in 'Frisco. From there he goes to India.


From the Argonaut we get the surprising information that Dr. Zukertort did not leave for China by the steamer of Saturday last, owing to the receipt of a cablegram from his partner, Mr. L. Hoffer, announcing his illness and requesting his return. The Doctor therefore let by the overland train on Friday afternoon for London direct, thus abandoning his contemplated trip to India. This is very unexpected news to players in this country, as it was supposed he had embarked ere this for China, and several of our contemporaries will now have an earlier opportunity to satisfy the chess players here as to the truth of the many statements made by Dr. Zukertort, during his tour which through their columns they have declared false. The Doctor will have to explain.


Dr. Zukertort's Return.

After having played chess from Main to California and from Manitoba to New Orleans, Dr. Zukertort, the famous chess player, arrived in this city yesterday. His most important games were played with Max Tutt [sic], at St. Louis. He won three, lost one and drew one.

Dr. Zukertort will probably return to England next week. On his arrival he will notify Mr. Steinetz [sic] of his readiness to play a match for the championship for any stake by October 1.


New York, Aug. 31, 1884.
Chess Editor of The Times-Democrat:

My Dear Sir—On my return from the far West I heard for the first time, in St. Louis, about a controversy going on between the chess columns of The Times-Democart, of New Orleans, and the Globe-Democrat, of St. Louis, concerning some of the games played between Mr. McConnell and myself during my late visit at New Orleans.

I hold now in my hands a resume of the controversy, which you kindly forwarded to my New York address. I did not see Mr. Foster since the end of May (which I visited friend Judd on my way to Colorado), otherwise I would certainly have considered it my duty to point out to you the vast difference between my casual remarks concerning those games and his unauthorized statement. You will admit that it is next to impossible that I should now recollect, verbe tenus, a conversation which took place three months ago, especially when you consider that during the time my mind has been occupied in every possible way. I remember, however, distinctly, that I used the same expressions as previously made in conversation with Mr. McConnell himself, in the chess-room of the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, viz.: "I do not consider these contests bona fide games, as I had to play every time the same commencement and thus lost all the advantage of the opening" or an expression to the same effect. Permit me now to substantiate my ascertain that these were not bona fide games, and to give a short history of this rather peculiar fight.

I played first seven games with Mr. McConnell, out of which, I think I won five, lost one and drew one (the first). The eighth game began:

1 P to K 4, P to K 4; 2 K Kt to B 3, Q Kt to B 3; 3 B to B 4, Kt to B 3; 4 Kt to B 3, B to Kt 5 (better is (* * Kt x P); 5 P to Q R 3, B x Kt; 6 Q P x B, Kt x P; 7 B x P (ch), K x B; 8 Q to Q 5 (ch), K to K; 9 Q x Kt, P to Q 4.

I won the game in question, and then followed a series of contests in which I had to adopt the same line of play at the express wish of my opponent. Why I do not consider them actual games played on even terms? It is in this sense only that I made use of the expression "bona fide." Firstly, my opponent had the move every time; secondly, he had the advantage of any number of experiments on a line of play chosen by me for the sake of variety and novelty only; thirdly, Mr. McConnell avoided thus all the difficulties and intricacies of the opening which is of special importance when contesting against a stronger opponent.

I deeply deplore chess controversies of any sort, for they certainly do not further the interests of chess, but rather tend to intensify personal and local jealousies. I this special case they are still more unpleasant to me, but I hope that they will not influence the ties of cordiality and mutual esteem which connect me with my fellow members of the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, not interfere with Mr. McConnell's friendship, which I prize very highly.

Apropos the Adair and "Buncombe" games, I can only repeat that the score of one of the Adair games is incorrect, and that I do not remember at all the "Buncombe" game. The better press connected with it is certainly no proof of is veracity.

I am sorry I cannot help you in anything concerning my last game with Mr. McConnell. You remember the state of health I was in at the time. Since then I have played about a thousand games.

I have taken passage for Liverpool on the Oregon. She sails on the 3d. Directly after my arrival in London I shall inform Mr. Steinitz of my readiness to play him in London. Any further steps will then have to be initiated by him.

Please remember me to all friends, especially to our esteemed president and Messrs. L*****, Jr., McC******, M******, T**** and others.
Yours, very truly,       
J. H. Zukertort.


The Steinitz—Zukertort Match.

We are recently in receipt of the following letter from Mr. Steinitz:

New York, Sept. 29, 1884.
Chess Editor of the New Orleans Times-Democrat:

At last, and for the first time since his arrival in this country, Mr. Zukertort has made a public declaration in reference to a match with me over his own signature, in the letter published in your issue of the 14th inst., and there can be no more mistake about it. He will on his arrival in England "inform Mr. Steinitz of his readiness to play him in London. Any further steps will then have to be initiated by Mr. Steinitz." No message from Mr. Zukertort has reached me yet, but in the meanwhile allow me some comments on his brief manifesto to which I can only call a mockery. Mr. Zukertort only makes one stipulation, and probably reserves some more which he knows it is impossible for me to accept. As you are aware, I was eager enough to have a match with Mr. Zukertort in London after the last tournament. I then challenged him to play within six months at the latest, which was quite reasonable time, and I offered to bind myself for the contest by a deposit of £50. Mr. Zukertort absolutely declined; he started on his "tour round the world," and the challenges in America followed with the same result. It will be admitted probably that it would have been much less difficult to arrange such a contest while we were both residing in England or during Mr. Zukertort's stay in America, than for me to take "further initiative steps" at a distance of over 3000 miles between us. In the meanwhile, however, as is well known, I have severed the only tie which connected me with chess circles in London, viz.: I have thrown up the honorary membership of the St. George's Chess Club rightly or wrongly, for reasons into which it would be inexpedient here to enter. I have already publicly declared in a letter to the editor of Turf, Field and Farm, of Feb. 8, that I would not play in London if I could, for the chief reason that I apprehend to encounter there even greater hostility and unfairness than that which I had to suffer during the London tournament. But, moreover, Mr. Zukertort must be well aware that I could not come to London now, if I would, for though I had ventured to predict that the world of Mr. Zukertort's tour "would come to an end in America." Mr. Zukertort alone could know the exact time when this miracle would happen, and, in the meanwhile, I have taken the liberty of making arrangements for settling permanently in this country, and of preparing the publication of a chess periodical which, if established, would absolutely require my personal attendance in America for some indefinite term. Does Mr. Zukertort really think that while he could choose his own time at leisure, while he could decline the contest in America, where everything could have been easily arranged, "fair and square." I, on the other hand, should be bound to give him the odds of abandoning all my business to undertake a long and expensive journey and to fight among hostile surroundings?

Permit me to take this opportunity of making an important statement which I have refrained from publishing up to the present, as I thought it ought to have been first mentioned in your own column. You have, however, failed to take notice of the matter, probably for reasons which seem to me more considerate toward Mr. Zukertort than just to myself. But I think it is now hight time to make it known that about five or six weeks before Mr. Zukertort's visit to your city. I made him a distinct and positive offer that I would come to New Orleans at my own expense to play him a match at the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club without any stake or prize, excepting the championship, and without charging any fee. The Hon. Charles F. Buck, president of the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club honored me by acting as my second in direct communication with Mr. Zukertort, whom he offered liberal inducements for accepting this challenge. Mr. Zukertort could there have had the same pecuniary benefit of any remuneration which the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club were willing to give for such a contest, and which, I am sure, would have been a very handsome one, but he absolutely declined the proposition.

Now, my position in the affair stands thus: Since the London tournament I have challenged Mr. Zukertort in London and in America to play for any amount, or for nothing. I have challenged him on occasion when we were both together in one city, or within easy reach of each other and when all details could have been settled without the least difficulty. He has always declined. I think this ought to be sufficient. If more be wanted I can only say that I shall at all times be ready to play Mr. Zukertort here in America at reasonable notice, and I believe arrangements can be made for his receiving fair expenses for such a purpose.

In conclusion, I trust I may be allowed to give my own opinion, verdict or evidence, as you may call it, on the chief point of the controversy. Mr. Zukertort never had, for one moment, and never will have, the slightest claim to the champion title before beating me in a match. It is he who ought to seek his revanche. He just won the last tournament, which, however, was much inferior in numbers and strength of players, to that of Vienna of 1882, and which by no means complied with the exigences of fair play as far as the behavior or the committee toward myself was concerned. But, on the other hand, I have always rested my claim of superiority on the same basis as the one which will forever support the fame of your lamented Paul Morphy, who never entered any great international tournament. I have won every set match I ever played on even terms. I have beaten Mr. Zukertort in a match in 1872 by the enormous score of 7 to 1, and 4 draws and he has evaded a return contest ever since. I have, moreover, also come out high above him in two tournaments out of three in which we both participated. I am satisfied, if he is.
Very truly yours,       
W. Steinitz.

Premising that Mr. Steinitz is quite in error in the supposition that any question of mere consideration for Dr. Zukertort or any one else in the chess world would affect or prevent our publication of facts or news that we might think of due propriety and importance for our readers, we are frank enough to say that in the main we agree with him in the conclusions of his letter as to his position in reference to the match. For, if, as Dr. Zukertort claims, the latter's victory in the London international tourney of 1883, brought him the championship of the world, it certainly should seem that it came to him not merely decked with its laurels, but also burdened with its obligations. Among these last was assuredly the necessity of maintaining his title to it by the acceptance of any reasonable and properly secured challenge from any appropriate opponent. Mr. Steinitz's challenges, issued in London, directly after the tournament, through Mr. Steel, appear to use to have presented every feature of the requisite cartels, more particularly embodying, as they did, the alternative offers to play at once or at any fixed date within six months. Dr. Zukertort declined both challenges upon grounds which, we must say, we do not think fairly justified the declination, and we consider, by so doing, he surrendered whatever title to the championship he possessed. It would, therefore, seem that Dr. Zukertort cannot, with justice or logic, make the claim that because he holds the championship Mr. Steinitz must come to London to play him, or must take "initiative steps" looking to that end. Such appears to us the only logical conclusion to be reached upon the question by applying to it the rule established and well recognized in all kindred questions in other games, sports or competitions.

We do not think that the fact of Dr. Zukertort's having declined Mr. Steinitz's various and repeated cartels while in this country legally strengthens the above conclusions, which, to our mind, is a distinct and independent matter .But we do believe that the persistency and chivalrousness displayed by Mr. Steinitz in these last challenges—and we have personal knowledge of what his letter affirms in this particular—morally relieve him from the onus of taking upon his shoulders the initiative as to the proposed match.

These are our calm and unbiased opinions upon the whole affair. We can only renew the expression of our regret that the prospects for a realization of this important and so much wished-for contest should thus seem even more remote than before.


1885

The Match Steinitz v. Zukertort.

Since the conclusion of the London Tournament, Mr. Steinitz has considered it his duty to pose as a martyr before the Chess World, persecuted and injured by myself and my friends. He generously reminds me, on every possible and impossible occasion, that I lost a match to him thirteen years ago, and asserts that I now carefully avoid another encounter. It is beyond the limits of decorum and parliamentary language to enter into a discussion with an opponent who prides himself on the scurrility of his speech and his writings. Past experience has taught me that any direct negotiations with Mr. Steinitz would exhaust human patience, and finally prove barren. I am, however, ready to play Mr. Steinitz on either side of the Atlantic, and call on him to appoint a second with whom my second may settle all the necessary preliminaries. These two gentlemen might elect a referee, and form then a committee, which would hardly find it difficult to arrange matters satisfactorily. If there is a mortal whom Mr. Steinitz considers worthy of his confidence, let him appoint him.
J. H. Zukertort.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n4, April 1885, p108

The Match Steinitz v. Zukertort.

P. O. Box 2937.
New York, March 28th, 1885.
J. H. Zukertort, Esq., London, England:

Mr. W. Steinitz presents his compliments to Mr. Zukertort, and begs to state that not having received a copy of the Chess-Monthly containing Mr. Zukertort's message, his attention has not been called to the matter in time to make the announcement of the name of his umpire possible in the present number of the International Chess Magazine. But as the appointment will take place with the utmost practicable despatch and will be properly made known, a letter directed to Mr. Steinitz's second, care of Dr. Gustav Simonson, Secretary of the Manhattan Chess Club, 104 E. 14th Street, New York City, will be sure to reach its destination promptly. Mr. Steinitz also begs to give the assurance, that for his own sake, he neither expects nor desires Mr. Zukertort to withdraw any particle of his communication in the Chess-Monthly, but he would nevertheless suggest that the terms of Mr. Zukertort's offer, confined strictly to his willingness to play a match on either side of the Atlantic, should be made separately distinct in a more formal letter, as the irrelevant matter, which Mr. Zukertort introduces, appears to Mr. Steinitz hardly presentable to a referee, should the appointment of such a dignitary be considered necessary in any way before the conditions are signed on both sides. Mr. Steinitz would also respectfully request, that in accordance with firmly established rules of fairness, this letter may be republished in the next number of the Chess-Monthly, verbatim and literatim, without being submitted to any sub-editorial improvements. A copy of the International Chess Magazine containing this letter will be mailed in a registered package, and directed on the wrapper to Mr. Zukertort's address in the handwriting of Mr. W. Steinitz.

The above reached Mr. Zukertort on the day of his departure for the Continent, and we have no doubt that he will write to the gentleman who is designated by Mr. Steinitz as the medium of communication. We have very little time and less inclination at present to reply to Mr. Steinitz's pages of "personal and general," nor shall we submit his letter to "any sub-editorial improvements." It is a matter which concerns Mr. Zukertort alone. Mr. Steinitz takes umbrage at the "irrelevant" matter introduced in Mr. Zukertort's offer, forgetting the "Mistkarren voll Schimpfwörter" he has heaped upon Mr. Zukertort's head for years. But, to quote from the same poet:—
"So folgt Jeder der Met Hode,
Dran er nun einmal gewöhnet."
As for the "sub-editor," we believe Mr. Steinitz had to apologize some years ago for a similar remark in the Field. At that time he could be made to retract words which were not "in accordance with firmly-established rules of fairness." But now he appears to be the owner of a paper and also of "a quiet and peaceful conscience, that never did him any harm." Mr. Steinitz in former years posed as quite a model of modesty. It is true, however, that at that time he had not established the "modern school." He was only commencing to lay the foundation of that stupendous monument of his game, the Steinitz Gambit. It is doubtful whether Morphy, even with his acknowledged superiority of intellect, could have fathomed the depth of the principle of the modern school. Even his greatest admirers will, perhaps, hesitate to admit that Morphy could have found out that four pawns are better than three on the Queen's side. We have come to the conclusion that Mr. Steinitz's modesty was a sham. He possessed a certain amount of self-restraint, which steadily waned with advancing age, and since he has grown fat, unfair, and over forty, he has thrown off the mask, and gives full play to the floodgates of his accumulated venom.


120 Broadway, New York, May 25th, 1885.
My Dear Sir:—In the March number of The London Chess Monthly, Mr. J. H. Zukertort expressed his readiness to play you a match at Chess on either side of the Atlantic, and called upon you to appoint a second with whom his second could settle all the preliminaries.

This you did, without loss of time, by inviting me to serve in the capacity, which invitation I promptly accepted in the language following: 'Being desirous, in common with the entire chess world, that a match take place between its two most skilful representatives, on fair and satisfactory terms to both players, I am willing to serve where my humble efforts shall do the most good toward bringing about the desired consummation.'

Having waited some six weeks for official developments from the other side, without discovering any, I beg respectfully to state that, unless the courtesy of an official communication be accorded to me, and received by the 30th proximo, I shall desire you to relieve me of my acceptance of your invitation to serve as your second, thus giving you the opportunity to select a younger man, one who may have a reasonable expectancy of living long enough to see the games actually played.
Very truly ours,       
Thos. Frère.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n6, June 1885, p161

The Match Steinitz v. Zukertort.—We have delayed the issue of this month's number, because we intended to publish the final programme of the B. C. A. Tournament, and the meeting of the governing council of the B. C. A. took place on Saturday the 30th ult., at 8 p.m. This unexpectedly delay enable us to publish the subjoined letter, which reached Mr. Jas. Wade, our publisher, on the 1st inst., requesting him to insert it in the present number if possible. We do not know, as there is no address to it, whether this letter is a copy of the one supposed to have been sent by Mr. Zukertort to Dr. Simonson of the Manhattan Chess Club, New York, as requested by Mr. Steinitz (see "Ch. M." p. 258). We comply with Mr. Zukertort's request; but wish to state that, now that both would-be-combatants have nominated their seconds, the negotiations must be carried on by their representatives. As far as our readers are interested we shall, however, allude to these negotiations, and keep them fully advised of the result. We append the letter, a copy of which we hoped to have secured a week earlier, but Mr. Zukertort was undoubtedly too busy to forward it:—

Weimar, the 30th of May, '85.
Sir,

The copy of the International Chess Magazine for April reached me a few hours previous to my departure from England. My engagements in France and in Germany occasioned an undesirable delay. I inform you herewith that my second, Mr. J. I. Minchin, 47, Albemarle Street, Piccadilly, W., London, is ready to enter into any negotiations with anybody appointed by Mr. Steinitz to act on his behalf. I expect Mr. Steinitz, as original challenger, to send in his conditions, which will be answered with all possible despatch.

As Mr. Steinitz objects to the election of a referee by the seconds in terms peculiar to himself, I drop that proposition. The only point I insist on is that the conditions shall be negotiated and drawn up by Mr. Minchin and Mr. Steinitz's second.
Yours obediently,       
J. H. Zukertort.

Mr. Steinitz is said to have selected Mr. Thomas Frère, of New York, as his second in the proposed match with Dr. Zukertort. Mr. Frère is one of the most prominent Chess amateurs of the country, having been honourably identified with the history of American Chess for more than thirty years past.—Times Democrat.



Weimar, the 30th of May, 1885.
Sir,

The copy of the International Chess Magazine for April reached me a few hours previous to my departure from England. My engagements in France and in Germany occasioned an undesirable delay. I inform you herewith that my second, Mr. J. I. Minchin, 47, Albemarle Street, Piccadilly, W., London, is ready to enter into any negotiations with anybody appointed by Mr. Steinitz to act on his behalf. I expect Mr. Steinitz, as original challenger, to send in his conditions, which will be answered with all possible despatch.

As Mr. Steinitz objects to the election of a referee by the seconds in terms peculiar to him*, I drop that proposition. The only point I insist on is that the conditions shall be negotiated and drawn up by Mr. Minchin and a real second of Mr. Steinitz, no shadowy anonymus.
Yours obediently,       
J. H. Zukertort.

* [We have received a registered copy of the Chess Monthly containing the above letter, from which, however, some passages are omitted, and others altered. We have italicised the words which are either different or do not appear at all in the version of our contemporary.]
International Chess Magazine, v1 n7, July 1885, p193

(Copy June 22nd, 1885.)
Weimar, the 30th of May, 1885.
Sir,

The copy of the International Chess Magazine for April reached me a few hours previous to my departure from England. My engagements in France and in Germany occasioned an undesirable delay. I inform you herewith that my second, Mr. J. I. Minchin, 47, Albemarle Street, Piccadilly, W., London, is ready to enter into any negotiations with anybody appointed by Mr. Steinitz to act on his behalf. I expect Mr. Steinitz, as original challenger, to send in his conditions, which will be answered with all possible despatch.

As Mr. Steinitz objects to the election of a referee by the seconds in terms peculiar to himself, I drop that proposition. The only point I insist on is that the conditions shall be negotiated and drawn up by Mr. Minchin and a real second of Mr. Steinitz, no shadowy anonymus.
Yours obediently,       
(Signed) J. H. Zukertort.

⁂ Readers of the Chess-Monthly will notice that the words in italics, which I much regret were ever written, were struck out of the printed copy by Mr. Hoffer in Dr. Zukertort's absence, and in forgetfulness of the fact that the letter had been already despatched.
James Innes Minchin.

[Mr. Hoffer begs to explain how the incident alluded to in the foregoing correspondence occurred. It was stated in the June number of the Chess-Monthly, page 297, that Mr. Wade received a letter from Mr. Zukertort, dated 30th May, Weimar, requesting him to insert it in the June number if in time. The above letter, sent by Mr. Frère to Mr. Minchin, is a copy of the one forwarded by Mr. Zukertort to the Chess-Monthly. Mr. Hoffer, assuming that Mr. Zukertort's letter was not a copy of the one sent to Mr. Frère, struck out the words in italics, not "in forgetfulness," as Mr. Minchin believes, but with the intention of preventing further acerbity in the "negotiations," of which there has been more than enough on the part of Mr. Steinitz. When Mr. Zukertort penned the epistle in question he could not have been aware that Mr. Steinitz had chosen Mr. Frère as his representative, a gentleman universally esteemed in the Chess world, whereas Mr. Hoffer had seen the announcement in the American exchanges. Knowing, therefore, that nobody would regret more than Mr. Zukertort himself the concluding passage of his letter, and considering it quite unjustifiable, Mr. Hoffer used his discretion in omitting it in the Chess-Monthly.]



120, Broadway, New York, June 22, 1885.
J. I. Minchin, Esq.
47, Albemarle Street, Piccadilly, London.

Dear Sir,

Mr. Zukertort's registered letter, dated Weimar, May 30th, containing a notice of your appointment as his second, addressed care of Dr. Simonson, reached me on the 18th inst., and, after necessary consultation with Mr. Steinitz, I have the honour of entering into communication with you on the subject of the proposed match between Messrs. Steinitz and Zukertort.

In answer to Mr. Zukertort's letter I feel bound to say, in the first place, that he has given no satisfactory explanation for his having delayed the nomination of his second for seven weeks after the communication of Mr. Steinitz had reached him, especially as he now offers no terms for the match. I also think it necessary to point out to you that the only condition which Mr. Zukertort presents is, that "a real second of Mr. Steinitz, no shadowy anonymus," shall be appointed. This I consider an unjustifiable insinuation against the gentlemen of the highest character and standing in the Chess world who have heretofore acted in the capacity for Mr. Steinitz, and, to a certain extent, a reflection upon myself, as my acceptance of Mr. Steinitz's invitation to serve him was announced in various American journals about the middle of April and in the International Chess Magazine for May.

Mr. Steinitz has, on three different occasions, within the last three years opened and carried on negotiations with Mr. Zukertort through the medium of seconds, and he has also, as a preliminary in the proposed match, promptly made known his intention of appointing one. This ought to have been sufficient proof that in the present instance he did not desire to treat his opponent in any different manner than that heretofore adopted.

It is also important to correct a statement of Mr. Zukertort, conveying the impression that Mr. Steinitz absolutely declines the election of a referee for settling any terms of the contest. Mr. Steinitz only wished, first of all, to ascertain Mr. Zukertort's conditions, and his words declining the election of a referee were, "should the appointment of such a dignitary be considered necessary in any way before the condition, on behalf of Mr. Steinitz, that the correspondence passing between us in regard to the above match shall be published in full in the Chess-Monthly, without any alterations, Mr. Steinitz undertaking a like publication in the International Chess Magazine.

Mr. Steinitz thinks it necessary to make this stipulation for several reasons, of which he would mention that only a very brief extract from the correspondence in 1883, between yourself and Mr. R. Steel, of Calcutta, in reference to a proposed match between the two gentlemen now purposing to play, was published in the Chess-Monthly, which course is not in conformity with established usage. I would also note that Mr. Zukertort's letter, to which this is a reply, and of which I enclose to you a true copy herewith, is reproduced in the current number of the Chess-Monthly in a manner calculated to create a different impression upon the readers of that journal from the one which the original conveyed to me, the objectionable words as to the character of Mr. Steinitz's second, above quoted, being entirely omitted.

Coming now to the main point I would submit for your consideration whether Mr. Zukertort is justifiable, to say the least, in wishing to place Mr. Steinitz in the position of "the original challenger" on every occasion of proposed play? Mr. Steinitz has repeatedly declared in public that he considered he made a great concession in issuing his challenge through the kind offices of Mr. R. Steel in 1883, and obviously such a concession cannot be demanded again as a matter of right. There are many urgent reasons in common fairness and expediency against such a course being imposed upon Mr. Steinitz, but I shall not argue the point, as I have herein a proposition on the subject.

For his own part, Mr. Steinitz is quite willing to accept Mr. Zukertort's letter in the March number of the Chess-Monthly for all purposes of a challenge, objectionable as such letter is if only on the ground of its informality.

I therefore request that you will name, on behalf of Mr. Zukertort, his principal terms, viz.:—

Minimum and maximum of stakes;

Minimum and maximum of games to be won;

The place of meeting in America preferred by Mr. Zukertort; and such other important points as you may see fit.

Should Mr. Steinitz, on receipt of Mr. Zukertort's main conditions, have any serious objections against any of them, he will at once propose his amendments, but he is quite willing that any conditions or subsequent minor details and regulations which are not absolutely debarred by either party shall be submitted to a referee, provided that the gentleman be an American citizen, and I beg to propose now, to save time, the Hon. F. Buck, President of the New Orleans Chess, Checker, and Whist Club, for that office.

Should, however, Mr. Zukertort insist on another formal challenge, I have to state that Mr. Steinitz is fully prepared, in a substantial manner, to support his own position in the matter following.

I am authorized, for that alternative, to offer on his behalf that he will concede to Mr. Zukertort the odds of two games at starting in a match for the first ten games, for a minimum of five hundred dollars up to a maximum of one thousand dollars, the championship to depend on the majority of actually played games.

Should Mr. Zukertort consider this offer too liberal to be accepted without qualification, Mr. Steinitz will be most happy to take odds in betting.

I also beg to state that Mr. Steinitz is willing to stipulate terms and to bind himself beforehand for another match to be played in London, if Mr. Zukertort prefer that city, in case Mr. Steinitz should win the coming match to be played in America.

Your widely and favourably known connection with the Chess world enables me to subscribe myself with much esteem,
Very truly yours,       
Thos. Frère.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n7, July 1885, pp193-195

The Match Steinitz v. Zukertort.

July 4th.
Dear Mr. Hoffer,

I have left with Mr. Wade copies of correspondence regarding the Steinitz-Zukertort match, which you will see is required by our opponents to be published verbatim in the Chess-Monthly, and which I am glad to find can appear in the forthcoming number. You will doubtlessly see the advisability of leaving it without remark.—Yours very truly,
James Innes Minchin.


8, Westbourne Park, W., July 4th, 1885.
Dear Sir,

I have the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your courteous letter of the 22nd June, written in reply to Mr. Zukertort's letter of the 30th May, in which he named me as his second, prepared to enter on negotiations with any one appointed by Mr. Steinitz to act on his behalf.

In that letter, which is the only document of which I can take cognisance, Mr. Zukertort distinctly stated that he expected Mr. Steinitz, as original challenger, to send his conditions for the proposed match.

I regret to find from your esteemed communication that Mr. Steinitz wishes to regard Mr. Zukertort as the challenger, and suggests that I should name the terms on which he is prepared to play. As I have no authority to offer any such terms I regret that I am unable to comply.

With regard to Mr. Steinitz's alternative proposal, offering to concede Mr. Zukertort the odds of two games, in a match for the first ten games, for a minimum of 500 up to a maximum of 1,000 dollars, the championship to depend on the majority of actually played games, with the qualification that Mr. Steinitz will be happy to take odds in betting, to counterpoise the odds of given games, I am convinced that Mr. Zukertort will only play on terms of perfect equality, and I am therefore unable to accept such conditions on his behalf.

Mr. Zukertort is at present in Germany, and I am compelled to answer your letter without communication with that gentleman. A copy of your letter and of my reply shall be at once forwarded to him, and will also, according to your request, be published at the earliest opportunity in the Chess-Monthly.

I am pleased to find that Mr. Steinitz appears willing to afford to Mr. Zukertort the choice of the place of meeting in America, an act of courtesy which will doubtlessly be appreciated.

I regret much that Mr. Steinitz did not authorise you to name the terms, on perfect equality to each player, upon which he was prepared to enter upon the match, as I was authorised to accept any such reasonable terms, and should have had the greatest pleasure in arranging with you at once the conditions on which play might have commenced, shortly after Mr. Zukertort's arrival in America, which I believe may be looked for in August.

I trust that both gentlemen will abstain from any controverial writing on this subject until matters be brought to a successful issue.
Believe me, dear Sir, yours very sincerely,       
James Innes Minchin.
Thos. Frère, Esq., New York.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n8, August 1885, pp225-226

New York, July 21st, 1885.
James I. Minchin, Esq.
London.

Dear Sir,—Your letter of the 4th inst., in reply to mine of 22nd June, was duly received by me, and I regret to find, on perusal thereof, that no withdrawal, on the part of Mr. Zukertort, of the unpleasant insinuation contained in his letter of May 30th, respecting the second of Mr. Steinitz, then already chosen, is contained therein, especially as such letter is the only document of the previous correspondence which you accept as coming without your cognisance as Mr. Zukertort's second. I think that such an amende honorable is due to the positions which we alike occupy before the public on behalf of our respective principals, to say nothing of the obvious objections to establishing the precedent that a document containing such an unjustifiable insinuation shall, unexplained, be made the chief preliminary for the conduct of such affairs in future. I also think it right to disclaim the inference that any cause of delay in the negotiations is in any way attributable to Mr. Steinitz, and I must say that such delay could only have been caused by Mr. Zukertort's postponement of your nomination as his second.

It might also have expedited matters very much if Mr. Zukertort had mentioned in his letter the fact, which I lean from you for the first time, that you were authorised to accept terms on his behalf, even during his absence from London, and without any direct consultation with him. However, under all the circumstances, and as you state that Mr. Zukertort is not likely to accept odds in games, or to equalising odds in betting, I abandon that proposition.

Mr. Steinitz is now willing to regard the negotiations as pending, and to leave the point as to which side was entitled to a challenge, or really did not issue a challenge, entirely an open question, which shall in now way be prejudiced by the propositions coming from either party.

With that reservation I propose now, on behalf of Mr. Steinitz, that the match shall be decided by the minimum number of ten games to be won by either side, draws not to count; and I leave to Mr. Zukertort to determine any maximum he likes to name. The time limit to be twenty-four moves during the first two hours, and twelve moves per hour thereafter.

The minimum number of games which I suggest is, I believe, necessary in order to carry out my second proposition, which refers principally to the place where the match is to be played.

I wish, however, to preface here, in reply to one of your remarks, that I did not intend to give Mr. Zukertort the unqualified option of naming the place of meeting, though his wishes will no doubt be studied in every respect to the best of our abilities. But it would be obviously impracticable to charge Mr. Zukertort with the responsibility of making arrangements satisfactory to both players for a match to be played on this side of the Atlantic, especially as Mr. Steinitz has already entered into preliminary negotiations on the subject.

Mr. Steinitz has received an official communication from the Baltimore Chess Association (a copy of which, I understand, has been forwarded to Mr. Zukertort), and has also received a semi-official invitation from the Manhattan Chess Club of New York, and the New Orleans Chess, Checker, and Whist Club, to play the match under the auspices of each of those societies. As both masters have been hospitably received by the above-named Chess Clubs, it would probably be advisable to divide the play in such a manner as to allow a portion of the match to be played in each of the three cities, provided that arrangements can be made satisfactory to both players.

I therefore purpose that the first part of the match, up to a point where either party shall have secured four games, shall be played under the auspices of the Manhattan Chess Club; the second part of the match, up to a point were either party shall have added three games to the score he had previously made in New York, shall commence at Baltimore within a week after the first part is consummated; the rest of the match, or third part, shall be played at New Orleans, and shall commence within a fortnight at the latest after the meeting at Baltimore.

Mr. Steinitz, who has for some time been in negotiation on the subject, will at once enter into more active communication with the above-mentioned associations for the purpose of obtaining favourable terms for both players alike, subject to Mr. Zukertort's formal and positive consent.

As all these preparations will entail a great amount of wearisome labour upon Mr. Steinitz, from which Mr. Zukertort will be relieved, it will be of some assistance, at least as far as the responsibility of accepting conditions from the above-named Chess Societies is concerned, if Mr. Zukertort will at once appoint a gentleman here in New York as his representative, to receive propositions for arranging the match under the auspices of the respective societies.

As regards the amount of stakes, Mr. Steinitz has no means of gauging Mr. Zukertort's wishes, which he desires to meet promptly, but for the purpose of making proper preparations it is necessary for Mr. Steinitz to ascertain the conditions in that respect, as some of Mr. Steinitz's principal supporters reside on the other side of the Atlantic. I therefore request that you will name, by return mail if possible, the minimum and maximum amount of stakes to be played for.

In reference to the date for commencing the match, which may, perhaps, last for several months, Mr. Steinitz will have to make the necessary business and editorial arrangements in connection with the "International Chess Magazine," to enable him to give attention to the match without injury to the subscribers of that journal. As the collection of stakes, the correspondence with the Chess Clubs where the match is to be played, will also involve much time and labour, Mr. Steinitz will require a notification of six weeks before commencing the match, while anyhow he could not pledge himself to an earlier date than the beginning of October.

Within these restrictions I request that you will take your own choice as regards the earliest and latest date for the beginning of the match, but will let me know at once your terms in reference thereto. I also beg to propose that the Hon. Charles F. Buck, President of the New Orleans Chess, Checker, and Whist Club, be appointed referee, and that each side deposit a sum of two hundred and fifty dollars as forfeit in case of non-fulfilment by either party of the conditions agreed upon.

In reference to minor details and regulations not contained in the above proposition, I beg to propose that each party draw up a set of conditions, not inconsistent with the above main points, and the two sets shall be interchanged between the parties six weeks before the time fixed for the match. Should then any conflicting differences appear in their terms, which cannot be settled by the representatives of the two parties, the Hon. Charles F. Buck shall have the power of receiving the arguments of both sides, and then to decide for the propositions of either party seriatim, or else to effect a compromise, after giving due notice to both parties and receiving objections, if any.

Awaiting your reply, at your earliest convenience,
I remain, very truly yours,       
Thos. Frère.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n8, August 1885, pp226-228

120 Broadway, New York, July 28, 1885.
James I. Minchin, Esq.,
London, England.

Dear Sir: Supplementing my letter of the 21st inst. I beg to inform you that Mr. Steinitz has confided to me the task of carrying on negotiations with the authorities of the three different clubs where I propose the match is to be played, in order to obtain favorable terms of compensation for time and expenses, as well as settle other conditions, alike for either gentleman, but subject to Mr. Zukertort's distinct sanction as far as his own interest is concerned until he elects a representative on this side of the Atlantic.

As some of the preliminaries to be settled may involve details of a financial character which would only be of interest to the parties directly concerned, I beg to propose that the portions of the correspondence in reference to the negotiations with the three clubs shall not be published excepting with the fullest official consent of the Chess Associations under whose auspices the match is proposed to be played.

With great respect, I remain very truly yours,
Thos. Frère.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n8, August 1885, p228

St. George's Chess Club, 47, Albemarle-street, Piccadilly, W.
August 2nd.
Dear Sir,—I have the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 21st July regarding the proposed Chess Match, which reached me yesterday.

With reference to your regret that there was no withdrawal on the part of Mr. Zukertort of the unfortunate expression contained in his letter of the 30th May, to which you have justly objected, you must remember that my letter was written in that gentleman's absence from England, and I have now the pleasure to enclose an assurance from him that the words were penned by him at a time wheu [sic] he was unaware of your appointment as second to Mr. Steinitz, and he regrets that the expression should have been used, which caused you annoyance.

I will now proceed to reply in order to the different proposals contained in your letter under reply.

1. Number of games to be played.

With reference to the proposed number of games, instead of Mr. Steinitz's suggestion that the match shall be decided by the minimum number of ten games to be won on either side, draws not to count, Mr. Zukertort proposes that the match should consist of 21, or even 25 games, drawn games not scoreing for either side, but counting as games played, the victory being decided by the majority of won games.

As Mr. Zukertort would proceed to America with the object of playing this match, it is necessary for him to be able to calculate the length of time it will take, and he can only do so by fixing beforehand the number of games to be played.

On the same ground he requires that three games should be played out weekly, throughout the match (subject to the intervals or rest hereafter agreed to), any adjourned game being played out on the following day, which would otherwise have been given for rest.

Postponement of play on medical certificate to be allowed on three days during the match.

2. Time limit.

As regards the time limit of 12 moves an hour suggested by you, Mr. Zukertort objects to a slower time limit than has been in force in every important match during the last twenty years. He would be willing to play with a time limit of twenty moves an hour, if agreeable to Mr. Steinitz, but he cannot consent to play at a slower rate than 15 moves an hour. If Mr. Steinitz prefers such an arrangement he has no objection to 30 moves being played in the first two hours.

3. Place of play.

On this point Mr. Zukertort would have preferred that the match be played entirely at New Orleans, having himself accorded to the Society there the first choice of that place for the meeting, but he is prepared to accept Mr. Steinitz's proposal that it should be played at New York, Baltimore, and New Orleans, at the intervals of time named by you. As regards his expenses, Mr. Zukertort stipulates to receive the amount of 750 dollars for the expenses of his voyage to America and the cost of living for three months, the shortest period for which the match would last. He also expects that due arrangements will be made by the Clubs in each place for the players not to be disturbed during the progress of play.

Mr. Zukertort will be happy to entrust his interests, as regards the arrangements for the match by the Chess Societies named by you, to the hands of Mr. George Green, president of the Manhattan Chess Club, should he be willing kindly to undertake the task.

4. Amount of stakes. I beg, in accordance with your request, to name 500 and 2,000 dollars as the minimum and maximum, and shall be obliged by your kindly informing me at your early convenience of the amount determined by Mr. Steinitz, which is left to his decision.

5. Time of play. Mr. Zukertort is prepared to commence play about the time suggested as convenient for Mr. Steinitz, the beginning of October, and not later than the end of that month.

To avoid the possibility of dispute on a point of some importance, Mr. Zukertort suggests that the games in the match shall be the property of the player who has the fist move in the game. After publication, such sole property will determine, and Mr. Zukertort is of course prepared to publish his own games in an American journal, without delay, after which they can be also printed by his opponent.

Should the above main conditions be accepted, Mr. Zukertort will be happy to accept the Hon. Chas. Buck as referee for the settlement of minor details.

I trust that I have now noticed in detail every proposition contained in your letter under reply, and I have confidence that Mr. Steinitz and his friends will see the reasonableness of the few modifications of his terms which I have no proposed. Mr. Steinitz is now a resident in America, Mr. Zukertort will be only a visitor, and I am confident, therefore, that you will agree to the limitation as to the number of games, and the adoption of the usual time limit, which are the only alterations brought forward.

My address until the middle of September will be Hotel Marion, Ostende, Belgium, where I am now proceeding.

Hoping soon to hear from you that my modifications have been accepted, and that the match may be regarded as definitely arranged.
I am, very truly yours,       
James Innes Minchin.
T. Frère, Esq.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n9, September 1885, pp257-259

The third of August, 1885.
Dear Sir,—From the day of my leaving London for the Continent, the 19th of April, up to the middle of July, I did not see the International Chess Magazine or any other publication on Chess. In penning my note of the 30th of May to an unknown second I was entirely ignorant of your nomination, and could therefore not harbour any animus injuriandi against you. Remembering the kind treatment I received from you all through my stay in New York, I am quite ready to apologise to you if I, unfortunately, should have appeared guilty of any rudeness against you.
Dear Sir, yours faithfully,       
J. H. Zukertort.
T. Frère, Esq.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n9, September 1885, p259 (dated the 3rd)

The Match Steinitz v. Zukertort.

New York, Aug. 18th, 1885.
James Innes Minchin, Esq.
Hotel Marion, Ostende, Belgium.

Dear Sir,—Your highly-esteemed favour of the 2nd inst. came duly to hand on the 15th, with the inclosure of Mr. Zukertort's letter, which is perfectly satisfactory to me as far as I am privately or officially concerned, and affords all the explanation that one gentleman could expect from the other under the circumstances.

Proceeding now to reply tot he main points of your communication, I beg to state, in reference to the time limit, that Mr. Steinitz offered to play at the rate of twelve moves per hour, as he thought that Mr. Zukertort would prefer that limit; for, as Mr. Steinitz believes, (with apology in case he should be in error, not having had time to verify his impression,) that his first match with Mr. Zukertort in 1872, as well as one or two other important matches since, have been played under that limit. Mr. Steinitz has now no objection to adopt the limit proposed by Mr. Zukertort—viz., at the rate of fifteen moves per hour, with the qualifications that two hours shall be allowed for the first thirty moves.

Mr. Steinitz also agrees that three games be played per week, and that any adjourned games be finished on the next day, which otherwise would be allowed for rest. But, sa the match will probably be played in public rooms, it ought to be provided that any game adjourned on a Saturday should be finished on the following Monday.

Mr. Steinitz also agrees that each player shall be entitled to claim one day of rest three times during the match, on his producing a medical certificate to prove his inability to play, but no two such adjournments shall take place in one week. This is the interpretation which Mr. Steinitz gives your proposition, and he thinks it ought to be distinctly provided that no two play days in succession can be exempted by either party, except with the consent of the Clubs who may arrange the match under their auspices, or otherwise, as they may be involved in useless outlay for hiring public rooms. If, however, this interpretation was not intended by you, Mr. Steinitz will leave the decision with the referee.

On the question of property right in the games, Mr. Steinitz would prefer that each party shall have the separate right of publishing any or all the games during the match, and a collection of the games within three months after the match shall have ended, and that either party may obtain copyright for the games and his own notes, both in America and in England, but that neither party shall have any commercial claim on the opponent's published games or collection thereof. Mr. Steinitz, however, is willing to submit this question to the referee in the manner stated in my letter of the 21st ult.

Respecting the amount of stakes, I can only state at present, that Mr. Steinitz does not wish to play for less than one thousand dollars a-side. As an increase of this sum would enhance the interest of the pubic in the match, I trust you will have no objection to extending the time for fixing the exact sum, within the maximum you name, until I have received your reply to this, though possibly I may be able to state earlier the definite amount in a supplementary letter.

As regards Mr. Zukertort's desire to play the whole contest in New Orleans, Mr. Steinitz has also publicly expressed his preference for that city, but, on consideration, he came to the conclusion that it would be undesirable to commence the match in New Orleans, if only on the ground that in November the city is not entirely free from yellow fever, which is particularly dangerous to strangers, wjp are not used to the climate. At present I have no official information from the authorities of the N. O. Chess, Checker, and Whist Club, though I have already written to the President, Hon. Charles F. Buck. But Mr. Geo. T. Green, the President of the Manhattan Chess Club, whom Mr. Zukertort has delegated as his representative in the matter, should be accept such appointment, will undoubtedly, as well as myself, use our utmost exertions to arrange a portion of the match to be contested as New Orleans, on terms fair to both players.

Your proposition in reference to the number of games was, however, almost wholly unexpected, for, as is well known, neither Mr. Steinitz nor Mr. Zukertort have yet played any of their numerous matches on such conditions, (though Mr. Steinitz has, on some few occasions, under Club engagements, chiefly for prizes, and not for stakes, agreed to play with first-class players a limited number of games, which, however, were distinctly called a series and not a match), nor has any great champion contest, of the importance of the one now proposed, been played on such terms since the one between Staunton and St. Amant in 1843. Any limited series is, in the opinion of Mr. Steinitz, not such a true test of skill as a match in which a fixed number of games has to be won absolutely. For, in the former case, either player who may have obtained the superiority in the score during any part of the contest, especially toward the end, has an enormous advantage by systematically playing for a draw, an advantage which, when having the first move, has been computed by eminent experts as equal to the odds of an additional Pawn. If, for instance, as in the match between Messrs. Paulsen and Kolisch, seventeen or nineteen(?) draws should occur, the decision of the contest might depend on a very small number of actually won games. The question of the duration of the match, to which you refer, ought not to be taken into consideration, for the Chess world at large will expect both masters to provide ample time for such an important contest, and that each player will take his chance as to its duration. It is, perhaps, scarcely necessary to remind you that Mr. Steinitz has also many engagements and calls upon his time, which make the possibility of prolonging the match, beyond a reasonable period, very undesirable for him, but he would nevertheless assign to the proposed contest the first claim on his attention, and he would, therefore, much prefer to play for ten games up absolutely, as he considers such a condition the only one which will produce a really fair test. But, in order to meet Mr. Zukertort's views as nearly as possible, he now proposes the following modification:—

That the winner of the first ten games shall be declared the victor. Should, however, fifteen draws occur without either player having scored more than six games, and also without either player being more than one game ahead, the match may be declared as drawn by either party. Otherwise the match shall proceed until ten games are scored by either player, or else until five more draws are made. In the latter case the match shall be at an end and shall be declared drawn if the score be then even, or the victory shall belong to the party who is at least one game ahead.

To illustrate the above by an example. We may suppose that the score stand at the need seven to six and twenty draws, which would be an unprecedented number of games, and yet only eight games more than Mr. Zukertort's proposal, and involving a prolongation at the utmost of less than three weeks. Yet this plan presents also the prospective advantage over that of Mr. Zukertort, that in a series of twenty-five games, if no draws occur, (as in the match between Messrs. Steinitz and Anderssen,) either party would have to win thirteen games before the match would be decided, whereas, according to the present proposition, only ten games would have to be won by either player.

To provide, however, against any possible objections, Mr. Steinitz is willing to submit this question also to the arbitration of the referee, who, however, shall have no power of amendment in this instance, but shall only decide between the three modes of play—viz.,

For a series of twenty-five games, as proposed by Mr. Zukertort; or,

For the first proposition of Mr. Steinitz, (which Mr. Steinitz prefers,) namely, to play for ten games up; or

Thirdly, for the modification in reference of draws, as above proposed.

This ought to be considered perfectly fair for Mr. Zukertort, as, at first in his letter, published in the March number of the Chess-Monthly, he wished all the conditions to be settled by the referee and the two seconds in committee.

In view of any possible obstacle arising to the progress of our negotiations, I feel bound to preface my remarks in reference to Mr. Zukertort's ominously large fee of seven hundred and fifty dollars, in any event, by stating that this proposition is of a novel and unprecedented character. Outside of Club engagements, which comprised contests with a great number of different strong players, as well as blindfold and miscellaneous performances, &c., no chess master has ever received or demanded such a remuneration for playing a match against one opponent. It was always understood that the share of each player in the stakes, which on this occasion will be twice as large, and perhaps four times as much as in any match played within the last forty years, surely a sufficient compensation to the winner. I have also to remind you, however, that Mr. Steinitz, in all his matches in Europe, as well as in some of his series of games in America, always stipulates for a solatium to the loser. Mr. Zukertort has played three matches—viz., with Messrs. Potter, Rosenthal, and Blackburne—without making any such proviso beforehand. It is also evident that, with the exception of his expenses of his journey to and from America, Mr. Zukertort is only equally entitled with Mr. Steinitz to any fees or proceeds of the match, or fees of entrance, &c. I can, therefore, make no absolute promise on the subject at present, as I have only just entered into negotiations with the different Clubs who are proposed to arrange the match. I shall, however, on behalf of Mr. Steinitz, stipulate with the authorities of these Clubs that Mr. Zukertort shall receive a separate fee, outside of any that may accrue to him by arrangements for both players, of, at least, one hundred and fifty dollars, which shall be increased to two hundred and fifty should Mr. Zukertort lose the match. I may say, however, that, in my opinion, as well as in that of others, the sale of tickets beforehand for a public exhibition, such as Mr. Steinitz proposes, could be managed to secure a great financial success, and in New York alone the whole entrance monies and fees might probably yield a sum for Mr. Zukertort's share which would cover the larger portion of his claim. It will, therefore, rest with you whether Mr. Zukertort's desire to commence the match at the end of October, at the latest, can be gratified.

As the preparations for the match will involve considerable expenditure and much labour for Mr. Steinitz, he cannot reduce the notice of six weeks which he requires, which notice, however, shall date from the day of my receiving your announcement that you have agreed to the above terms, or to submit to the arbitration of the referee such points in question which are left open for his decision in the manner stated above. In such event, as previously agreed, please, at once, forward the stipulated sum of two hundred and fifty dollars to the referee, and Mr. Steinitz will also, forthwith, deposit a like sum with the same gentleman.

I am highly gratified to learn that Mr. Zukertort has accepted the Hon. Charles F. Buck as referee, and this gentleman has already kindly notified me, in answer to my inquiry, of his consent to accept that office conditional on Mr. Zukertort agreeing to his appointment.

Confidently expecting a favourable reply,
I remain, very truly yours,       
Thos. Frère.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n9, September 1885, pp259-263

New York, Aug. 21st, 1885.
James I. Minchin, Esq.
Hotel Marion, Ostende, Belgium.

Dear Sir,—I have received a note from Mr. G. T. Green, President Manhattan Chess Club, in which he informs me that it will be necessary for him to receive a written request from Mr. Zukertort that he should act for him in New York, to fix terms with the proposed Clubs, and that he must have an exact understanding of the duties connected therewith.

I write to save time. If such a letter has not already been sent to Mr. Green, either by yourself or Mr. Zukertort, would it not be well that it be done at once.
Very truly yours,       
Thos. Frère.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n9, September 1885, p263

Hotel Marion, Ostend, Sept. 5th.

Dear Sir,—Having just received a full reply from Mr. Zukertort to the points contained in your letter of the 18th August, I have the pleasure to lay before you his decision on the same. There is only one point on which I fear from the terms of your letter that difficulties may arise, and that refers to the sum claimed by Mr. Zukertort for his expenses, which he believed would be willingly provided by the Chess clubs in America, where the match was to be played.

You propose in your letter of the 18th that Mr. Zukertort shall receive a separate fee of 150 dollars, to be increased to 250 should he lose the match, in addition to what may accrue to him from arrangements that may be made for the admission of the public to see the play. Mr. Zukertort has no desire to obtain any share in such arrangements, but he claims such reasonable compensation for the time to be devoted solely to the match as will protect him from ruinous loss. This time cannot be less than three months, and he therefore offers, as his final proposition, that he will accept the sum of 500 dollars for expenses in case of his winning the match, and 750 dollars in case of loss. If the clubs who are desirous that the match should be played in their rooms are not willing to guarantee this sum, he regrets that his circumstances render it utterly impossible for him to proceed to America, and reside there for three months at least, on his own resources.

Should it be possible to arrange the above necessary preliminary, there remain hardly any points of contention, and I will, for clearness sake, lay down the bases on which both parties have agreed that the match should be played.

1st. Number of games. Mr. Zukertort accepts Mr. Steinitz's original proposal that the winner of the first ten games be winner of the match. He suggests, however, that in case each player win nine games, the match should be given up as drawn, or five more games be played as finally decisive.

2nd. The time limit. 15 moves an hour, with the qualification that two hours shall be allowed for the first thirty moves.

3rd. Three games to be played out weekly, and any adjourned game to be finished on the next day, which would otherwise be allowed for rest. To obviate the necessity of lengthy adjournments over a Sunday, it would be advisable that Monday, Wednesday, and Friday be days of play, and Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday be days of rest. Mr. Zukertort proposes a minimum of nine hours play daily (unless the game be finished previously), with an interval of two hours after five hours play.

4th. In case of real illness, certified by medical certificate, either player may claim a rest three times during the match, either in succession or on separate occasions. It is obvious that it will be to the interest of each player to preserve his three days as long as possible, and Mr. Zukertort cannot accept Mr. Steinitz's suggestion that no two of such adjournments shall take place in one week.

5th. As regards the place of play, Mr. Zukertort has already consented to Mr. Steinitz's proposal on this head. He will, of course, accept such modifications thereof as may be rendered necessary by the arrangements for the payment of his expenses for which he stipulates.

5th. Mr. Zukertort regrets that the amount of stakes, which he had left for Mr. Steinitz's decision, was not definitely fixed in your last letter. Unless I can receive a distinct proposal before the close of this month, it will be better that the amount should be settled as 1,000 dollars a-side.

In accordance with what I trust is a correct interpretation of your wishes, I have not forwarded for publication in the Chess-Monthly your short note of the 28th July, regarding your proposed negotiation with the authorities of the American Chess clubs. Trusting that their interest in what would be the greatest Chess match of modern times will induce those clubs to meet Mr. Zukertort's not unreasonable stipulation as to his expenses,
I am, yours very truly,       
James Innes Minchin.
T. Frère, Esq.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n10, October 1885, pp289-290

The Match Steinitz v. Zukertort.

On the 24th last Mr. Minchin received a message by Transatlantic Cable from Mr. Frère, containing the two words: Maximum stakes.—At our going to press the following letter reached Mr. Minchin:

New York, Sept 22nd, 1885.
James Innes Minchin, Esq.,
47, Albemarle-street, London.

Dear Sir,—Your letter of the 5th inst. came to hand yesterday, and I hasten to reply by next mail.

In the first place, I beg to express my appreciation of the prompt manner in which Mr. Zukertort has accepted some of the modifications proposed in my letter of Aug. 18th.

Excepting that the days of play now proposed by Mr. Zukertort might have to be altered, and also reserving some other definitions and additions, which are not inconsistent with the main terms agreed upon, and are to be submitted to the Referee, Mr. Steinitz has no objection against any of the terms enumerated by you, barring the one under the last heading in reference to the amount of stakes.

I have to remind you that in your letter of the 2nd of August you left it to my "early convenience" to give you a definite answer respecting the final amount of stakes. Though a great portion of Mr. Steinitz' deposit would have to be collected from abroad, he is now prepared to play for the full maximum of your proposition—namely, two thousand dollars a-side.

As this letter leaves New York by a fast steamer (the City of Rome) to-morrow, it will, no doubt, reach you on, or within a day or two after, the first day of next month at the latest. Considering, also, that the match cannot commence, under the most favourable circumstances, earlier than six weeks after this letter reaches you, and that you undoubtedly made preparation to collect the maximum which you yourself have named, I trust confidently that this communication will be regarded as sufficient notice in reference to the stakes.

As regards compensation which Mr. Zukertort stipulates for, namely, seven hundred and fifty dollars in case he loses, and five hundred dollars in case he wins, I have already exerted myself to have such a sum guaranteed for him and a proportionate similar fee for Mr. Steinitz, who is of course entitled to a like compensation, except the extra expense of ocean travel.

But owing to the comparatively dead season of summer, just closing, I have not been able to obtain any authoritative promises on the subject, and, as far as I am aware, no committee meetings have been held, on the part of any of the clubs under whose auspices the match is to be played, for the purpose of acting on the propositions for granting the expenses of the match. I have myself, however, now the slightest doubt that my appeal to the liberality of the three clubs which are proposed to arrange the contest will be satisfactorily met and conclusions reached within a very short time, though I cannot fix exactly any date. If, fortunately, you entertain a like confidence in reference to this matter, which is now the only point at issue between is, you may cable, by the "Commercial" Cable Co., 23, Royal Exchange, simply the word "Yes" to my registered cable address in New York, namely, "Ratlathe," and I will understand that you will at the same time send two hundred and fifty dollars to the Referee, which shall be duly met by a like sum from Mr. Steinitz, and the required six weeks' notice shall commence from the date of the receipt of your message.

You will pardon me for suggesting to you that a word, standing in lieu of your London address, be registered at the above-named cable office for use in case of business necessity, or items of interest during the match.

Will you please frame a draft of regulations and minor conditions in reference to the contest which you may consider necessary, and forward the same, at your earliest convenience, to me, and I shall likewise forward shortly to you a similar draft, so that any points of difference can be submitted to the Referee forthwith.

In order to avoid any possible contention, and as the last part of the match will, most likely, take place in New Orleans, I beg to propose the Hon. Charles F. Buck, already appointed Referee, also as Stakeholder, the full amount of stakes to be deposited by each party ten days before the date fixed for the commencement of the match. This proposition will also simplify matters in reference to the forfeit of two hundred and fifty dollars to be deposited, which amount might form part of the stakes to be deposited ten days before the commencement of play, as above proposed.

Congratulating you (and myself) that the match, as you justly consider it, "the greatest of modern times," is apparently so near an actual beginning,
I remain, very truly yours,       
Thos. Frère.

Postscript.—As Mr. Zukertort stipulates for a lump sum it will surely be necessary to enter into details of arrangements with the different clubs, but anyhow I shall hereafter specially mark such letters as are not intended for publication. The one you refer to of July 28 has already been published in the International Chess Magazine.

On consideration, I cable to you to-day the words "Maximum Stakes," which you will unquestionably understand as indicating that Mr. Steinitz names the stakes as two thousand dollars a-side.
Thos. Frère.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n10, October 1885, pp290-291

St. George's Chess Club, 47, Albemarle-street, Piccadilly, W.
October 5th, 1865 [sic].

Dear Sir,—I have the pleasure to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 22nd September, and of your telegram of the same date, which reached me on the 23rd, intimating that Mr. Steinitz named the maximum stakes of 2,000 dollars a-side for the match.

I quite gather from your letter that you do not anticipate any difficulty about obtaining from the American Chess clubs where the match is proposed to be played a guarantee for the payment to Mr. Zukertort of the personal expenses claimed by him, as stated in my letter of the 5th September, a result quite anticipated by me from the well-known liberality of American amateurs.

I am so pleased to find that Mr. Steinitz accepts the main terms stated by me in my letter of the 5th September, to which it is now only necessary to add that the stakes are fixed at 2,000 dollars a-side.

While Mr. Zukertort is quite satisfied from your letter that this stipulation as to payment of his expenses will be acceded to, I do not think it right to forward on his behalf 250 dollars, to be liable to forfeit in case the match falls through, until this point has been placed beyond the region of mere possibilities. Immediately that I learn that the clubs in question have agreed to guarantee to Mr. Zukertort this payment I will forward by cable to the Honourable Chas. Buck, accepted by both parties as Stakeholder, the sum of 250 dollars, and from the date of its receipt by him the six weeks stipulated for by Mr. Steinitz before the commencement of the match may run.

With reference to your suggestion that I should frame and send you a draft of regulations and minor conditions, while you promise that you will shortly forward a similar draft, I think it will be preferable for me to await the receipt of your promised communication, and note any objections that may be entertained on such minor points for submission to the Referee. It is quite possible that there may be no necessity to trouble that gentleman on points of difference, which I trust may not arise.
Believe me, very truly yours,       
James Innes Minchin.
T. Frère, Esq.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n11, November 1885, pp321-322 (dated the 4th)

The Steinitz—Zukertort Match.

During the first week the referee has duly received the $250 forfeit deposit from Mr. Steinitz, and Dr. Zukertort's being already in hand, the period of negotiation may at length be considered finally closed, and the chess world can now amuse itself by looking forward expectantly to the meeting of the two great gladiators of the checkered field. From a postal notice with which we have recently been favored by Mr. George T. Green, the president of the Manhattan Chess Club, New York, we glean the announcement that at least one-half of the match will be played under the auspices of that club early in January next. With regard to the games which are to be played in this city under the management of the New Orleans Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, a rather curious point has arisen and given rise to considerable discussion pro and con. It had been originally intended by the special committee who have the matter in charge that the play should take place exclusively in the rooms of the local club, but their attention was at once called to Art. X of the constitution, which declares that "no game for money stakes shall be allowed in the club, or in any room approached or entered through the club." (!) Something of a dilemma indeed, for not only will the games of the great match be for "money stakes," but for the highest a side in the history of the game, as that. In reply, in the very general discussion that ensued, the point was made that the spirit of the law clearly contemplated no such rigid construction of the article; that its object was simply to prevent gaming in the club,—which, perhaps, is the correct interpretation after all. But we understand that the committee have thought it best, if erring at all, to err on the safe side, and the probabilities are that while the games of the great contest in this city will, of course, be directly under the auspices of the club, they will take place in some suitable public room or hall.

The Match Steinitz v. Zukertort.

New York, Oct. 23, 1885.
James Innes Minchin, Esq.,
London.

Dear Sir,—Your letter, dated the 4th ult., arrived in N.Y. on Sunday, the 18th inst., and was received by me on the 19th.

Owing to an obstacle having arisen in the completion of the required guarantees, I have missed writing by Wednesday's steamer, but, fortunately, no time will be lost, as this goes by the "Etruria" on Saturday, and is likely to reach you as soon as if sent by previous mail.

It gives me now great pleasure to announce that, on behalf of the Manhattan Chess Club, of New York, and of the Chess, Checker, and Whist Club, of New Orleans, I can guarantee to Mr. Zukertort the payment of four hundred dollars if he win or draw the match, or of six hundred dollars in case he lose. As for the balance of the respective sums, making the aggregate stipulated for by Mr. Zukertort, namely, one hundred dollars in case he win or draw, and one hundred and fifty dollars in case he lose, Mr. Steinitz will, at least ten days before the commencement of the match, name the party, or parties, who shall be fully responsible to Mr. Zukertort, or else Mr. Steinitz will give such other security for the respective amounts as shall be considered acceptable by the Referee.

It is due to state that, as matters stand at present, Mr. Steinitz has also undertaken the risk of a considerable portion of the remuneration which I thought ought to be allotted to him in common fairness, besides guaranteeing the above-named amounts, and I mention this in order to make it clear that Mr. Zukertort will have no further claim on any proceeds of the match than the lump sums agreed on.

In reference to the set of minor conditions and rules of the match, I fully reciprocate the confidence you so handsomely express that there will be no occasion to trouble the Referee with any decisions on the matter, and you may depend upon it that on our side we shall endeavor to form the draft of such minor conditions and regulations in a spirit of perfect fairness to both parties. But I beg to remind you that the whole labour of negotiating for the required guarantees with the different Clubs has fallen on our shoulders, owing to Mr. Zukertort having omitted to appoint a representative in this country for that purpose. We have therefore been unable to devote our attention to that subject up to the present, and you will also please remember that according to the terms of my letter of Aug. 18, the submission of such a draft was only due six weeks before the commencement of the match. We shall, however, take the matter in hand immediately, and you may expect our final propositions to be despatched probably before this reaches you.

In regard to the option named by Mr. Zukertort in case both players score nine games, I may mention, at once, that Mr. Steinitz elects the match to be declared drawn in such event.

It is settled that the first part of the match, up to either party scoring four games, is to be played under the auspices of the Manhattan Chess Club, of New York, and the last part of the match at New Orleans, under the auspices of the Chess, Checker, and Whist Club of that city. But at present I cannot definitely state the place of meeting for the second portion of the match and under whose auspices it is to be arranged. I shall, of course, advise you as soon as matters are settled in that respect.

As there can be no further obstacles in our negotiations, I only beg to request that you will kindly wire to my cable address the word "Yes," on the day on which you send the deposit of two hundred and fifty dollars by cable to the Referee as promised, and the six weeks' notice may commence from that date. Our deposit shall promptly meet yours in the hands of the Referee.

Believing that all the difficulties, leading up to the final arrangements for the meeting of the Two Masters, have been met and vanquished,
I remain, very truly yours,       
Thos. Frère.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n11, November 1885, pp322-323

47, Albemarle Street, Novr. 13th.

Dear Sir,—I have had the pleasure of receiving your letters of the 23rd and 30th October, reporting your successful negotiations with the Manhattan and Chess, Checker, and Whist Clubs regarding the guarantee of the personal expenses asked for by Mr. Zukertort to enable him to play the match.

As the details contained in your letter of the 23rd are quite satisfactory, I shall have the honour this day of remitting by cable the amount of 250 dollars, to be forfeited in case the match falls through, by default of Mr. Zukertort, and to send the required telegram on the subject to yourself.

The six weeks' notice required by Mr. Steinitz will, therefore, expire on the 30th December, and I presume that the match may commence on the Monday following, before which date the balance of Mr. Zukertort's stakes will be remitted to the Hon. Mr. Buck.

Reciprocating your expressions of satisfaction at this happy termination to our joint labours,
I am, yours very truly,       
James Innes Minchin.
T. Frère, Esq.

P.S.—Mr. Zukertort purports sailing in the "Etruria," which leaves Liverpool on the 5th December.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n12, Decemebr 1885, p354 (dated the 17th)

New York, Nov. 18, 1885.
James Innes Minchin, Esq.,

Dear Sir: In my last letter, dated 23rd of October, I held out the probability of my dispatching a draft of the minor conditions before that letter would reach you; but owing to Mr. Steinitz's literary engagements having been specially heavy at the end of last month, he has been unable to furnish me with is propositions up to this time, while I have been daily, and almost from hour to hour, expecting to received your cable message which would have settled the match beyond a doubt.

As an answer from you is already overdue, even by mail, and your complete silence is utterly inexplicable to me, I have decided to withhold the draft of minor conditions until I hear from you definitely that the required deposit of two hundred and fifty dollars has been forwarded to the Referee to meet a like sum to be immediately thereupon desposited by Mr. Steinitz.

My reasons of taking this course are that the set of rules to be submitted will deal with many details which will be of no interest to the public, until the match is absolutely settled, and it would be useless, in teh manwhile, to weary teh readers of the Chess Monthly and of the International Chess Magazine with their publication while, on the other hand, nothing can be lost by detaining the draft for the present, for I need not perhaps repeat my assurance that we wish to avoid every question that might give rise to dispute and if, nevertheless, there should be any disagreement we may safely leave the decision in the hands of the Referee.

As regards the second part of the match, I have no doubt that satisfactory arrangements can be made to divide the play of that portion of the contest between the Manhattan Chess Club and the Nwe Orleans Chess, Checker and Whist Club in case no other well known Chess society shall take up the matter.
I remain,
Very truly yours,       
Thos. Frère.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n12, Decemebr 1885, pp354-355

The Match Steinitz v. Zukertort.

New York, Nov. 20, 1885.
James Innes Minchin, Esq.,
London.

Dear Sir,—Your cablegram, conveying to me the gratifying news of your final acceptance of the principal conditions of the match, was received on the 18th inst., at 12 o'clock, M., just a couple of hours after I had despatched my letter of the same date to you. It now gives me the greatest pleasure to inclose the draft of the Minor Rules and Regulations of the match as promised. They have been very carefully considered, with the view of securing perfect fair-play for both parties, and I may say that some of the clauses have been framed not so much on account of their being absolutely indispensable, as from a desire to convince the general public that the strictest provisions have been made against the possibility of any unfair dealings which might be injurious or annoying to either side.

As regards the rule requiring the presence of both players during the time appointed for play, Mr. Steinitz hardly remembers a single instance in which either player, in a match between two opponents, even if had plenty of time to spare, did not appear punctually at the time of commencing, or resuming, a game, or absented himself for any length of time during its progress. But, as in tournaments, players have sometimes thus absented themselves, Mr. Steinitz considers it necessary to propose such a rule in common courtesy to the assembled spectators at the public exhibitions which are to be arranged, as well as in order to avoid the least irritating suspicion of undue analysis or consultation.

The rule that each player shall be accompanied during the evening's adjournment by his opponent's umpire, is chiefly proposed with the object to enable the player who is not in turn to play to leave the room at once at the time of adjournment, while his own umpire would watch the due sealing of the move on the part of the opponent, who might take a long time for considering his move. It would have been obviously impracticable to place the players under any similar restriction in case of adjournment overnight.

It is, I hope, unnecessary to give lengthy reasons for all other rules and their wordings, which have my entire approval. But as they have been framed with the utmost care, and as Mr. Steinitz has alone had the trouble of drafting them, while a mere revision will obviously be much easier for Mr. Zukertort, I think we may fairly claim that any proposed amendments should be addressed to me, with the utmost despatch, while an exact copy of your letter in reference thereto might be sent to the referee, who, however, should be requested to wait for a few days for our answer to your amendments, before giving his decision on any point on which we may not agree.
I remain, very truly yours,       
Thos. Frère.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n12, Decemebr 1885, pp355-356 (dated the 21st)

120 Broadway, New York, Dec. 1st, 1885.
James Innes Minchin, Esq.,

Dear Sir:

Your letter of the 17th ult. is to hand and I am highly gratified to perceive the expression of your satisfaction with the chief arrangements of the match.

Mr. Steinitz has already received notifications from the Hon. Charles F. Buck, the Referee and Stakeholder, that the first deposits of two hundred and fifty dollars on each side have reached that gentleman. The balance of the stakes on behalf of Mr. Steinitz will be deposited ten days before the commencement of the contest, in accordance with the terms of the match, as already agreed between us.

In all probability it will become more expedient to fix Saturdays as play-days, as a larger number of spectators will be attracted to witness the contest on account of the early closing of business in the city on that day.

Thanking you for your courtesy throughout our correspondence,
I remain,
Very truly yours,       
Thos. Frère.

International Chess Magazine, v1 n12, Decemebr 1885, pp358-359

47, Albemarle Street, December 4th, 1885.

Dear Sir,—I have the pleasure to acknowledge receipt of your letters of the 18th* and 20th Novr., and of the Minor Rules for the conduct of the match, which have been proposed by Mr. Steinitz.

Mr. Zukertort has carefully perused these rules, and accepts the first ten rules in their entirety.

As regards Rule 11, Mr. Zukertort cannot consent to the final clause, but accepts the rule as closing with the words "shall forfeit such Game."

Rule 12 is accepted.

As regards Rule 13, Mr. Zukertort cannot accept the Code of Laws adopted by the London Chess Congress of 1862 to govern the match, since novelties were laid down in that Code which have never obtained the sanction of the Chess community. He would accept the International Code, laid down in the last edition of the German Handbook, or any other acknowledged Code approved of by the Referee.

Mr. Zukertort regrets that he is unable to accept in any way the proposed Rules 14, 16, and 17, as he justly considers that the proposition therein contained are derogatory to the honour of both parties to the match. When once these gentlemen have consented to meet each other over the board, it must be taken for granted that they will behave like gentlemen, and it is impossible for Mr. Zukertort to subject himself to a system of fines and penalties for suggested misconduct unbefitting a gentleman, of which I believe no one who knows him can suppose that he could possibly be guilty. I trust that on consideration Mr. Steinitz will not press for rules, never previously proposed in a match of this description, but will place that confidence in Mr. Zukertort's gentlemanly feeling which his opponent is desirous to reciprocate.

So keenly does Mr. Zukertort feel the ignominious nature of the rules in question, that he has requested me not to publish them.

Mr. Zukertort accepts Rules 15 and 18, which would stand as 14 and 15, on the elimination of the three rules objected to.

As Mr. Zukertort has now left London, and will be in New York possibly before the receipt of this letter, you will understand that I have no authority to continue the discussion of these Minor Rules.

As there is nothing to refer to the Referee, except as regards the Code of Laws by which play in the match is to the governed, I have no thought it necessary to write to that gentleman, as on this point, regarding, which no arguments are wanted, I doubt not you will kindly obtain his decision on the respective proposals of the players.

I cannot close this correspondence without an acknowledgment of the invariable courtesy and fairness with which it has been conducted by yourself. With feelings of sincere respect,
Believe me to be yours most sincerely,       
James Innes Minchin.
T. Frère, Esq.

* This letter is not printed, as it contains nothing of public interest.


Minor Rules And Regulations Of The Match Between Messrs. Steinitz And Zukertort.

1. Each player shall nominate an Umpire for each of the divisions of the match, three days prior to the commencement of such division. The gentleman thus nominated shall be a member of the Club under whose auspices the respective match-portion is to be played, and his election shall be approved of by his opponent. Should either party, however, reject two gentlemen thus names, the Committee of the Club may be appealed to by the opponent for the purpose of electing another Umpire, whose appointment shall then be final.—[Accepted.]

2. Each Umpire may nominate one substitute to take his place in case of unavoidable absence, and the appointment of such substitute shall be confirmed in the same manner as that of the original Umpire.—[Accepted.]

3. The Umpires, or their substitutes, shall be present in the room, where the match is being played, during the progress of each game, and they shall settle all disputes that may arise between the two players. In case of the two Umpires disagreeing, or if either player claims that their decision is contrary to the conditions of the match, the decision of the Referee on appeal shall be final.—[Accepted.]

4. The games shall be played within a partition, which shall only be accessible to the players, their Umpires or substitutes and their Umpires or substitutes.—[Accepted.]

5. The tickets of admission to public exhibitions of the play shall be signed by the two Umpires. They shall be issued subject to the conditions of the match, and may be cancelled, at any time, at the request of the Umpire of either party.—[Accepted.]

6. The spectators shall be required to keep strict silence and to refrain from any applause of signs of disapproval.—[Accepted.]

7. The moves of each game may be repeated on a large suspended chess-board. The spectators may also use pocket Chess-boards for the purpose of following the game, but they shall not analyse or discuss the game under progress.—[Accepted.]

8. Neither player shall absent himself from the room during the hours appointed for play except for a reasonable time. The player whose turn it is to play shall remain near the board, but his opponent may move about inside the partition reserved for the players, at such distance from the board as shall be fixed by the Umpires, and in a manner which shall in no way distract the attention of his opponent.—[Accepted.]

9. The two players shall, if arrangements to that end can be made, remain together during any adjournment in the evening for taking meals; but if such arrangements be inconvenient, each player shall be accompanied by his opponent's Umpire during such adjournment. Should, however, any adjournment overnight become necessary, this rule shall not be applied.—[Accepted.]

10. The player whose turn it is to move at the time of adjournment, shall inclose his move in a sealed envelope, which shall be handed to his opponent's Umpire. The move thus made shall be marked in words, for instance, "Queen to King's third," in a conspicuous part of the score-sheet, and shall afterwards be transcribed in the ordinary way at the resumption of the game, when the envelope containing the last move shall be opened in the presence of both players and their Umpires.—[Accepted.]

11. Either player who shall analyse a pending game by himself over the board or with others, even without the board, shall forfeit such game. And shall also be liable to a fine for ungentlemanly behaviour according to Rule 14.—[Accepted, with the exception of the words in italic.]

12. At least two sets of double stop-clocks for regulating the time limit, which are to be carefully tested beforehand by the two Umpires, shall be provided at the commencement of each division of the match, and should one of the clocks be found defective during a game the other may be substituted, after marking the time already consumed by each player.—[Accepted.]

13. * * * * —[Rejected, as regards suggested Code of Laws.]

14. * * * * —[Rejected.]

15. For any violation of the main conditions already agreed upon, which may delay the commencement of the contest, or otherwise injure the financial proceeds expected from the public exhibitions, or which may tend unduly to increase the expenditure of either player, a fine of from fifty dollars up to two hundred and fifty dollars may be imposed by the Referee on the offending party, if claimed by his opponent.—[Accepted.]

16. * * * * —[Rejected.]

17. * * * * —[Rejected.]

18. The entire official correspondence between the respective seconds of the two players (Messrs. Frère and Minchin) shall be take into consideration by the referee for the purpose of interpreting the conditions of the match.—[Accepted.]


The International Chess Magazine,
P. O. Box 2937, New York, Dec. 17th.

Dear Sir:

Herewith I beg to enclose a copy of Mr. Minchin's letter to Mr. Frère, dated the 3rd inst., which you desired me to send to you. I also forward by present mail the current number of the International Chess Magazine, which contains the proposed minor Rules and Regulations of the match.

Several of your friends have assured me that my propositions have created a favorable impression, and I feel certain that your acceding to them will produce a like effect on my own supporters.

It seems to me of great importance to impress on the public that each player will be solely responsible to the Umpires and the Referee for his conduct throughout the match, and that both parties are fully protected against frivolous and vexatious charges (Rule 17). In my opinion it is no more derogatory to either player to bind himself by rules in reference to gentlemanly behaviour than it would be to join a club which is governed by similar laws. On the contrary, it appears to me that by the acceptance of these Rules absolute confidence in the honorable intentions of both players toward each other will be established among amateurs all over the world.

The words at the end of Rule 11, which Mr. Minchin proposes to omit, appear to me indispensable, for otherwise there would be no penalty whatever for the player who analyses a pending game or accepts advise thereon, if he ultimately loses such game over the board.

I hope therefore that you will accept, on principle, the Rules as proposed, and any verbal alterations or other amendments you may suggest I shall be glad to entertain personally, on Saturday next, at 3 o'clock, when I anticipate the pleasure of meeting you at the Manhattan Chess Club.

Please to address your reply to me or to Mr. Frère, and believe me, dear Sir, to remain,
Yours sincerely,       
W. Steinitz.
J. H. Zukertort, Esq.

International Chess Magazine, v2 n1, January 1886, p4

Manhattan Chess Club, 21st of Dec., 1885.

Dear Sir,—The minor rules and regulations contain much superfluous matter, but they are at the same time of so little importance that I do not propose to submit them to the Referee for final settlement, and am ready to sign them subject to some additions and alterations. I have no doubt that a short meeting between you and Mr. Steinitz on your side and myself will suffice to bring matters to a successful issue.
Yours very truly,       
J. H. Zukertort.
Thomas Frère, Esq.

International Chess Magazine, v2 n1, January 1886, p5

The Steinitz-Zukertort Match.

On last Tuesday, the 29th ultimo, some little uneasiness and surprise was occasioned in local chess circles by the announcement that Hon. C. F. Buck, of this city, the referee in and stakeholder for the match, had received a letter from Mr. Steinitz, dated Dec. 26, 1885, to the effect that inasmuch as Dr. Zukertort's full stakes had not been deposited in the referee's hands ten days prior to the expiration of the six weeks' delay ending on the 30th of December, he (Mr. Steinitz) would feel necessitated, in justice to his backers and himself, to claim the infliction of a fine of $50 per week upon his adversary for the failure. We understand that the reply of the referee was that while he would, of course, consider Mr. Steinitz's rights in the premises (whatever they might be) as fixed by and at the date of the reception of his claim, still he could not undertake to give any decision upon the point presented in the absence of all official documentary matters, rules, regulations, etc., pertaining to the match and without hearing both parties. A very proper and equitable view, we think, more especially as we may state that after a careful perusal of the published correspondence between the seconds we have failed to find where any agreement as to the ten days was assented to in terms by Dr. Zukertort's representative.... On the very next morning, however, the $1750 requisite to make up Dr. Zukertort's stakes came duly to hand by registered letter from Mr. Minchin, dates and postmarks showing that it had been mailed from London so early as Dec. 15, and had thus been considerably longer than usual en route.... This, of course, still left open apparently the possibility of a very disagreeable matter to settle, but we are glad to note from recent exchanges, that Mr. Steinitz has since concluded to waive whatever right he might have had to claim the penalty in question. Whether his claim was well grounded or not, it is now useless, and we do not pretend, to discuss; but certain it is that his prompt waiver is worth to him considerably more than several $50 bills in the eyes of American chess players, who are ever mindful of the chivalrous action of their departed hero under all like circumstances.


A Letter from Mr. Steinitz.

We are in receipt of the following communication from Mr. Steinitz:

New York, Jan. 7, 1886.
Chess Editor of the Times-Democrat:

Dear Sir—With much regret, I notice in your issue of Sunday last that you seem to entertain a doubt about the legality of my claim for a penalty against Mr. Zukertort on account of the undue delay in the deposition of his stakes. As already stated in your esteemed chess column, I have since voluntarily withdrawn that claim, but, in order to avoid misinterpretation, I deem it necessary to inform you that the justice and equity of my demand for a fine were fully admitted by my opponent. For Mr. Zukertort had repeatedly declared in answer to official questions on the subject at the committee meeting of the Manhattan Chess Club that he had given instructions to his treasurer in London to dispatch the rest of his stakes by the 7th ultimo in order that they might reach the referee and stakeholder before the 20th ultimo, the final date for the completing of the stakes. When, nevertheless, Mr. Zukertort's deposit did not arrive in time, I gave my opponent six days' grace (a fact which, by the way, you have omitted to notice), and ultimately, in advancing my claim for a minimum penalty of $50 per week, I gave Mr. Zukertort the benefit of a very liberal interpretation of a paragraph in the "Minor Rules and Regulations," which at that time had not even been formally agreed upon between us. For the conditions as settled up to the 26th ultimo only named the sum of $250 as forfeit, and, for my part, I have no doubt that the referee, on perusal of the correspondence between the seconds, would have had no option but to inflict the full penalty for the latter amount if I had chosen to exact my rights to the letter.

Mr. Zukertort, whom I had informed of my intentions in the matter, before the expiration of the six days' grace, stated to me that the delay was solely due to a misunderstanding on the part of his treasurer whom he would hold responsible for any penalty which might be inflicted by the referee. It seems to me incomprehensible, therefore, how any doubt could be raised on the point. For obviously some date had to fixed for the final deposition of the stakes, and, in the absence of my distinct objections on the other side, it was clearly binding for both parties that the stakes should be fully deposited ten days before the commencement of the match (which meant ten days before the expiration of the notice of six weeks), as mentioned in Mr. Frère's letter to Mr. Minchin, dated Sept. 22 and published in the October number of the International Chess Magazine, page 292, as well as in Mr. Frère's final letter of Dec. 1 (see Int. Ch. Mag., p358).

The value which I attach to your opinions and the influence which you have justly acquired among your numerous readers will, I trust, afford sufficient justification for my remonstrance against your expression of doubt, which seems to me to reflect somewhat unfavorably, and most unjustly so, on my conduct in the matter.
Very respectfully yours,       
W. Steinitz.

It seems sufficient to say in response to the above that, so far as concerned the legality of Mr. Steinitz's claim, our statement was simply that after a careful perusal of the published correspondence between the seconds, we had "failed to find where any agreement as to the ten days as assented to in terms by Dr. Zukertort's representative." This we still maintain; nor do the letters referred to by Mr. Steinitz affect the question, for they merely embody the proposition as coming from his side. Mr. Minchin's letters do not even once refer to it—much less accept it in terms; and in view of the stringent rule sought to be applied, it would certainly seem just to have required that its previous acceptance by the penalized party should be shown by something more than a mere tacit agreement—as to which, moreover, the implications are, to say the least, vague. So far as concerns Mr. Steinitz individually, we take pleasure in informing him that no personal reflection was intended; indeed, none could have been, since, of course, he must be conceived to have acted on behalf of his backers, in whose financial interests he might justly have considered himself bound to claim every advantage possible.


The Match Between Messrs. Steinitz And Zukertort.

We are highly gratified to announce that all the preparations for this contest are now completed, and the match is definetely [sic] fixed to commence on Monday, the 11th inst., at Cartier's Dancing Academy, No. 80 Fifth Ave., where the Committee of the Manhattan Chess Club have engaged a very fine hall for the purpose. The contest will then continue until either party has scored four games, and the two players will then proceed to St. Louis in which city of the second part of the match will take place under the auspices of the St. Louis Chess, Checker and Whist Club which has liberally subscribed the necessary expenses. In returning our thanks to that society, it is due to mention that Mr. Max Judd has been chiefly instrumental in promoting the project of arranging the second part of the contest to be fought at St. Louis. According to the conditions three more games will have to be won by either player in that city, and the match will be finished under the auspices of the New Orleans Chess, Checker and Whist Club.

Mr. Zukertort arrived at New York by the "Etruria," on Sunday, the 13th ult., and was cordially welcomed by his opponent and the American Chess community in general. The greatest enthusiasm prevails among amateurs all over the country, and as a most remarkable instance we mention that he President of the Golden Gate Chess Club of San Francisco, Dr. Benjamin Marshall addressed a letter of congratulation to the President of the Manhattan Chess Club, Mr. George T. Green, in which it is announced that Mr. J. Redding, one of the strongest amateurs of San Francisco, will witness the contest as a special delegate of his club.

Messrs. Steinitz and Zukertort had, since the arrival of the latter gentleman, several meetings at the Manhattan Chess Club, in which all the final details were amicably settled. As will be seen from the sub-joined correspondence, the draft of the Minor Rules and Regulations, which was submitted by Mr. Frère on behalf of Mr. Steinitz, met with some opposition. But it was at last agreed between the two parties to accept the original propositions on principle, subject to some modifications chiefly of a verbal character, of which the following are the most important:

Rule 8 reads thus: "Neither player shall absent himself from the room during the hours appointed for play except for a reasonable time. The player who has made his move may walk inside the enclosure in a manner which shall in no way distract the attention of his opponent. Either player who shall exceed this time limit in any way, shall forfeit the game, which shall be scored by his opponent. The clock of the player who does not appear at the time appointed for commencing a game or for resuming an adjourned game, or who absents himself during a game, shall be started as soon as it is his turn to play, in the same manner as if he were present in the room, and the time of his absence shall be considered as having been consumed over the board."

Rule 13 is altered to the effect that the code of laws, published in the German "Handbuch," is accepted for the contest with the proviso that if both players repeat the same series of moves six times in succession, then either player may claim a draw.

Rule 14 was cut short thus: "For any act of a player, which may be unjustly offensive or injurious to his opponent, the Referee may inflict a fine of not less than ten dollars and not exceeding one hundred dollars.

Owing to an unaccountable misunderstanding of the preliminary conditions, Mr. Zukertort's stakes did not arrive in time, and the commencement of the match, which was originally fixed for the 6th inst. at the latest, had to be postponed in consequence. The stakes of Mr. Steinitz had been fully deposited before the 20th ult., or ten days before the expiration of the six weeks' notice, according to agreement. Having given his opponent a further allowance of six days within which the stakes might be forthcoming, Mr. Steinitz, on the 26th ult., addressed a letter to the Referee, the Hon. Charles F. Buck, claiming the minimum penalty of fifty dollars. But on receipt of a telegram from that gentleman, four days later, announcing that the final deposit had at last arrived, the claim for the penalty was altogether withdrawn, and all other details were then settled in a pleasant manner.

For the New York part of the match Mr. Thomas Frère was appointed Umpire on behalf of Mr. Steinitz, and Mr. Adolph Mohle will act in the same capacity for Mr. Zukertort. The hours of play are reduced by mutual consent from nine hours to eight per day.

International Chess Magazine, v2 n1, January 1886, pp1-3

The 1886 Match

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