First row: Joseph H. Blackburne, Arnold Schottländer (standing at the back) and James Mason. Second row: J. Adolf Roegner, Louis Paulsen, Henry E. Bird, Szymon Winawer and Hermann Zwanzig, At the bottom right are signatures of Blackburne, Mason, Bird, Paulsen and Max Lange. The playing room is depicted at the top.
The Winner Had a Toothache
The Third Congress of the German Chess Federation was held from July 16 until July 30, 1883. The main tournament was played in the congress hall of the Gesellschaftshaus des "Museum", Königstraße 1, Nuremburg.1 More competitions were arranged during the congress besides the masters' gathering. For example, a minor tournament for second tier players attracted 24 competitors. The young medical student from Halle, Siegbert Tarrasch, was victor in this joust, earning 300 marks with his performance. Other competitors in this minor tournament were, to name a few, Rudolf J. Loman, Hermann Neustadtl, Salomón R. Rocamora and Theodore von Scheve.2
The contestants in the main attraction, the masters' tournament, were Johann Berger (from Graz), Max Bier (Hamburg), Henry E. Bird (London), Joseph H. Blackburne (London), Alexander Fritz (Darmstadt), Isidor Gunsberg (London), Vincenz Hrubý (Vienna), Max Lange (Leipzig), Karl Leffmann (Cologne), James Mason (London), Louis Paulsen (Nassengrund), Wilfried Paulsen (Nassengrund), Fritz Riemann (Breslau), Emil Schallopp (Berlin), Arnold Schottländer (Breslau), Jacques Schwarz (Vienna), Curt von Bardeleben (Breslau), Miksa Weiss (Vienna) and Szymon Winawer (Warsaw).
Two more players subscribed
their names: Johannes von Minckwitz from Leipzig
and Carl Schmid from
Only six players of the nineteen contestants are depicted above: Blackburne, Bird, Mason, Louis Paulsen, Schottländer and Winawer. The other two portrayed are J. Adolf Roegner, President of the Nuremburg Chess Club that helped to organize the congress, and Hermann Zwanzig, who was the General Secretary of the German Chess Federation.
All competitors were present at the preliminary meeting on Sunday afternoon, July 15, 1883, with exception of Bird. He had missed a train once in Cologne and a second time a few miles from Nuremberg.4 Bird arrived Sunday evening. A report in The Chess Monthly offered more details of his second delay.5
One of the competitors had not arrived then [Sunday afternoon], but a message was received that he would appear during the evening, having missed the train a few miles off Nuremberg. We learned afterwards, that the place of the accidental delay was a hamlet of about twenty-five inhabitants with due honours, and in acknowledgment of such an unexpected reception he ordered bumpers, which were filled and emptied over and over again. The story goes that on this memorable occasion the local supply of beer for the next fortnight was entirely exhausted.
Bird endorsed in his column the claim in The Chess Monthly, writing that he had the misfortune to miss one train and be left behind by another. His story of the second retardation deviated somewhat from The Chess Monthly narrative: it missed the beer detail.6
To console those who may sympathize with us in the misfortunes attending our journey, we may mention that our mishaps were not without incident. At the last place where the train rushed on rudely without stopping for us, we had to wait a small matter of six hours, but, thanks to the kindness of the station-master (there being no refreshment room), we were conducted to the village, and had the gratification of an interview with the entire population, consisting of say 26 people, minus one lady too ill to leave the house, though the day was beautifully fine.
The congress hall, where the preliminary meeting took place and the masters played their games, was decorated with garlands of evergreen and chess pictures. A life size portrait of Adolf Anderssen, painted by a local artist from a small picture, was hanging on the wall facing the windows. The playing room was filled with ten tables covered with snow white cloths.7 According to The Field (July 28, 1883), the tables were divided in two rows. The drawing, however, shows three rows of tables. The third row was used for a minor tournament and had cloths of a different color.8
The pairing of the players, which formed a part of Sunday's programme, took some doing.9 Schallopp had fulfilled this task on former congresses of the German Chess Federation, but forgot to bring along the pairing table of nineteen and twenty contestants. The German player had traveled from Berlin where he lived. In the evening he and Schmid produced a new pairing table, which was used the following morning - on the day of the first two rounds - to publish the playing schedule.
Emil Schallopp (left), Carl Schmid (right).
The tourney was a duel between Blackburne and Winawer, which was decided in favor of Winawer in the last round. Winawer, who had started the tournament unfortunately by losing his game against Gunsberg, obtained top honours by beating Schwarz on the final day of play.
Blackburne was victorious in his first two games, but stumbled over Schallopp in the fourth round. The German player had an excellent first half but a disastrous second. Halfway through the contest Schallopp was leading with six games out of eight (Winawer having five out of eight and Blackburne six out of nine).
prize winners' progressive scores after each round were:
• is a bye
Winawer won 1,200 marks, Blackburne collected 800 marks, Mason 500 marks, Berger 300 marks, von Bardeleben 200 marks, Bird and Riemann, who divided sixth (120 marks) and seventh (100 marks) prizes, each 110 marks, Schallopp 80 marks and Schwarz 70 marks. The contestants had paid 35 marks entrance fee.
The final score of the masters' tournament in Nuremberg was:
Lange retired after thirteen games and lost his remaining games by default. Bier and Wilfried Paulsen missed and lost their game in the final round.
For the purpose of completeness the following are the pairing and results in the major tournament (playing hours were from 8.30 a.m. to 0.30 p.m. and :
Round 1, Monday, July 16, 1883 (8.30): Leffmann - W. Paulsen 0-1; Fitz - Mason 1-0; Gunsberg - Winawer 1-0; Schottländer - Berger ½-½; von Bardeleben - Lange 1-0; Weiss - Riemann ½-½; Bird - Schwarz ½-½; L. Paulsen - Hrubý ½-½; Blackburne - Bier 1-0; Schallopp had a bye.
Round 2, Monday, July 16, 1883 (3.00): Fritz - W. Paulsen 1-0; Gunsberg - Lange 0-1; Schottländer - Bird 1-0; von Bardeleben - Winawer 0-1; Leffmann - Weiss ½-½; Schallopp - Hrubý 1-0; Riemann - Blackburne 0-1; Berger - L. Paulsen ½-½; Schwarz - Bier 0-1; Mason had a bye.
Round 3, Tuesday, July 17, 1883 (8.30): Mason - Gunsberg 1-0; Schottländer - von Bardeleben ½-½; Weiss - Schallopp 0-1; Winawer - Bird 1-0; Riemann - Berger ½-½; Lange - Schwarz 0-1; L. Paulsen - Blackburne ½-½; Hrubý - Bier ½-½; Fritz - Leffmann ½-½; W. Paulsen had a bye.
Round 4, Wednesday, July 18, 1883 (8.30): Berger - W. Paulsen ½-½; Mason - Riemann ½-½; Schwarz - Gunsberg ½-½; L. Paulsen - Schottländer ½-½; Leffmann - von Bardeleben 0-1; Hrubý - Weiss ½-½; Schallopp - Blackburne 1-0; Fritz - Winawer 0-1; Bird - Bier 1-0; Lange had a bye.
Round 5, Wednesday, July 18, 1883 (3.00): W. Paulsen - Riemann 0-1; Lange - Mason 0-1; Leffmann - Gunsberg 0-1; Hrubý - Schottländer ½-½; von Bardeleben - L. Paulsen ½-½; Weiss - Schwarz ½-½; Bier - Schallopp ½-½; Bird - Fritz ½-½; Berger - Blackburne ½-½; Winawer had a bye.
Round 6, Thursday, July 19, 1883 (8.30): W. Paulsen - Schallopp 1-0; Mason - Winawer 0-1; Gunsberg - Bird ½-½; Schottländer - Weiss 0-1; Blackburne - von Bardeleben ½-½; Riemann - Bier 1-0; Berger - Leffmann 1-0; Lange - Fritz 1-0; Schwarz - Hrubý ½-½; L. Paulsen had a bye.
Round 7, Friday, July 20, 1883 (8.30): W. Paulsen - Gunsberg 0-1; Mason - Schottländer 1-0; von Bardeleben - Schallopp 0-1; Weiss - Winawer 1-0; Bird - Berger ½-½; Riemann - Lange ½-½; Schwarz - Blackburne 0-1; L. Paulsen - Bier 1-0; Hrubý - Leffmann 1-0; Fritz had a bye.
Round 8, Friday, July 20, 1883 (3.00): W. Paulsen - Weiss ½-½; Mason - Schallopp ½-½; Gunsberg - von Bardeleben 0-1; Schottländer - Riemann ½-½; Winawer - Blackburne 0-1; Bird - L. Paulsen 1-0; Berger - Bier 1-0; Lange - Leffmann 1-0; Schwarz - Fritz 1-0; Hrubý had a bye.
Round 9, Saturday, July 21, 1883 (8.30): W. Paulsen - von Bardeleben 0-1; Mason - Weiss ½-½; Gunsberg - Schallopp 0-1; Schottländer - Winawer 0-1; Bird - Lange 1-0; Riemann - Schwarz 0-1; Berger - Hrubý ½-½; L. Paulsen - Fritz ½-½; Blackburne - Leffmann ½-½; Bier had a bye.
Round 10, Monday, July 23, 1883 (8.30): Bier - W. Paulsen 1-0; Leffmann - Mason 0-1; Schottländer - Schwarz ½-½; von Bardeleben - Berger 1-0; Weiss - Bird 0-1; Schallopp - Riemann 0-1; Winawer - L. Paulsen 1-0; Lange - Hrubý 1-0; Blackburne - Fritz 1-0; Gunsberg had a bye.
Round 11, Monday, July 23, 1883 (3.00): Hrubý - W. Paulsen ½-½; Blackburne - Mason 0-1; Fritz - Gunsberg 0-1; Bier - Schottländer 1-0; von Bardeleben - Bird 0-1; Schallopp - Schwarz 0-1; Winawer - Berger 1-0; Riemann - Leffmann 1-0; Lange - L. Paulsen 0-1; Weiss had a bye.
Round 12, Tuesday, July 24, 1883 (8.30): Blackburne - W. Paulsen 1-0; Hrubý - Mason ½-½; Bier - Gunsberg 1-0; Fritz - Schottländer 0-1; von Bardeleben - Schwarz 1-0; Weiss - Berger 0-1; Schallopp - Lange 1-0; Leffmann - Winawer ½-½; Riemann - L. Paulsen 1-0; Bird had a bye.
Round 13, Wednesday, July 25, 1883 (8.30): W. Paulsen - Bird 0-1; Mason - Berger ½-½; Hrubý - Gunsberg 1-0; Schottländer - Lange ½-½; Weiss - Blackburne 0-1; Schallopp - L. Paulsen 1-0: Winawer - Bier 1-0; Riemann - Fritz 1-0; Schwarz - Leffmann 1-0; von Bardeleben had a bye.
Round 14, Wednesday, July 25, 1883 (3.00): W. Paulsen - Winawer 0-1; Mason - Bird 1-0; Gunsberg - Riemann 0-1; Schottländer - Schallopp 1-0; Hrubý - von Bardeleben 1-0; Weiss - L. Paulsen 0-1; Berger - Fritz ½-½; Lange - Blackburne 0-1; Bier - Leffmann 1-0; Schwarz had a bye.
Round 15, Thursday, July 26, 1883 (8.30): Lange - W. Paulsen 0-1(D); Schwarz - Mason ½-½; L. Paulsen - Gunsberg 1-0; Leffmann - Schottländer ½-½; von Bardeleben - Riemann ½-½; Bier - Weiss ½-½; Fritz - Schallopp 1-0; Winawer - Hrubý 1-0; Bird - Blackburne 0-1; Berger had a bye.
Round 16, Friday, July 27, 1883 (8.30): Schwarz - W. Paulsen ½-½; L. Paulsen - Mason 0-1; Gunsberg - Berger 0-1; Blackburne - Schottländer ½-½; Bier - von Bardeleben 0-1; Fritz - Weiss 0-1; Leffmann - Schallopp 0-1; Winawer - Lange 1-0(D); Bird - Hrubý 1-0; Riemann had a bye.
Round 17, Friday, July 27, 1883 (3.00): W. Paulsen - Schottländer 1-0; Mason - von Bardeleben ½-½; Gunsberg - Weiss 0-1; Schallopp - Bird 1-0; Winawer - Riemann ½-½; Berger - Schwarz 1-0; Lange - Bier 0-1(D); L. Paulsen - Leffmann 0-1; Hrubý - Fritz 1-0; Blackburne had a bye.
Round 18, Saturday, July 28, 1883 (8.30): W. Paulsen - Mason ½-½; Gunsberg - Schottländer 0-1; von Bardeleben - Weiss ½-½; Schallopp - Winawer 0-1; Bird - Riemann 1-0; Berger - Lange 1-0(D); Schwarz - L. Paulsen 1-0; Blackburne - Hrubý 1-0; Bier - Fritz ½-½; Leffmann had a bye.
Round 19, Monday, July 30, 1883 (8.30): L. Paulsen - W. Paulsen 1-0(D); Bier - Mason 0-1(D); Blackburne - Gunsberg 1-0; Fritz - von Bardeleben 0-1; Weiss - Lange 1-0(D); Schallopp - Berger 0-1; Winawer - Schwarz 1-0; Leffmann - Bird ½-½; Riemann - Hrubý 0-1; Schottländer had a bye.
(D) is lost by default
If we may believe Leopold Hoffer, the editor of The Chess Monthly, the winner never intended to take part in the Nuremberg tournament:10
latter [Winawer] had no intention to take part in the Tournament. On a
'Thus was Winawer enabled to exchange a bad tooth for a chess crown,' was George A. MacDonnell's conclusion in his column.11
German sources and the tournament book do not mention the 'tooth story'. According to the Deutsche Schachzeitung, most of the competitors were in Nuremberg several days before the proceedings began. They met, for instance, at the Nuremburg Chess Club on Friday, July 13, 1883. Among those present were Hrubý, Mason, Louis Paulsen, Schwarz, Weiss and Winawer.12 Bird claimed that Mason had arrived in Nuremberg at the end of June.13 No particulars have been found of Winawer's time of arrival.
The drawing shows Blackburne and Mason opposing each other. They played their game in the 11th round, on July 23, 1883. The artist allowed himself some liberties when he drew his picture. There are seven pieces on the board, a position that never occurred in the game. The actual game had this course:
Joseph H. Blackburne - James Mason
1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bb5 Nf6 4. d3 d6 5. Nc3
Pawn to c3 is in our opinion the stronger continuation at this juncture.
5. ... Bd7 6. 0-0 Be7 7. Be3 0-0 8. Qe2 Ne8 9. Rad1 f5 10. exf5 Bxf5 11. d4 exd4 12. Bxd4 Bg4 13. Qc4+ Rf7
Best, for if the king moved, White would take the knight's pawn with the bishop, checking, followed by queen takes bishop.
14. Bxc6 bxc6 15. Rd3
Which guards against an imaginary danger: Qxc6 was, we believe, quite correct, and White would sustain no harm from his pawns being doubled on the king's bishop's file by bishop takes knight. On the contrary, we are inclined to think that White would have an additional advantage in position by posting his rook at g1 after removing his king in the corner.
15. ... Qd7 16. Qb3 Qc8 17. Nd2 d5 18. Be5 Nd6 19. Qa4 Nb5
A good move. If White exchanges the knight, Black will retake and than win the exchange by Be2.
20. h3 Nxc3 21. Rxc3 Bd7 22. Rf3 Rxf3 23. Nxf3 c5 24. Qf4 c6 25. Re1 Qf8 26. Qg3 Re8 27. Re3 c4 28. Nd4 Bc5 29. c3
Rf3 looks more promising, but in reality yields no advantage; e.g., 29. Rf3 Qe7 30. Bf6 Qf7 (better than Qe1+, in which case White would gain time for Qc7 with a strong attack) 31. Be5 Qg6, etc.
29. ... Qf7 30. f4 Qg6
Black evidently plays for a draw, while White endeavours to avoid that contingency.
31. Qe1 Re7 32. Kh2 Qe8 33. Rg3 Bxd4
The game has now quite a drawish aspect, as the parties remain with bishops of opposite colours.
34. cxd4 Bf5 35. Qb4 g6 36. Ra3 Qd7 37. Qb8+ Qc8 38. Qd6
It would not have been good to take the pawn on account of Black exchanging queens, followed by Re2, threatening then Be4.
38. ... Rf7 39. Ra4
With the intention of opposing the rook at b4 should Black attempt Qb7.
39. ... Qf8
An oversight apparently, and all the more unfortunate, as by Ra6 he could secure the gain of a pawn in a position which made it not at all an easy matter for the opponent to draw.
40. ... Bd7 41. Qa6 Bxa4 42. Qxa4 Qc8 43. Qa5 Rd7 44. Qa3 Qc6 45. Qa5 Kf7 46. Qe1 Kg8 47. Qh4 a5 48. Qg5 a4 49. a3 Qe6 50. Bc7
Bad, for it enables Black to force an exchange of queens. Qh4, followed by Kg1, should Black answer Qf5, would have made it difficult, if not impossible for Black, to win, as he had to keep himself protected against the entrance of White's queen at f6 or d8.
50. ... Qe7
Nothing better, for if Qxe7, the rook takes, followed accordingly by Re4 or Rb7, winning a pawn in either case.
51. ... Qxg5 52. fxg5 Rf7 53. Bc3 Rf2 54. Kg3 Rf1 55. Kh2 h5
Black conducts the ending most skilfully. Whether or not the pawn be taken in passing, Black will effect the entrance of his king into the adverse game. In the former case he plays of course Kh7, and if then the bishops defends at d2, Rb1 follows.
A clever ruse to tempt the opponent to exchange the pawn, in which case White draws, since the Black king cannot gain any entrance into White's game at any point, if the White king confines himself to moving to g3, h3, g2 or h2, according to Black's play.
56. ... Rf3
But Black is not to be caught, and answers with the proper move.
57. Kg2 Re3 58. Kh2 Re2+ 59. Kg3
Had the king retreated on the last row, the reply hxg4, followed by Re4, would win.
59. ... h4+
A masterly coup.
If Kxh4, Black answered Re3, compelling the bishop to move, whereupon Rd3, followed by Kf7 would win easily.
60. ... Rh2
Sources: Ashore or Afloat, August 3, 1883 (notes by Wilhelm Steinitz); The Chess Monthly, October 1883, pages 40-41: Deutsche Schachzeitung, April 1884, pages 113-114; Der Dritte Kongress des Deutschen Schachbundes. Nürnberg 1883. 1884, pages 179-181.
The Nuremberg congress was not just serious chess. A good deal of feasting, sight-seeing and excursions were also included in the programme. First there was a banquet on the 17th of July, at which about a hundred men and women sat down. Then there were social gatherings in various places, visits to places of interest in Nuremburg, a special performance at the theatre (Der Seekadett, in which a game with living pieces was played), and trips in carriages into the country.
The British Chess Magazine believed that 'this festive air' loaned a peculiar charm to the German Congresses that was missing in the chess gathering in England.14 Gunsberg, referring to the London International Tournament of 1883, described the difference between German and English tournaments:15
The secretary and president, as well as the individual members of the committee, are very affable and friendly in their intercourse with the players, and altogether everyone is animated with pleasant excitement and a festive tone, a feeling that I, at least, never experienced on the fourth floor of the Criterion.
The total budget of the Nuremburg congress was nearly 6,950 marks. About 10 percent, 676 marks, was spent on such festivities as mentioned above.16 The expenses for social gatherings during the London International tournament covered 4 percent of the total costs.17 A banquet was the only distraction in the London meeting.
To return to the domain of chess playing, during the congress two consultation games were contested. Schallopp, Hrubý and Schwarz (White) opposed Blackburne, Gunsberg and Schmid (Black) on Thursday, July 19, 1883. Black won. The trio earned 60 marks with their win. A second consultation game, played on the same day, was drawn. Salomon Löwenthal, Neustadtl and Rocamora made up the first team, Wilhelm Bauer, von Scheve and Tarrasch the second. The prize, chess books at the value of 30 marks, was assigned by lot to the White players.18
Von Minckwitz's simultaneous exhibition on Saturday, July 21, 1883, was another attraction in Nuremberg. He played 22 games, of which he won seventeen, lost three and drew one. The duration of this exhibition was 2 hours and 40 minutes.19
Fritz gave an exhibition of blindfold play on the fourth day of the tournament. The Darmstadt player contested with ten opponents simultaneously on Thursday, July 19, 1883. Nine of them were gentlemen, one was a woman: Mrs. Caesar Beck from Wiesbaden. Her husband, Caesar Beck, was a court actor and made an appearance in a minor tournament in Nuremburg.
The performance commenced at 4.15 p.m., and after about two hours play the first game came to a conclusion.20 Fritz drew, by perpetual check, with the only female competitor. A chivalrous deed, reported the Korrespondent von und für Deutschland of July 20, 1883.
Alexander Fritz - Mrs. Caesar Beck
1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 Nf6 4. 0-0 Nxe4 5. d4 exd4 6. Re1 f5 7. Bd5 Nb4 8. Ne5 Bd6 9. Qh5+ g6 10. Bf7+ Ke7 11. Qh4+ g5
12. Qxg5+ Nxg5 13. Bxg5+ Kf8 14. Bh6+, drawn.
Source: Didaskalia, Unterhaltungsblatt des Frankfurter Journals, March 21, 1885.
The exhibition lasted until 9.30 p.m. with the final result of Fritz winning five games and drawing the remaining five. One more game of the series has been found.
Alexander Fritz - N.N.
1. e4 e5 2. f4 exf4 3. Nf3 g5 4. Bc4 Bg7 5. d4 Qe7 6. 0–0 Nc6 7. c3 d6 8. Na3 Bg4 9. h3 Bxf3 10. Qxf3 0–0–0 11. Bd5 Nb8 12. Nb5 c6 13. Nxa7+ Kc7 14. Qd3 cxd5 15. exd5 Na6 16. b4 Kb8 17. b5
17. ... Nc7 18. b6 Nxd5 19. Rb1 Qd7 20. Ba3 Nxb6 21. Rxb6 Kxa7 22. Rfb1 h6 23. c4 Bf8 24. d5 Rb8 25. Bc5, resigned.
Sources: Deutsche Schachzeitung, May 1884, page 148; Der Dritte Kongress des Deutschen Schachbundes. Nürnberg 1883. 1884, pages 290-291.
Back to the Nuremburg congress picture, which was mentioned in the tournament book (page 84). Schallopp, the author of the book, thought that some of the portraits had a striking likeness and others not. He refrained from being more specific. The title of the drawing was 'Celibrities of the Nuremburg Chess Congress.'
The engraving was signed by C. Daumerlang, who was presumably Carl Ernst Daumerlang, a Nuremburg artist.21
Notes: 1 Der Dritte Kongress des Deutschen Schachbundes. Nürnberg 1883. 1884, page 21. 2 Der Dritte Kongress des Deutschen Schachbundes. Nürnberg 1883. 1884, pages 48-58. 3 The Field, July 21, 1883; Der Dritte Kongress des Deutschen Schachbundes. Nürnberg 1883. 1884, pages 29. 4 The Field, July 28, 1883. 5 The Chess Monthly, August 1883, page 354. 6 The Sheffield and Rotherham Independent, July 28, 1883. 7 The Field, July 28, 1883; The Chess Monthly, August 1883, page 353. 8 Daheim Beilage 44, 1883; Der Dritte Kongress des Deutschen Schachbundes. Nürnberg 1883. 1884, page 36. 9 Der Dritte Kongress des Deutschen Schachbundes. Nürnberg 1883. 1884, pages 29-30. 10 The Chess Monthly, August 1883, page 354. 11 The Illustrated Sporting and Dramatic News, August 18, 1883. 12 Deutsche Schachzeitung, September 1883, page 259. 13 The Sheffield and Rotherham Independent, July 28, 1883. 14 The British Chess Magazine, September 1883, page 302. 15 Knowledge, July 20, 1883. 16 Deutsche Schachzeitung, September 1883, page 271. 17 Games Played in the London International Chess Tournament, 1883, 1883, pages lv-lvi. 18 Deutsche Schachzeitung, September 1883, pages 266-267. 19 Deutsche Schachzeitung, September 1883, page 268. 20 Deutsche Schachzeitung, September 1883, page 267; Der Dritte Kongress des Deutschen Schachbundes. Nürnberg 1883. 1884, page 75. 21 Nürnberger Künstlerlexikon: Bildende Künstler, Kunsthandwerker, Gelehrte, Sammler, Kulturschaffende und Mäzene vom 12. bis zur Mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts, 2007, page 243.
Pictures: Nuremberg 1883 (Daheim Beilage 44, 1883); Emil Schallopp (Illustrirte Zeitung, January 6, 1883); Carl Schmid (Illustrirte Zeitung, April 2, 1887); Alexander Fritz (Illustrirte Zeitung, October 5, 1889).
© December 2013 Joost van Winsen. All Rights Reserved